Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 153

Search results for: histogram equalization

153 Image Contrast Enhancement based Sub-histogram Equalization Technique without Over-equalization Noise

Authors: Hyunsup Yoon, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

In order to enhance the contrast in the regions where the pixels have similar intensities, this paper presents a new histogram equalization scheme. Conventional global equalization schemes over-equalizes these regions so that too bright or dark pixels are resulted and local equalization schemes produce unexpected discontinuities at the boundaries of the blocks. The proposed algorithm segments the original histogram into sub-histograms with reference to brightness level and equalizes each sub-histogram with the limited extents of equalization considering its mean and variance. The final image is determined as the weighted sum of the equalized images obtained by using the sub-histogram equalizations. By limiting the maximum and minimum ranges of equalization operations on individual sub-histograms, the over-equalization effect is eliminated. Also the result image does not miss feature information in low density histogram region since the remaining these area is applied separating equalization. This paper includes how to determine the segmentation points in the histogram. The proposed algorithm has been tested with more than 100 images having various contrasts in the images and the results are compared to the conventional approaches to show its superiority.

Keywords: Contrast Enhancement, Histogram Equalization, Histogram Region Equalization, Equalization Noise

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152 Design of Auto Exposure Unit Based On 2-Way Histogram Equalization

Authors: Junghwan Choi, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

Histogram equalization is often used in image enhancement, but it can be also used in auto exposure. However, conventional histogram equalization does not work well when many pixels are concentrated in a narrow luminance range.This paper proposes an auto exposure method based on 2-way histogram equalization. Two cumulative distribution functions are used, where one is from dark to bright and the other is from bright to dark. In this paper, the proposed auto exposure method is also designed and implemented for image signal processors with full-HD images.

Keywords: Histogram equalization, Auto exposure, Image signal processor, Low-cost, Full HD Video.

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151 Performance of Compound Enhancement Algorithms on Dental Radiograph Images

Authors: S.A.Ahmad, M.N.Taib, N.E.A.Khalid, R.Ahmad, H.Taib

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to compare the original intra-oral digital dental radiograph images with images that are enhanced using a combination of image processing algorithms. Intraoral digital dental radiograph images are often noisy, blur edges and low in contrast. A combination of sharpening and enhancement method are used to overcome these problems. Three types of proposed compound algorithms used are Sharp Adaptive Histogram Equalization (SAHE), Sharp Median Adaptive Histogram Equalization (SMAHE) and Sharp Contrast adaptive histogram equalization (SCLAHE). This paper presents an initial study of the perception of six dentists on the details of abnormal pathologies and improvement of image quality in ten intra-oral radiographs. The research focus on the detection of only three types of pathology which is periapical radiolucency, widen periodontal ligament space and loss of lamina dura. The overall result shows that SCLAHE-s slightly improve the appearance of dental abnormalities- over the original image and also outperform the other two proposed compound algorithms.

Keywords: intra-oral dental radiograph, histogram equalization, sharpening, CLAHE.

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150 Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Color Morphing Approach

Authors: Javed Khan, Aamir Saeed Malik, Nidal Kamel, Sarat Chandra Dass, Azura Mohd Affandi

Abstract:

Low contrast images can result from the wrong setting of image acquisition or poor illumination conditions. Such images may not be visually appealing and can be difficult for feature extraction. Contrast enhancement of color images can be useful in medical area for visual inspection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve the contrast of color images. The RGB (red, green, blue) color image is transformed into normalized RGB color space. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is applied to each of the three channels of normalized RGB color space. The corresponding channels in the original image (low contrast) and that of contrast enhanced image with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) are morphed together in proper proportions. The proposed technique is tested on seventy color images of acne patients. The results of the proposed technique are analyzed using cumulative variance and contrast improvement factor measures. The results are also compared with decorrelation stretch. Both subjective and quantitative analysis demonstrates that the proposed techniques outperform the other techniques.

