Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Chest radiographs

41 Improved Lung Nodule Visualization on Chest Radiographs using Digital Filtering and Contrast Enhancement

Authors: Benjamin Y. M. Kwan, Hon Keung Kwan

Abstract:

Early detection of lung cancer through chest radiography is a widely used method due to its relatively affordable cost. In this paper, an approach to improve lung nodule visualization on chest radiographs is presented. The approach makes use of linear phase high-frequency emphasis filter for digital filtering and histogram equalization for contrast enhancement to achieve improvements. Results obtained indicate that a filtered image can reveal sharper edges and provide more details. Also, contrast enhancement offers a way to further enhance the global (or local) visualization by equalizing the histogram of the pixel values within the whole image (or a region of interest). The work aims to improve lung nodule visualization of chest radiographs to aid detection of lung cancer which is currently the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.

Keywords: Chest radiographs, Contrast enhancement, Digital filtering, Lung nodule detection

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40 Association of Smoking with Chest Radiographic and Lung Function Findings in Retired Bauxite Mining Workers

Authors: L. R. Ferreira, R. C. G. Bianchi, L. C.R. Ferreira, C. M. Galhardi, E. P. Baciuk, L. H. Oliveira

Abstract:

Inhalation hazards are associated with potentially injurious exposure and increased risk for lung diseases, within the bauxite mining industry, especially for the smelter workers. Smoking is related to decreased lung function and leads to chronic lung diseases. This study had the objective to evaluate whether smoking is related to functional and radiographic respiratory changes in retired bauxite mining workers. Methods: This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study involving the analysis of database information of 140 retired bauxite mining workers from Poços de Caldas-MG evaluated at Worker’s Health Reference Center and at the Social Security Brazilian National Institute, from July 1st, 2015 until June 30th, 2016. The workers were divided into three groups: non-smokers (n = 47), ex-smokers (n = 46), and smokers (n = 47). The data included: age, gender, spirometry results, and the presence or not of pulmonary pleural and/or parenchymal changes in chest radiographs. Chi-Squared test was used (p < 0,05). Results: In the smokers’ group, 83% of spirometry tests and 64% of chest x-rays were altered. In the non-smokers’ group, 19% of spirometry tests and 13% of chest x-rays were altered. In the ex-smokers’ group, 35% of spirometry tests and 30% of chest x-rays were altered. Most of the results were statistically significant. Results demonstrated a significant difference between smokers’ and non-smokers’ groups in regard to spirometric and radiographic pulmonary alterations. Ex-smokers’ and non-smokers’ group demonstrated better results when compared to the smokers’ group in relation to altered spirometry and radiograph findings. These data may contribute to planning strategies to enhance smoking cessation programs within the bauxite mining industry.

Keywords: Bauxite mining, spirometry, chest radiography, smoking.

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39 Study of Chest Pain and its Risk Factors in Over 30 Year-Old Individuals

Authors: S. Dabiran

Abstract:

Chest pain is one of the most prevalent complaints among adults that cause the people to attend to medical centers. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of chest pain among over 30 years old people in Tehran. In this cross-sectional study, 787 adults took part from Apr 2005 until Apr 2006. The sampling method was random cluster sampling and there were 25 clusters. In each cluster, interviews were performed with 32 over 30 years old, people lived in those houses. In cases with chest pain, extra questions asked. The prevalence of CP was 9% (71 cases). Of them 21 cases (6.5%) were in 41-60 year age ranges and the remainders were over 61 year old. 19 cases (26.8%) mentioned CP in resting state and all of the cases had exertion onset CP. The CP duration was 10 minutes or less in all of the cases and in most of them (84.5%), the location of pain mentioned left anterior part of chest, left anterior part of sternum and or left arm. There was positive history of myocardial infarction in 12 cases (17%). There was significant relation between CP and age, sex and between history of myocardial infarction and marital state of study people. Our results are similar to other studies- results in most parts, however it is necessary to perform supplementary tests and follow up studies to differentiate between cardiac and non-cardiac CP exactly.

