Search results for: Benjamin Y. M. Kwan
54 Exons and Introns Classification in Human and Other Organisms
Authors: Benjamin Y. M. Kwan, Jennifer Y. Y. Kwan, Hon Keung Kwan
Abstract:In the paper, the relative performances on spectral classification of short exon and intron sequences of the human and eleven model organisms is studied. In the simulations, all combinations of sixteen one-sequence numerical representations, four threshold values, and four window lengths are considered. Sequences of 150-base length are chosen and for each organism, a total of 16,000 sequences are used for training and testing. Results indicate that an appropriate combination of one-sequence numerical representation, threshold value, and window length is essential for arriving at top spectral classification results. For fixed-length sequences, the precisions on exon and intron classification obtained for different organisms are not the same because of their genomic differences. In general, precision increases as sequence length increases.
Keywords: Exons and introns classification, Human genome, Model organism genome, Spectral analysisProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1925
53 Impulse Noise Reduction in Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Fuzzy Filters
Authors: Benjamin Y. M. Kwan, Hon Keung Kwan
Abstract:Noise contamination in a magnetic resonance (MR) image could occur during acquisition, storage, and transmission in which effective filtering is required to avoid repeating the MR procedure. In this paper, an iterative asymmetrical triangle fuzzy filter with moving average center (ATMAVi filter) is used to reduce different levels of salt and pepper noise in a brain MR image. Besides visual inspection on filtered images, the mean squared error (MSE) is used as an objective measurement. When compared with the median filter, simulation results indicate that the ATMAVi filter is effective especially for filtering a higher level noise (such as noise density = 0.45) using a smaller window size (such as 3x3) when operated iteratively or using a larger window size (such as 5x5) when operated non-iteratively.
Keywords: Brain images, Fuzzy filters, Magnetic resonance imaging, Salt and pepper noise reduction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2080
52 Improved Lung Nodule Visualization on Chest Radiographs using Digital Filtering and Contrast Enhancement
Authors: Benjamin Y. M. Kwan, Hon Keung Kwan
Abstract:Early detection of lung cancer through chest radiography is a widely used method due to its relatively affordable cost. In this paper, an approach to improve lung nodule visualization on chest radiographs is presented. The approach makes use of linear phase high-frequency emphasis filter for digital filtering and histogram equalization for contrast enhancement to achieve improvements. Results obtained indicate that a filtered image can reveal sharper edges and provide more details. Also, contrast enhancement offers a way to further enhance the global (or local) visualization by equalizing the histogram of the pixel values within the whole image (or a region of interest). The work aims to improve lung nodule visualization of chest radiographs to aid detection of lung cancer which is currently the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.
Keywords: Chest radiographs, Contrast enhancement, Digital filtering, Lung nodule detectionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1562
51 Exact Three-wave Solutions for High Nonlinear Form of Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers Equations
Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Maliheh Najafi, Mohammad Najafi
By means of the idea of three-wave method, we obtain some analytic solutions for high nonlinear form of Benjamin-Bona- Mahony-Burgers (shortly BBMB) equations in its bilinear form.
Keywords: Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers equations, Hirota's bilinear form, three-wave method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1365
50 Cubic B-spline Collocation Method for Numerical Solution of the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers Equation
Authors: M. Zarebnia, R. Parvaz
In this paper, numerical solutions of the nonlinear Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers (BBMB) equation are obtained by a method based on collocation of cubic B-splines. Applying the Von-Neumann stability analysis, the proposed method is shown to be unconditionally stable. The method is applied on some test examples, and the numerical results have been compared with the exact solutions. The L∞ and L2 in the solutions show the efficiency of the method computationally.
Keywords: Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers equation, Cubic Bspline, Collocation method, Finite difference.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3535
49 Optimization of Kinematics for Birds and UAVs Using Evolutionary Algorithms
Authors: Mohamed Hamdaoui, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, Stephane Doncieux, Pierre Sagaut
The aim of this work is to present a multi-objective optimization method to find maximum efficiency kinematics for a flapping wing unmanned aerial vehicle. We restrained our study to rectangular wings with the same profile along the span and to harmonic dihedral motion. It is assumed that the birdlike aerial vehicle (whose span and surface area were fixed respectively to 1m and 0.15m2) is in horizontal mechanically balanced motion at fixed speed. We used two flight physics models to describe the vehicle aerodynamic performances, namely DeLaurier-s model, which has been used in many studies dealing with flapping wings, and the model proposed by Dae-Kwan et al. Then, a constrained multi-objective optimization of the propulsive efficiency is performed using a recent evolutionary multi-objective algorithm called є-MOEA. Firstly, we show that feasible solutions (i.e. solutions that fulfil the imposed constraints) can be obtained using Dae-Kwan et al.-s model. Secondly, we highlight that a single objective optimization approach (weighted sum method for example) can also give optimal solutions as good as the multi-objective one which nevertheless offers the advantage of directly generating the set of the best trade-offs. Finally, we show that the DeLaurier-s model does not yield feasible solutions.