Keywords: Contrast enhancement, normalized RGB, adaptive histogram equalization, cumulative variance.

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149 Developing the Color Temperature Histogram Method for Improving the Content-Based Image Retrieval

Authors: P. Phokharatkul, S. Chaisriya, S. Somkuarnpanit, S. Phaiboon, C. Kimpan

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new method for image searches and image indexing in databases with a color temperature histogram. The color temperature histogram can be used for performance improvement of content–based image retrieval by using a combination of color temperature and histogram. The color temperature histogram can be represented by a range of 46 colors. That is more than the color histogram and the dominant color temperature. Moreover, with our method the colors that have the same color temperature can be separated while the dominant color temperature can not. The results showed that the color temperature histogram retrieved an accurate image more often than the dominant color temperature method or color histogram method. This also took less time so the color temperature can be used for indexing and searching for images.

Keywords: Color temperature histogram, color temperature, animage retrieval and content-based image retrieval.

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148 Adaptive Equalization Using Controlled Equal Gain Combining for Uplink/Downlink MC-CDMA Systems

Authors: Miloud Frikel , Boubekeur Targui, Francois Hamon, Mohammed M'SAAD

Abstract:

In this paper we propose an enhanced equalization technique for multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA). This method is based on the control of Equal Gain Combining (EGC) technique. Indeed, we introduce a new level changer to the EGC equalizer in order to adapt the equalization parameters to the channel coefficients. The optimal equalization level is, first, determined by channel training. The new approach reduces drastically the mutliuser interferences caused by interferes, without increasing the noise power. To compare the performances of the proposed equalizer, the theoretical analysis and numerical performances are given.

Keywords: MC-CDMA, Equalization, EGC, Single User Detection.

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147 Neuro-Fuzzy System for Equalization Channel Distortion

Authors: Rahib H. Abiyev

Abstract:

In this paper the application of neuro-fuzzy system for equalization of channel distortion is considered. The structure and operation algorithm of neuro-fuzzy equalizer are described. The use of neuro-fuzzy equalizer in digital signal transmission allows to decrease training time of parameters and decrease the complexity of the network. The simulation of neuro-fuzzy equalizer is performed. The obtained result satisfies the efficiency of application of neurofuzzy technology in channel equalization.

Keywords: Neuro-fuzzy system, noise equalization, neuro-fuzzy equalizer, neural system.

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146 Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed

Abstract:

This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.

Keywords: Image segmentation, hierarchical analysis, 2-D histogram, Classification.

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145 Blind Identification and Equalization of CDMA Signals Using the Levenvberg-Marquardt Algorithm

Authors: Mohammed Boutalline, Imad Badi, Belaid Bouikhalene, Said Safi

Abstract:

In this paper we describe the Levenvberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm for identification and equalization of CDMA signals received by an antenna array in communication channels. The synthesis explains the digital separation and equalization of signals after propagation through multipath generating intersymbol interference (ISI). Exploiting discrete data transmitted and three diversities induced at the reception, the problem can be composed by the Block Component Decomposition (BCD) of a tensor of order 3 which is a new tensor decomposition generalizing the PARAFAC decomposition. We optimize the BCD decomposition by Levenvberg-Marquardt method gives encouraging results compared to classical alternating least squares algorithm (ALS). In the equalization part, we use the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) to perform the presented method. The simulation results using the LM algorithm are important.

Keywords: Identification and equalization, communication channel, Levenvberg-Marquardt, tensor decomposition

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144 A Cost Function for Joint Blind Equalization and Phase Recovery

Authors: Reza Berangi, Morteza Babaee, Majid Soleimanipour

Abstract:

In this paper a new cost function for blind equalization is proposed. The proposed cost function, referred to as the modified maximum normalized cumulant criterion (MMNC), is an extension of the previously proposed maximum normalized cumulant criterion (MNC). While the MNC requires a separate phase recovery system after blind equalization, the MMNC performs joint blind equalization and phase recovery. To achieve this, the proposed algorithm maximizes a cost function that considers both amplitude and phase of the equalizer output. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has an improved channel equalization effect than the MNC algorithm and simultaneously can correct the phase error that the MNC algorithm is unable to do. The simulation results also show that the MMNC algorithm has lower complexity than the MNC algorithm. Moreover, the MMNC algorithm outperforms the MNC algorithm particularly when the symbols block size is small.