Keywords: Chest pain, myocardial infarction, risk factor, prevalence

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38 Artificial Intelligence-Based Chest X-Ray Test of COVID-19 Patients

Authors: Dhurgham Al-Karawi, Nisreen Polus, Shakir Al-Zaidi, Sabah Jassim

Abstract:

The management of COVID-19 patients based on chest imaging is emerging as an essential tool for evaluating the spread of the pandemic which has gripped the global community. It has already been used to monitor the situation of COVID-19 patients who have issues in respiratory status. There has been increase to use chest imaging for medical triage of patients who are showing moderate-severe clinical COVID-19 features, this is due to the fast dispersal of the pandemic to all continents and communities. This article demonstrates the development of machine learning techniques for the test of COVID-19 patients using Chest X-Ray (CXR) images in nearly real-time, to distinguish the COVID-19 infection with a significantly high level of accuracy. The testing performance has covered a combination of different datasets of CXR images of positive COVID-19 patients, patients with viral and bacterial infections, also, people with a clear chest. The proposed AI scheme successfully distinguishes CXR scans of COVID-19 infected patients from CXR scans of viral and bacterial based pneumonia as well as normal cases with an average accuracy of 94.43%, sensitivity 95%, and specificity 93.86%. Predicted decisions would be supported by visual evidence to help clinicians speed up the initial assessment process of new suspected cases, especially in a resource-constrained environment.

Keywords: COVID-19, chest x-ray scan, artificial intelligence, texture analysis, local binary pattern transform, Gabor filter.

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37 A Hybrid Data Mining Method for the Medical Classification of Chest Pain

Authors: Sung Ho Ha, Seong Hyeon Joo

Abstract:

Data mining techniques have been used in medical research for many years and have been known to be effective. In order to solve such problems as long-waiting time, congestion, and delayed patient care, faced by emergency departments, this study concentrates on building a hybrid methodology, combining data mining techniques such as association rules and classification trees. The methodology is applied to real-world emergency data collected from a hospital and is evaluated by comparing with other techniques. The methodology is expected to help physicians to make a faster and more accurate classification of chest pain diseases.

Keywords: Data mining, medical decisions, medical domainknowledge, chest pain.

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36 Image Analysis for Obturator Foramen Based on Marker-Controlled Watershed Segmentation and Zernike Moments

Authors: Seda Sahin, Emin Akata

Abstract:

Obturator Foramen is a specific structure in Pelvic bone images and recognition of it is a new concept in medical image processing. Moreover, segmentation of bone structures such as Obturator Foramen plays an essential role for clinical research in orthopedics. In this paper, we present a novel method to analyze the similarity between the substructures of the imaged region and a hand drawn template as a preprocessing step for computation of Pelvic bone rotation on hip radiographs. This method consists of integrated usage of Marker-controlled Watershed segmentation and Zernike moment feature descriptor and it is used to detect Obturator Foramen accurately. Marker-controlled Watershed segmentation is applied to separate Obturator Foramen from the background effectively. Then, Zernike moment feature descriptor is used to provide matching between binary template image and the segmented binary image for final extraction of Obturator Foramens. Finally, Pelvic bone rotation rate calculation for each hip radiograph is performed automatically to select and eliminate hip radiographs for further studies which depend on Pelvic bone angle measurements. The proposed method is tested on randomly selected 100 hip radiographs. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is able to segment Obturator Foramen with 96% accuracy.

Keywords: Medical image analysis, marker-controlled watershed segmentation, segmentation of bone structures on hip radiographs, pelvic bone rotation rate, zernike moment feature descriptor.

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35 Could One-Hand Chest Compression for a Small Child Cause Intra-Abdominal Injuries?

Authors: Yeon Ho You, Ji Sook Lee, Jin Hong Min

Abstract:

We examined whether children ( < 18 years old) had risk of intra-thoracic trauma during 'one-handed' chest compressions through MDCT images. We measured the length of the lower half of the sternum (Stotal/2~X). We also measured the distance from the diaphragm to the midpoint of the sternum (Stotal/2~D) and half the width of an adult hand (Wtotal/2). All the 1 year-old children had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2. Among the children aged 2 years, 6 (60.0%) had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2. Among those aged 3 years, 4 (26.7%) had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2, and among those aged 4 years, 2 (13.3%) had Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D less than Wtotal/2. However, Stotal/2~X and Stotal/2~D were greater than Wtotal/2 in children aged 5 years or more. We knew that small children may be at an increased risk of intra-thoracic trauma during 'one-handed' chest compressions.