Keywords: Flight physics, evolutionary algorithm, optimization, Pareto surface.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1546
48 Battery Grading Algorithm in 2nd-Life Repurposing Li-ion Battery System
Authors: Ya Lv, Benjamin Ong Wei Lin, Wanli Niu, Benjamin Seah Chin Tat
This article presents a methodology that improves reliability and cyclability of 2nd-life Li-ion battery system repurposed as energy storage system (ESS). Most of the 2nd-life retired battery systems in market have module/pack-level state of health (SOH) indicator, which is utilized for guiding appropriate depth of discharge (DOD) in the application of ESS. Due to the lack of cell-level SOH indication, the different degrading behaviors among various cells cannot be identified upon reaching retired status; in the end, considering end of life (EOL) loss and pack-level DOD, the repurposed ESS has to be oversized by > 1.5 times to complement the application requirement of reliability and cyclability. This proposed battery grading algorithm, using non-invasive methodology, is able to detect outlier cells based on historical voltage data and calculate cell-level historical maximum temperature data using semi-analytic methodology. In this way, the individual battery cell in the 2nd-life battery system can be graded in terms of SOH on basis of the historical voltage fluctuation and estimated historical maximum temperature variation. These grades will have corresponding DOD grades in the application of the repurposed ESS to enhance the system reliability and cyclability. In all, this introduced battery grading algorithm is non-invasive, compatible with all kinds of retired Li-ion battery systems which lack of cell-level SOH indication, as well as potentially being embedded into battery management software for preventive maintenance and real-time cyclability optimization.
Keywords: Battery grading algorithm, 2nd-life repurposing battery system, semi-analytic methodology, reliability and cyclability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 627
47 Target Detection with Improved Image Texture Feature Coding Method and Support Vector Machine
Authors: R. Xu, X. Zhao, X. Li, C. Kwan, C.-I Chang
An image texture analysis and target recognition approach of using an improved image texture feature coding method (TFCM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for target detection is presented. With our proposed target detection framework, targets of interest can be detected accurately. Cascade-Sliding-Window technique was also developed for automated target localization. Application to mammogram showed that over 88% of normal mammograms and 80% of abnormal mammograms can be correctly identified. The approach was also successfully applied to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) images for target detection.
Keywords: Image texture analysis, feature extraction, target detection, pattern classification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1660
46 A Case Study on Suitable Area and Resource for Development of Floating Photovoltaic System
Authors: Young-Kwan Choi
In development of floating photovoltaic generation system, finding a suitable place of installation is as important as development of economically feasible and stable structure. Especially since floating photovoltaic system has its facility floating on water surface, it is extremely important to review the effects of weather conditions such as wind, water flow and floating matters, various factors (such as fogs) that can reduce generation efficiency, possibility of connection with power system, and legal restrictions. The method of investigating suitable area and resource for development of tracking-type floating photovoltaic generation system was proposed in this paper, which can be used for development of floating and ocean photovoltaic system in the future.
Keywords: Floating PV system, On-site Survey, Resources Survey of Photovoltaic, Tracking-type Floating PV.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3113
45 Sensitivity Analysis of Real-Time Systems
Authors: Benjamin Gorry, Andrew Ireland, Peter King
Abstract:Verification of real-time software systems can be expensive in terms of time and resources. Testing is the main method of proving correctness but has been shown to be a long and time consuming process. Everyday engineers are usually unwilling to adopt formal approaches to correctness because of the overhead associated with developing their knowledge of such techniques. Performance modelling techniques allow systems to be evaluated with respect to timing constraints. This paper describes PARTES, a framework which guides the extraction of performance models from programs written in an annotated subset of C.
Keywords: Performance Modelling, Real-time, SensitivityAnalysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1394
44 A Study on Energy Efficiency of Vertical Water Treatment System with DC Power Supply
Authors: Young-Kwan Choi, Gang-Wook Shin, Sung-Taek Hong
Water supply system consumes large amount of power load during water treatment and transportation of purified water. Many energy conserving high efficiency materials such as DC motor and LED light have recently been introduced to water supply system for energy conservation. This paper performed empirical analysis on BLDC and AC motors and comparatively analyzed the change in power according to DC power supply ratio in order to conserve energy of a next-generation water treatment system called vertical water treatment system. In addition, a DC distribution system linked with photovoltaic generation was simulated to analyze the energy conserving effect of DC load.