Keywords: Blind equalization, maximum normalized cumulant criterion (MNC), intersymbol interference (ISI), modified MNC criterion (MMNC), phase recovery.

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143 Complex-Valued Neural Networks for Blind Equalization of Time-Varying Channels

Authors: Rajoo Pandey

Abstract:

Most of the commonly used blind equalization algorithms are based on the minimization of a nonconvex and nonlinear cost function and a neural network gives smaller residual error as compared to a linear structure. The efficacy of complex valued feedforward neural networks for blind equalization of linear and nonlinear communication channels has been confirmed by many studies. In this paper we present two neural network models for blind equalization of time-varying channels, for M-ary QAM and PSK signals. The complex valued activation functions, suitable for these signal constellations in time-varying environment, are introduced and the learning algorithms based on the CMA cost function are derived. The improved performance of the proposed models is confirmed through computer simulations.

Keywords: Blind Equalization, Neural Networks, Constant Modulus Algorithm, Time-varying channels.

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142 Image Spam Detection Using Color Features and K-Nearest Neighbor Classification

Authors: T. Kumaresan, S. Sanjushree, C. Palanisamy

Abstract:

Image spam is a kind of email spam where the spam text is embedded with an image. It is a new spamming technique being used by spammers to send their messages to bulk of internet users. Spam email has become a big problem in the lives of internet users, causing time consumption and economic losses. The main objective of this paper is to detect the image spam by using histogram properties of an image. Though there are many techniques to automatically detect and avoid this problem, spammers employing new tricks to bypass those techniques, as a result those techniques are inefficient to detect the spam mails. In this paper we have proposed a new method to detect the image spam. Here the image features are extracted by using RGB histogram, HSV histogram and combination of both RGB and HSV histogram. Based on the optimized image feature set classification is done by using k- Nearest Neighbor(k-NN) algorithm. Experimental result shows that our method has achieved better accuracy. From the result it is known that combination of RGB and HSV histogram with k-NN algorithm gives the best accuracy in spam detection.

Keywords: File Type, HSV Histogram, k-NN, RGB Histogram, Spam Detection.

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141 Improved Lung Nodule Visualization on Chest Radiographs using Digital Filtering and Contrast Enhancement

Authors: Benjamin Y. M. Kwan, Hon Keung Kwan

Abstract:

Early detection of lung cancer through chest radiography is a widely used method due to its relatively affordable cost. In this paper, an approach to improve lung nodule visualization on chest radiographs is presented. The approach makes use of linear phase high-frequency emphasis filter for digital filtering and histogram equalization for contrast enhancement to achieve improvements. Results obtained indicate that a filtered image can reveal sharper edges and provide more details. Also, contrast enhancement offers a way to further enhance the global (or local) visualization by equalizing the histogram of the pixel values within the whole image (or a region of interest). The work aims to improve lung nodule visualization of chest radiographs to aid detection of lung cancer which is currently the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.

Keywords: Chest radiographs, Contrast enhancement, Digital filtering, Lung nodule detection

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140 Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Based On 2-D Histogram and Statistical Moments

Authors: Khalid Elasnaoui, Brahim Aksasse, Mohammed Ouanan

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in the problem of finding similar images in a large database. For this purpose we propose a new algorithm based on a combination of the 2-D histogram intersection in the HSV space and statistical moments. The proposed histogram is based on a 3x3 window and not only on the intensity of the pixel. This approach overcome the drawback of the conventional 1-D histogram which is ignoring the spatial distribution of pixels in the image, while the statistical moments are used to escape the effects of the discretisation of the color space which is intrinsic to the use of histograms. We compare the performance of our new algorithm to various methods of the state of the art and we show that it has several advantages. It is fast, consumes little memory and requires no learning. To validate our results, we apply this algorithm to search for similar images in different image databases.