Keywords: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, child, compression.

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34 A Consideration on the Offset Frontal Impact Modeling Using Spring-Mass Model

Authors: Jaemoon Lim

Abstract:

To construct the lumped spring-mass model considering the occupants for the offset frontal crash, the SISAME software and the NHTSA test data were used. The data on 56 kph 40% offset frontal vehicle to deformable barrier crash test of a MY2007 Mazda 6 4-door sedan were obtained from NHTSA test database. The overall behaviors of B-pillar and engine of simulation models agreed very well with the test data. The trends of accelerations at the driver and passenger head were similar but big differences in peak values. The differences of peak values caused the large errors of the HIC36 and 3 ms chest g’s. To predict well the behaviors of dummies, the spring-mass model for the offset frontal crash needs to be improved.

Keywords: Chest g’s, HIC36, lumped spring-mass model, offset frontal impact, SISAME.

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33 Kerma Profile Measurements in CT Chest Scans– a Comparison of Methodologies

Authors: Bruno B. Oliveira, Arnaldo P. Mourão, Teógenes A. da Silva

Abstract:

The Brazilian legislation has only established diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD) as a quality control parameter for computed tomography (CT) scanners. Compliance with DRLs can be verified by measuring the Computed Tomography Kerma Index (Ca,100) with a pencil ionization chamber or by obtaining the kerma distribution in CT scans with radiochromic films or rod shape lithium fluoride termoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100). TL dosimeters were used to record kerma profiles and to determine MSAD values of a Bright Speed model GE CT scanner. Measurements were done with radiochromic films and TL dosimeters distributed in cylinders positioned in the center and in four peripheral bores of a standard polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) body CT dosimetry phantom. Irradiations were done using a protocol for adult chest. The maximum values were found at the midpoint of the longitudinal axis. The MSAD values obtained with three dosimetric techniques were compared.

Keywords: Kerma profile, CT, MSAD, patient dosimetry

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32 Clinical Decision Support for Disease Classification based on the Tests Association

Authors: Sung Ho Ha, Seong Hyeon Joo, Eun Kyung Kwon

Abstract:

Until recently, researchers have developed various tools and methodologies for effective clinical decision-making. Among those decisions, chest pain diseases have been one of important diagnostic issues especially in an emergency department. To improve the ability of physicians in diagnosis, many researchers have developed diagnosis intelligence by using machine learning and data mining. However, most of the conventional methodologies have been generally based on a single classifier for disease classification and prediction, which shows moderate performance. This study utilizes an ensemble strategy to combine multiple different classifiers to help physicians diagnose chest pain diseases more accurately than ever. Specifically the ensemble strategy is applied by using the integration of decision trees, neural networks, and support vector machines. The ensemble models are applied to real-world emergency data. This study shows that the performance of the ensemble models is superior to each of single classifiers.

Keywords: Diagnosis intelligence, ensemble approach, data mining, emergency department

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31 An Approach for Vocal Register Recognition Based on Spectral Analysis of Singing

Authors: Aleksandra Zysk, Pawel Badura

Abstract:

Recognizing and controlling vocal registers during singing is a difficult task for beginner vocalist. It requires among others identifying which part of natural resonators is being used when a sound propagates through the body. Thus, an application has been designed allowing for sound recording, automatic vocal register recognition (VRR), and a graphical user interface providing real-time visualization of the signal and recognition results. Six spectral features are determined for each time frame and passed to the support vector machine classifier yielding a binary decision on the head or chest register assignment of the segment. The classification training and testing data have been recorded by ten professional female singers (soprano, aged 19-29) performing sounds for both chest and head register. The classification accuracy exceeded 93% in each of various validation schemes. Apart from a hard two-class clustering, the support vector classifier returns also information on the distance between particular feature vector and the discrimination hyperplane in a feature space. Such an information reflects the level of certainty of the vocal register classification in a fuzzy way. Thus, the designed recognition and training application is able to assess and visualize the continuous trend in singing in a user-friendly graphical mode providing an easy way to control the vocal emission.

Keywords: Classification, singing, spectral analysis, vocal emission, vocal register.

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30 A Study of Dose Distribution and Image Quality under an Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM) System for a Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT Scanner Using a New Design of Phantom

Authors: S. Sookpeng, C. J. Martin, D. J. Gentle

Abstract:

Automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) systems are available for all CT manufacturers and are used for the majority of patients. Understanding how the systems work and their influence on patient dose and image quality is important for CT users, in order to gain the most effective use of the systems. In the present study, a new phantom was used for evaluating dose distribution and image quality under the ATCM operation for the Toshiba Aquilion 64 CT scanner using different ATCM options and a fixed mAs technique. A routine chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) protocol was selected for study and Gafchromic film was used to measure entrance surface dose (ESD), peripheral dose and central axis dose in the phantom. The results show the dose reductions achievable with various ATCM options, in relation with the target noise. The doses and image noise distribution were more uniform when the ATCM system was implemented compared with the fixed mAs technique. The lower limit set for the tube current will affect the modulations especially for the lower dose option. This limit prevented the tube current being reduced further and therefore the lower dose ATCM setting resembled a fixed mAs technique. Selection of a lower tube current limit is likely to reduce doses for smaller patients in scans of chest and neck regions.

Keywords: Computed Tomography (CT), Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM), Automatic Exposure Control (AEC).

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29 Response of Diaphragmatic Excursion to Inspiratory Muscle Trainer Post Thoracotomy

Authors: H. M. Haytham, E. A. Azza, E.S. Mohamed, E. G. Nesreen

Abstract:

Thoracotomy is a great surgery that has serious pulmonary complications, so purpose of this study was to determine the response of diaphragmatic excursion to inspiratory muscle trainer post thoracotomy. Thirty patients of both sexes (16 men and 14 women) with age ranged from 20 to 40 years old had done thoracotomy participated in this study. The practical work was done in cardiothoracic department, Kasr-El-Aini hospital at faculty of medicine for individuals 3 days Post operatively. Patients were assigned into two groups: group A (study group) included 15 patients (8 men and 7 women) who received inspiratory muscle training by using inspiratory muscle trainer for 20 minutes and routine chest physiotherapy (deep breathing, cough and early ambulation) twice daily, 3 days per week for one month. Group B (control group) included 15 patients (8 men and 7 women) who received the routine chest physiotherapy only (deep breathing, cough and early ambulation) twice daily, 3 days per week for one month. Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the changes in diaphragmatic excursion before and after training program. Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase in diaphragmatic excursion in the study group (59.52%) more than control group (18.66%) after using inspiratory muscle trainer post operatively in patients post thoracotomy. It was concluded that the inspiratory muscle training device increases diaphragmatic excursion in patients post thoracotomy through improving inspiratory muscle strength and improving mechanics of breathing and using of inspiratory muscle trainer as a method of physical therapy rehabilitation to reduce post-operative pulmonary complications post thoracotomy.

Keywords: Diaphragmatic excursion, inspiratory muscle trainer, ultrasonography, thoracotomy.

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28 Trabecular Texture Analysis Using Fractal Metrics for Bone Fragility Assessment

Authors: Khaled Harrar, Rachid Jennane

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is the discrimination of 28 postmenopausal with osteoporotic femoral fractures from an agematched control group of 28 women using texture analysis based on fractals. Two pre-processing approaches are applied on radiographic images; these techniques are compared to highlight the choice of the pre-processing method. Furthermore, the values of the fractal dimension are compared to those of the fractal signature in terms of the classification of the two populations. In a second analysis, the BMD measure at proximal femur was compared to the fractal analysis, the latter, which is a non-invasive technique, allowed a better discrimination; the results confirm that the fractal analysis of texture on calcaneus radiographs is able to discriminate osteoporotic patients with femoral fracture from controls. This discrimination was efficient compared to that obtained by BMD alone. It was also present in comparing subgroups with overlapping values of BMD.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, fractal dimension, fractal signature, bone mineral density.