Keywords: 2-D histogram, Statistical moments, Indexing, Similarity distance, Histograms intersection.

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139 High Capacity Data Hiding based on Predictor and Histogram Modification

Authors: Hui-Yu Huang, Shih-Hsu Chang

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a high capacity image hiding technology based on pixel prediction and the difference of modified histogram. This approach is used the pixel prediction and the difference of modified histogram to calculate the best embedding point. This approach can improve the predictive accuracy and increase the pixel difference to advance the hiding capacity. We also use the histogram modification to prevent the overflow and underflow. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method within the same average hiding capacity can still keep high quality of image and low distortion

Keywords: data hiding, predictor

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138 Optimal Channel Equalization for MIMO Time-Varying Channels

Authors: Ehab F. Badran, Guoxiang Gu

Abstract:

We consider optimal channel equalization for MIMO (multi-input/multi-output) time-varying channels in the sense of MMSE (minimum mean-squared-error), where the observation noise can be non-stationary. We show that all ZF (zero-forcing) receivers can be parameterized in an affine form which eliminates completely the ISI (inter-symbol-interference), and optimal channel equalizers can be designed through minimization of the MSE (mean-squarederror) between the detected signals and the transmitted signals, among all ZF receivers. We demonstrate that the optimal channel equalizer is a modified Kalman filter, and show that under the AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) assumption, the proposed optimal channel equalizer minimizes the BER (bit error rate) among all possible ZF receivers. Our results are applicable to optimal channel equalization for DWMT (discrete wavelet multitone), multirate transmultiplexers, OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing), and DS (direct sequence) CDMA (code division multiple access) wireless data communication systems. A design algorithm for optimal channel equalization is developed, and several simulation examples are worked out to illustrate the proposed design algorithm.

Keywords: Channel equalization, Kalman filtering, Time-varying systems.

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137 Toward Indoor and Outdoor Surveillance Using an Improved Fast Background Subtraction Algorithm

Authors: A. El Harraj, N. Raissouni

Abstract:

The detection of moving objects from a video image sequences is very important for object tracking, activity recognition, and behavior understanding in video surveillance. The most used approach for moving objects detection / tracking is background subtraction algorithms. Many approaches have been suggested for background subtraction. But, these are illumination change sensitive and the solutions proposed to bypass this problem are time consuming. In this paper, we propose a robust yet computationally efficient background subtraction approach and, mainly, focus on the ability to detect moving objects on dynamic scenes, for possible applications in complex and restricted access areas monitoring, where moving and motionless persons must be reliably detected. It consists of three main phases, establishing illumination changes invariance, background/foreground modeling and morphological analysis for noise removing. We handle illumination changes using Contrast Limited Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), which limits the intensity of each pixel to user determined maximum. Thus, it mitigates the degradation due to scene illumination changes and improves the visibility of the video signal. Initially, the background and foreground images are extracted from the video sequence. Then, the background and foreground images are separately enhanced by applying CLAHE. In order to form multi-modal backgrounds we model each channel of a pixel as a mixture of K Gaussians (K=5) using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Finally, we post process the resulting binary foreground mask using morphological erosion and dilation transformations to remove possible noise. For experimental test, we used a standard dataset to challenge the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method on a diverse set of dynamic scenes.

Keywords: Video surveillance, background subtraction, Contrast Limited Histogram Equalization, illumination invariance, object tracking, object detection, behavior understanding, dynamic scenes.

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136 Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh

Abstract:

Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.

Keywords: Butterworth filter, digital watermarking, histogram, visual cryptography.