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27 Estimating the Absorbed Dose to THYROID during Chest wall Radiotherapy

Authors: Seid Ali Asghar Terohid, Vahid Fayaz

Abstract:

Thyroid cancer-s overall contribution to the worldwide cancer burden is relatively small, but incidence rates have increased over the last three decades throughout the world. This trend has been hypothesised to reflect a combination of technological advances enabling increased detection, but also changes in environmental factors, including population exposure to ionising radiation from fallout, diagnostic tests and treatment for benign and malignant conditions. The Thyroid dose received apparently shielded by cerrobend blocks was about 8cGy in 100cGy Expose

Keywords: Absorbed Dose, Thyroid, Radiotherapy

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26 Trabecular Bone Radiograph Characterization Using Fractal, Multifractal Analysis and SVM Classifier

Authors: I. Slim, H. Akkari, A. Ben Abdallah, I. Bhouri, M. Hedi Bedoui

Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of micro-architectural bone tissue, which provokes an increased risk of fracture. This work treats the texture characterization of trabecular bone radiographs. The aim was to analyze according to clinical research a group of 174 subjects: 87 osteoporotic patients (OP) with various bone fracture types and 87 control cases (CC). To characterize osteoporosis, Fractal and MultiFractal (MF) methods were applied to images for features (attributes) extraction. In order to improve the results, a new method of MF spectrum based on the q-stucture function calculation was proposed and a combination of Fractal and MF attributes was used. The Support Vector Machines (SVM) was applied as a classifier to distinguish between OP patients and CC subjects. The features fusion (fractal and MF) allowed a good discrimination between the two groups with an accuracy rate of 96.22%.

Keywords: Fractal, micro-architecture analysis, multifractal, SVM, osteoporosis.

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25 Wavelet based Image Registration Technique for Matching Dental x-rays

Authors: P. Ramprasad, H. C. Nagaraj, M. K. Parasuram

Abstract:

Image registration plays an important role in the diagnosis of dental pathologies such as dental caries, alveolar bone loss and periapical lesions etc. This paper presents a new wavelet based algorithm for registering noisy and poor contrast dental x-rays. Proposed algorithm has two stages. First stage is a preprocessing stage, removes the noise from the x-ray images. Gaussian filter has been used. Second stage is a geometric transformation stage. Proposed work uses two levels of affine transformation. Wavelet coefficients are correlated instead of gray values. Algorithm has been applied on number of pre and post RCT (Root canal treatment) periapical radiographs. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation coefficients (CC) are used for quantitative evaluation. Proposed technique outperforms conventional Multiresolution strategy based image registration technique and manual registration technique.

Keywords: Diagnostic imaging, geometric transformation, image registration, multiresolution.

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24 Performance of Compound Enhancement Algorithms on Dental Radiograph Images

Authors: S.A.Ahmad, M.N.Taib, N.E.A.Khalid, R.Ahmad, H.Taib

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to compare the original intra-oral digital dental radiograph images with images that are enhanced using a combination of image processing algorithms. Intraoral digital dental radiograph images are often noisy, blur edges and low in contrast. A combination of sharpening and enhancement method are used to overcome these problems. Three types of proposed compound algorithms used are Sharp Adaptive Histogram Equalization (SAHE), Sharp Median Adaptive Histogram Equalization (SMAHE) and Sharp Contrast adaptive histogram equalization (SCLAHE). This paper presents an initial study of the perception of six dentists on the details of abnormal pathologies and improvement of image quality in ten intra-oral radiographs. The research focus on the detection of only three types of pathology which is periapical radiolucency, widen periodontal ligament space and loss of lamina dura. The overall result shows that SCLAHE-s slightly improve the appearance of dental abnormalities- over the original image and also outperform the other two proposed compound algorithms.

Keywords: intra-oral dental radiograph, histogram equalization, sharpening, CLAHE.

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23 Single Input ANC for Suppression of Breath Sound

Authors: Yunjung Lee, Pil Un Kim, Gyhyoun Lee, Jin Ho Cho, Myoung Nam Kim

Abstract:

Various sounds generated in the chest are included in auscultation sound. Adaptive Noise Canceller (ANC) is one of the useful techniques for biomedical signal. But the ANC is not suitable for auscultation sound. Because the ANC needs two input channels as a primary signal and a reference signals, but a stethoscope can provide just one input sound. Therefore, in this paper, it was proposed the Single Input ANC (SIANC) for suppression of breath sound in a cardiac auscultation sound. For the SIANC, it was proposed that the reference generation system which included Heart Sound Detector, Control and Reference Generator. By experiment and comparison, it was confirmed that the proposed SIANC was efficient for heart sound enhancement and it was independent of variations of a heartbeat.