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135 A Quantum Algorithm of Constructing Image Histogram

Authors: Yi Zhang, Kai Lu, Ying-hui Gao, Mo Wang

Abstract:

Histogram plays an important statistical role in digital image processing. However, the existing quantum image models are deficient to do this kind of image statistical processing because different gray scales are not distinguishable. In this paper, a novel quantum image representation model is proposed firstly in which the pixels with different gray scales can be distinguished and operated simultaneously. Based on the new model, a fast quantum algorithm of constructing histogram for quantum image is designed. Performance comparison reveals that the new quantum algorithm could achieve an approximately quadratic speedup than the classical counterpart. The proposed quantum model and algorithm have significant meanings for the future researches of quantum image processing.

Keywords: Quantum Image Representation, Quantum Algorithm, Image Histogram.

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134 The Water Level Detection Algorithm Using the Accumulated Histogram with Band Pass Filter

Authors: Sangbum Park, Namki Lee, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose the robust water level detection method based on the accumulated histogram under small changed image which is acquired from water level surveillance camera. In general surveillance system, this is detecting and recognizing invasion from searching area which is in big change on the sequential images. However, in case of a water level detection system, these general surveillance techniques are not suitable due to small change on the water surface. Therefore the algorithm introduces the accumulated histogram which is emphasizing change of water surface in sequential images. Accumulated histogram is based on the current image frame. The histogram is cumulating differences between previous images and current image. But, these differences are also appeared in the land region. The band pass filter is able to remove noises in the accumulated histogram Finally, this algorithm clearly separates water and land regions. After these works, the algorithm converts from the water level value on the image space to the real water level on the real space using calibration table. The detected water level is sent to the host computer with current image. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we use test images from various situations.

Keywords: accumulated histogram, water level detection, band pass filter.

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133 An Improved Fast Video Clip Search Algorithm for Copy Detection using Histogram-based Features

Authors: Feifei Lee, Qiu Chen, Koji Kotani, Tadahiro Ohmi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an improved fast and robust search algorithm for copy detection using histogram-based features for short MPEG video clips from large video database. There are two types of histogram features used to generate more robust features. The first one is based on the adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably applied to human face recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is utilized as the feature vector of the frame image. Another one is ordinal histogram feature which is robust to color distortion. Furthermore, by Combining with a temporal division method, the spatial and temporal features of the video sequence are integrated to realize fast and robust video search for copy detection. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can detect the similar video clip more accurately and robust than conventional fast video search algorithm.

Keywords: Fast search, Copy detection, Adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ), DC image, Histogram feature.

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132 Moving Object Detection Using Histogram of Uniformly Oriented Gradient

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Yu-Siang Su, Pau-Choo Chung, Jar-Ferr Yang

Abstract:

Moving object detection (MOD) is an important issue in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). There are two important moving objects, pedestrians and scooters in ADAS. In real-world systems, there exist two important challenges for MOD, including the computational complexity and the detection accuracy. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features can easily detect the edge of object without invariance to changes in illumination and shadowing. However, to reduce the execution time for real-time systems, the image size should be down sampled which would lead the outlier influence to increase. For this reason, we propose the histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient (HUG) features to get better accurate description of the contour of human body. In the testing phase, the support vector machine (SVM) with linear kernel function is involved. Experimental results show the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method. With SVM classifiers, the real testing results show the proposed HUG features achieve better than classification performance than the HOG ones.

Keywords: Moving object detection, histogram of oriented gradient histogram of oriented gradient, histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient, linear support vector machine.

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131 Skin Detection using Histogram depend on the Mean Shift Algorithm

Authors: Soo- Young Ye, Ki-Gon Nam, Ki-Won Byun

Abstract:

In this paper, we were introduces a skin detection method using a histogram approximation based on the mean shift algorithm. The proposed method applies the mean shift procedure to a histogram of a skin map of the input image, generated by comparison with standard skin colors in the CbCr color space, and divides the background from the skin region by selecting the maximum value according to brightness level. The proposed method detects the skin region using the mean shift procedure to determine a maximum value that becomes the dividing point, rather than using a manually selected threshold value, as in existing techniques. Even when skin color is contaminated by illumination, the procedure can accurately segment the skin region and the background region. The proposed method may be useful in detecting facial regions as a pretreatment for face recognition in various types of illumination.