Keywords: Adaptive noise canceller, Auscultation, Breath soundsuppression, Signal enhancement.

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22 Anxiolytic-like Effects of Dichloromethane Extracts of Valerian (DEV) in Adult Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Hadjikhani R.

Abstract:

Anxiety is a common disorder that attacks many people in society and often accompanied by physiological sensations such as tachycardia, chest pain, shortness of breath, insensitivity and etc. The purpose of this study is to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like effects of DEV (dichloromethane extracts of valerian) using the elevated plus maze (EPM) in rats. DEV was dissolved in DMSO and orally administered at different doses to adult male wistar rats, 0.5, 1.5 and 3 hours before behavioral evaluation in an EPM respectively. Control rats were treated with an equal volume of DMSO. Single treatment of DEV (at 0.1,0.2. 0.3, and 0.4 g/kg) significantly increased time-spent and arm entries into open arms of EPM versus control groups (p<0.05).However, no changes in the locomotor activity ccured. This result suggests that DEV might prove to be an effective anxiolytic agent.

Keywords: Anxiety, Dichloromethane extracts, Valerian, Rat

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21 Poststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis in Children: A Serial Case

Authors: A. Lubis, S. S. Pasulu, Z. Hikmah, A. Endaryanto, A. Harsono

Abstract:

Infection by group A streptococci (GAS) can trigger an autoantibody that cause a poststreptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA). Four patients with PSRA aged 10 years to 14 years old with the main complaint of joint pain for five days to 10 days after suffering a fever and sore throat. The joint pain was persistent, additive, and non migratory. All patients revealed an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and anti-streptolysin O (ASLO), but the chest x-ray, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were normal. Bone imaging showed no destruction on the affected joint. Jones Criteria were not fulfilled in all patients. Erythromycin and ibuprofen were given in all patients and an improvement was shown. Erythromycin was continued for one year and routine controls were conducted for cardiac evaluation. The prognosis of all the patients was good.

Keywords: Arthritis, group A streptococcus, autoantibody, Jones criteria.

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20 Experimental Investigation of On-Body Channel Modelling at 2.45 GHz

Authors: Hasliza A. Rahim, Fareq Malek, Nur A. M. Affendi, Azuwa Ali, Norshafinash Saudin, Latifah Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation of on-body channel fading at 2.45 GHz considering two effects of the user body movement; stationary and mobile. A pair of body-worn antennas was utilized in this measurement campaign. A statistical analysis was performed by comparing the measured on-body path loss to five well-known distributions; lognormal, normal, Nakagami, Weibull and Rayleigh. The results showed that the average path loss of moving arm varied higher than the path loss in sitting position for upper-arm-to-left-chest link, up to 3.5 dB. The analysis also concluded that the Nakagami distribution provided the best fit for most of on-body static link path loss in standing still and sitting position, while the arm movement can be best described by log-normal distribution.

Keywords: On-Body channel communications, fading characteristics, statistical model.

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19 Objective Evaluation of Mathematical Morphology Edge Detection on Computed Tomography (CT) Images

Authors: Emhimed Saffor, Abdelkader Salama

Abstract:

In this paper problem of edge detection in digital images is considered. Edge detection based on morphological operators was applied on two sets (brain & chest) ct images. Three methods of edge detection by applying line morphological filters with multi structures in different directions have been used. 3x3 filter for first method, 5x5 filter for second method, and 7x7 filter for third method. We had applied this algorithm on (13 images) under MATLAB program environment. In order to evaluate the performance of the above mentioned edge detection algorithms, standard deviation (SD) and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) were used for justification for all different ct images. The objective method and the comparison of different methods of edge detection,  shows that high values of both standard deviation and PSNR values of edge detection images were obtained. 

Keywords: Medical images, Matlab, Edge detection.