Keywords: Skin region detection, mean shift, histogram approximation.

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130 An Improved Fast Search Method Using Histogram Features for DNA Sequence Database

Authors: Qiu Chen, Feifei Lee, Koji Kotani, Tadahiro Ohmi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an efficient hierarchical DNA sequence search method to improve the search speed while the accuracy is being kept constant. For a given query DNA sequence, firstly, a fast local search method using histogram features is used as a filtering mechanism before scanning the sequences in the database. An overlapping processing is newly added to improve the robustness of the algorithm. A large number of DNA sequences with low similarity will be excluded for latter searching. The Smith-Waterman algorithm is then applied to each remainder sequences. Experimental results using GenBank sequence data show the proposed method combining histogram information and Smith-Waterman algorithm is more efficient for DNA sequence search.

Keywords: Fast search, DNA sequence, Histogram feature, Smith-Waterman algorithm, Local search

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129 Novel Adaptive Channel Equalization Algorithms by Statistical Sampling

Authors: János Levendovszky, András Oláh

Abstract:

In this paper, novel statistical sampling based equalization techniques and CNN based detection are proposed to increase the spectral efficiency of multiuser communication systems over fading channels. Multiuser communication combined with selective fading can result in interferences which severely deteriorate the quality of service in wireless data transmission (e.g. CDMA in mobile communication). The paper introduces new equalization methods to combat interferences by minimizing the Bit Error Rate (BER) as a function of the equalizer coefficients. This provides higher performance than the traditional Minimum Mean Square Error equalization. Since the calculation of BER as a function of the equalizer coefficients is of exponential complexity, statistical sampling methods are proposed to approximate the gradient which yields fast equalization and superior performance to the traditional algorithms. Efficient estimation of the gradient is achieved by using stratified sampling and the Li-Silvester bounds. A simple mechanism is derived to identify the dominant samples in real-time, for the sake of efficient estimation. The equalizer weights are adapted recursively by minimizing the estimated BER. The near-optimal performance of the new algorithms is also demonstrated by extensive simulations. The paper has also developed a (Cellular Neural Network) CNN based approach to detection. In this case fast quadratic optimization has been carried out by t, whereas the task of equalizer is to ensure the required template structure (sparseness) for the CNN. The performance of the method has also been analyzed by simulations.

Keywords: Cellular Neural Network, channel equalization, communication over fading channels, multiuser communication, spectral efficiency, statistical sampling.

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128 Fast Extraction of Edge Histogram in DCT Domain based on MPEG7

Authors: Minyoung Eom, Yoonsik Choe

Abstract:

In these days, multimedia data is transmitted and processed in compressed format. Due to the decoding procedure and filtering for edge detection, the feature extraction process of MPEG-7 Edge Histogram Descriptor is time-consuming as well as computationally expensive. To improve efficiency of compressed image retrieval, we propose a new edge histogram generation algorithm in DCT domain in this paper. Using the edge information provided by only two AC coefficients of DCT coefficients, we can get edge directions and strengths directly in DCT domain. The experimental results demonstrate that our system has good performance in terms of retrieval efficiency and effectiveness.

Keywords: DCT, Descriptor, EHD, MPEG7.