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18 An Evaluation of Sputum Smear Conversion and Haematological Parameter Alteration in Early Detection Period of New Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) Patients

Authors: Tasnuva Tamanna, Sanjida Halim Topa

Abstract:

Sputum smear conversion after one month of antituberculosis therapy in new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTB+) is a vital indicator towards treatment success. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of sputum smear conversion in new PTB+ patients after one month under treatment of National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH). Analysis of sputum smear conversion was done by re-clinical examination with sputum smear microscopic test after one month. Socio-demographic and hematological parameters were evaluated to perceive the correlation with the disease status. Among all enrolled patients only 33.33% were available for follow up diagnosis and of them only 42.86% patients turned to smear negative. Probably this consequence is due to non-coherence to the proper disease management. 66.67% and 78.78% patients reported low haemoglobin and packed cell volume level respectively whereas 80% and 93.33% patients accounted accelerated platelet count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate correspondingly.

Keywords: Followed up patients, PTB+ patients, sputum smear conversion, and sputum smear microscopic test.

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17 2D Human Motion Regeneration with Stick Figure Animation Using Accelerometers

Authors: Alpha Agape Gopalai, S. M. N. Arosha Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper explores the opportunity of using tri-axial wireless accelerometers for supervised monitoring of sports movements. A motion analysis system for the upper extremities of lawn bowlers in particular is developed. Accelerometers are placed on parts of human body such as the chest to represent the shoulder movements, the back to capture the trunk motion, back of the hand, the wrist and one above the elbow, to capture arm movements. These sensors placement are carefully designed in order to avoid restricting bowler-s movements. Data is acquired from these sensors in soft-real time using virtual instrumentation; the acquired data is then conditioned and converted into required parameters for motion regeneration. A user interface was also created to facilitate in the acquisition of data, and broadcasting of commands to the wireless accelerometers. All motion regeneration in this paper deals with the motion of the human body segment in the X and Y direction, looking into the motion of the anterior/ posterior and lateral directions respectively.

Keywords: Motion Regeneration, Virtual Instrumentation, Wireless Accelerometers.

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16 Human Motion Regeneration in 2-Dimension as Stick Figure Animation with Accelerometers

Authors: Alpha Agape Gopalai, Darwin Gouwanda, S.M.N. Arosha Senanayake

Abstract:

This paper explores the opportunity of using tri-axial wireless accelerometers for supervised monitoring of sports movements. A motion analysis system for the upper extremities of lawn bowlers in particular is developed. Accelerometers are placed on parts of human body such as the chest to represent the shoulder movements, the back to capture the trunk motion, back of the hand, the wrist and one above the elbow, to capture arm movements. These sensors placement are carefully designed in order to avoid restricting bowler-s movements. Data is acquired from these sensors in soft-real time using virtual instrumentation; the acquired data is then conditioned and converted into required parameters for motion regeneration. A user interface was also created to facilitate in the acquisition of data, and broadcasting of commands to the wireless accelerometers. All motion regeneration in this paper deals with the motion of the human body segment in the X and Y direction, looking into the motion of the anterior/ posterior and lateral directions respectively.

Keywords: Motion Regeneration, Virtual Instrumentation, Wireless Accelerometers

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15 Evaluation of Sensitometric Properties of Radiographic Films at Different Processing Solutions

Authors: Mojiri M, Ghazi Khanloo Sani K, Moghim Beigi A

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to compare the sensitometric properties of commonly used radiographic films processed with chemical solutions in different workload hospitals. The effect of different processing conditions on induced densities on radiologic films was investigated. Two accessible double emulsions Fuji and Kodak films were exposed with 11-step wedge and processed with Champion and CPAC processing solutions. The mentioned films provided in both workloads centers, high and low. Our findings displays that the speed and contrast of Kodak filmscreen in both work load (high and low) is higher than Fuji filmscreen for both processing solutions. However there was significant differences in films contrast for both workloads when CPAC solution had been used (p=0.000 and 0.028). The results showed base plus fog density for Kodak film was lower than Fuji. Generally Champion processing solution caused more speed and contrast for investigated films in different conditions and there was significant differences in 95% confidence level between two used processing solutions (p=0.01). Low base plus fog density for Kodak films provide more visibility and accuracy and higher contrast results in using lower exposure factors to obtain better quality in resulting radiographs. In this study we found an economic advantages since Champion solution and Kodak film are used while it makes lower patient dose. Thus, in a radiologic facility any change in film processor/processing cycle or chemistry should be carefully investigated before radiological procedures of patients are acquired.

Keywords: Sensitometry, densitometry, Radiographic film, processing solution

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14 Wavelet Based Qualitative Assessment of Femur Bone Strength Using Radiographic Imaging

Authors: Sundararajan Sangeetha, Joseph Jesu Christopher, Swaminathan Ramakrishnan

Abstract:

In this work, the primary compressive strength components of human femur trabecular bone are qualitatively assessed using image processing and wavelet analysis. The Primary Compressive (PC) component in planar radiographic femur trabecular images (N=50) is delineated by semi-automatic image processing procedure. Auto threshold binarization algorithm is employed to recognize the presence of mineralization in the digitized images. The qualitative parameters such as apparent mineralization and total area associated with the PC region are derived for normal and abnormal images.The two-dimensional discrete wavelet transforms are utilized to obtain appropriate features that quantify texture changes in medical images .The normal and abnormal samples of the human femur are comprehensively analyzed using Harr wavelet.The six statistical parameters such as mean, median, mode, standard deviation, mean absolute deviation and median absolute deviation are derived at level 4 decomposition for both approximation and horizontal wavelet coefficients. The correlation coefficient of various wavelet derived parameters with normal and abnormal for both approximated and horizontal coefficients are estimated. It is seen that in almost all cases the abnormal show higher degree of correlation than normals. Further the parameters derived from approximation coefficient show more correlation than those derived from the horizontal coefficients. The parameters mean and median computed at the output of level 4 Harr wavelet channel was found to be a useful predictor to delineate the normal and the abnormal groups.

Keywords: Image processing, planar radiographs, trabecular bone and wavelet analysis.

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13 Comparison of Selected Behavioural Patterns of German Shepherd Puppies in Open-Field Test by Practical Assessment Report

Authors: Igor Miňo, Lenka Lešková

Abstract:

Over the past 80 years, open-field method has evolved as a commonly used tool for the analysis of animal behaviour. The study was carried out using 50 kennel-reared purebred puppies of the German Shepherd dog breed. All dogs were tested in 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age. For the purpose of behavioural analysis, an open-field evaluation report was designed prior to testing to ensure the most convenient, rapid, and suitable way to assess selected behavioural patterns in field conditions. Onset of vocalisation, intensity of vocalisation, level of physical activity, response to sound, and overall behaviour was monitored in the study. Correlations between measures of height, weight and chest circumference, and behavioural characteristics in the 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age were not statistically significant. Onset of vocalisation, intensity of vocalisation, level of physical activity and response to sound differed on statistically significant level between 5th, 7th, and 9th week of age. Results suggest that our practical assessment report may be used as an applicable method to evaluate the suitability of service dog puppies for future working roles.

Keywords: Dog, behaviour, open-field, testing.

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12 Motion Detection Method for Clutter Rejection in the Bio-Radar Signal Processing

Authors: Carolina Gouveia, José Vieira, Pedro Pinho

Abstract:

The cardiopulmonary signal monitoring, without the usage of contact electrodes or any type of in-body sensors, has several applications such as sleeping monitoring and continuous monitoring of vital signals in bedridden patients. This system has also applications in the vehicular environment to monitor the driver, in order to avoid any possible accident in case of cardiac failure. Thus, the bio-radar system proposed in this paper, can measure vital signals accurately by using the Doppler effect principle that relates the received signal properties with the distance change between the radar antennas and the person’s chest-wall. Once the bio-radar aim is to monitor subjects in real-time and during long periods of time, it is impossible to guarantee the patient immobilization, hence their random motion will interfere in the acquired signals. In this paper, a mathematical model of the bio-radar is presented, as well as its simulation in MATLAB. The used algorithm for breath rate extraction is explained and a method for DC offsets removal based in a motion detection system is proposed. Furthermore, experimental tests were conducted with a view to prove that the unavoidable random motion can be used to estimate the DC offsets accurately and thus remove them successfully.

Keywords: Bio-signals, DC Component, Doppler Effect, ellipse fitting, radar, SDR.

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