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127 Selecting the Best Sub-Region Indexing the Images in the Case of Weak Segmentation Based On Local Color Histograms

Authors: Mawloud Mosbah, Bachir Boucheham

Abstract:

Color Histogram is considered as the oldest method used by CBIR systems for indexing images. In turn, the global histograms do not include the spatial information; this is why the other techniques coming later have attempted to encounter this limitation by involving the segmentation task as a preprocessing step. The weak segmentation is employed by the local histograms while other methods as CCV (Color Coherent Vector) are based on strong segmentation. The indexation based on local histograms consists of splitting the image into N overlapping blocks or sub-regions, and then the histogram of each block is computed. The dissimilarity between two images is reduced, as consequence, to compute the distance between the N local histograms of the both images resulting then in N*N values; generally, the lowest value is taken into account to rank images, that means that the lowest value is that which helps to designate which sub-region utilized to index images of the collection being asked. In this paper, we make under light the local histogram indexation method in the hope to compare the results obtained against those given by the global histogram. We address also another noteworthy issue when Relying on local histograms namely which value, among N*N values, to trust on when comparing images, in other words, which sub-region among the N*N sub-regions on which we base to index images. Based on the results achieved here, it seems that relying on the local histograms, which needs to pose an extra overhead on the system by involving another preprocessing step naming segmentation, does not necessary mean that it produces better results. In addition to that, we have proposed here some ideas to select the local histogram on which we rely on to encode the image rather than relying on the local histogram having lowest distance with the query histograms.

Keywords: CBIR, Color Global Histogram, Color Local Histogram, Weak Segmentation, Euclidean Distance.

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126 Wireless Body Area Network’s Mitigation Method Using Equalization

Authors: Savita Sindhu, Shruti Vashist

Abstract:

A wireless body area sensor network (WBASN) is composed of a central node and heterogeneous sensors to supervise the physiological signals and functions of the human body. This overwhelmimg area has stimulated new research and calibration processes, especially in the area of WBASN’s attainment and fidelity. In the era of mobility or imbricated WBASN’s, system performance incomparably degrades because of unstable signal integrity. Hence, it is mandatory to define mitigation techniques in the design to avoid interference. There are various mitigation methods available e.g. diversity techniques, equalization, viterbi decoder etc. This paper presents equalization mitigation scheme in WBASNs to improve the signal integrity. Eye diagrams are also given to represent accuracy of the signal. Maximum no. of symbols is taken to authenticate the signal which in turn results in accuracy and increases the overall performance of the system.

Keywords: Wireless body area network, equalizer, RLS, LMS.

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125 Non-Parametric Histogram-Based Thresholding Methods for Weld Defect Detection in Radiography

Authors: N. Nacereddine, L. Hamami, M. Tridi, N. Oucief

Abstract:

In non destructive testing by radiography, a perfect knowledge of the weld defect shape is an essential step to appreciate the quality of the weld and make decision on its acceptability or rejection. Because of the complex nature of the considered images, and in order that the detected defect region represents the most accurately possible the real defect, the choice of thresholding methods must be done judiciously. In this paper, performance criteria are used to conduct a comparative study of four non parametric histogram thresholding methods for automatic extraction of weld defect in radiographic images.

Keywords: Radiographic images, non parametric methods, histogram thresholding, performance criteria.

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124 Abrupt Scene Change Detection

Authors: Priyadarshinee Adhikari, Neeta Gargote, Jyothi Digge, B.G. Hogade

Abstract:

A number of automated shot-change detection methods for indexing a video sequence to facilitate browsing and retrieval have been proposed in recent years. This paper emphasizes on the simulation of video shot boundary detection using one of the methods of the color histogram wherein scaling of the histogram metrics is an added feature. The difference between the histograms of two consecutive frames is evaluated resulting in the metrics. Further scaling of the metrics is performed to avoid ambiguity and to enable the choice of apt threshold for any type of videos which involves minor error due to flashlight, camera motion, etc. Two sample videos are used here with resolution of 352 X 240 pixels using color histogram approach in the uncompressed media. An attempt is made for the retrieval of color video. The simulation is performed for the abrupt change in video which yields 90% recall and precision value.

Keywords: Abrupt change, color histogram, ground-truthing, precision, recall, scaling, threshold.

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