Keywords: Vertical Water Treatment System, DC Power Supply, Energy Efficiency, BLDC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2019
43 Cross-Industry Innovations–Systematic Identification of Ideas for Radical Problem Solving
Authors: Niklas Echterhoff, Benjamin Amshoff, Jürgen Gausemeier
Abstract:Creativity is often based on an unorthodox recombination of knowledge; in fact: 80% of all innovations use given knowledge and put it into a new combination. Cross-industry innovations follow this way of thinking and bring together problems and solution ideas from different industries. Therefore analogies and search strategies have to be developed. Taking this path, the questions where to search, what to search and how to search have to be answered. Afterwards, the gathered information can be used within a planned search process. Identified solution ideas have to be assessed and analyzed in detail for the success promising adaption planning.
Keywords: analogy building, cross-industry innovations, knowledge transfer, solution adaption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1921
42 Multi-Objective Optimization for Performance-based Seismic Retrofit using Connection Upgrade
Authors: Dong-Chul Lee, Byung-Kwan Oh, Se-Woon Choi, Hyo-Sun Park
Abstract:The unanticipated brittle fracture of connection of the steel moment resisting frame (SMRF) occurred in 1994 the Northridge earthquake. Since then, the researches for the vulnerability of connection of the existing SMRF and for rehabilitation of those buildings were conducted. This paper suggests performance-based optimal seismic retrofit technique using connection upgrade. For optimal design, a multi-objective genetic algorithm(NSGA-II) is used. One of the two objective functions is to minimize initial cost and another objective function is to minimize lifetime seismic damages cost. The optimal algorithm proposed in this paper is performed satisfying specified performance objective based on FEMA 356. The nonlinear static analysis is performed for structural seismic performance evaluation. A numerical example of SAC benchmark SMRF is provided using the performance-based optimal seismic retrofit technique proposed in this paper
Keywords: connection upgrade, performace-based seismicdesign, seismic retrofit, multi-objective optimizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1920
41 Voice Driven Applications in Non-stationary and Chaotic Environment
Authors: C. Kwan, X. Li, D. Lao, Y. Deng, Z. Ren, B. Raj, R. Singh, R. Stern
Automated operations based on voice commands will become more and more important in many applications, including robotics, maintenance operations, etc. However, voice command recognition rates drop quite a lot under non-stationary and chaotic noise environments. In this paper, we tried to significantly improve the speech recognition rates under non-stationary noise environments. First, 298 Navy acronyms have been selected for automatic speech recognition. Data sets were collected under 4 types of noisy environments: factory, buccaneer jet, babble noise in a canteen, and destroyer. Within each noisy environment, 4 levels (5 dB, 15 dB, 25 dB, and clean) of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) were introduced to corrupt the speech. Second, a new algorithm to estimate speech or no speech regions has been developed, implemented, and evaluated. Third, extensive simulations were carried out. It was found that the combination of the new algorithm, the proper selection of language model and a customized training of the speech recognizer based on clean speech yielded very high recognition rates, which are between 80% and 90% for the four different noisy conditions. Fourth, extensive comparative studies have also been carried out.
Keywords: Non-stationary, speech recognition, voice commands.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1416
40 Concerns Regarding the Adoption of the Model Driven Architecture in the Development of Safety Critical Avionics Applications
Authors: Benjamin Gorry
Abstract:Safety Critical hard Real-Time Systems are ever present in the avionics industry. The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) offers different levels of model abstraction and generation. This paper discusses our concerns relating to model development and generation when using the MDA approach in the avionics industry. These concerns are based on our experience when looking into adopting the MDA as part of avionics systems development. We place emphasis on transformations between model types and discuss possible benefits of adopting an MDA approach as part of the software development life cycle.
Keywords: Model Driven Architecture, Real-Time AvionicsApplications.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2081
39 Misleading Node Detection and Response Mechanism in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
Authors: Earleen Jane Fuentes, Regeene Melarese Lim, Franklin Benjamin Tapia, Alexis Pantola
Abstract:Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is an infrastructure-less network of mobile devices, also known as nodes. These nodes heavily rely on each other’s resources such as memory, computing power, and energy. Thus, some nodes may become selective in forwarding packets so as to conserve their resources. These nodes are called misleading nodes. Several reputation-based techniques (e.g. CORE, CONFIDANT, LARS, SORI, OCEAN) and acknowledgment-based techniques (e.g. TWOACK, S-TWOACK, EAACK) have been proposed to detect such nodes. These techniques do not appropriately punish misleading nodes. Hence, this paper addresses the limitations of these techniques using a system called MINDRA.
Keywords: Mobile ad-hoc network, selfish nodes, reputation-based techniques, acknowledgment-based techniques.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1129
38 Evaluating 8D Reports Using Text-Mining
Authors: Benjamin Kuester, Bjoern Eilert, Malte Stonis, Ludger Overmeyer
Increasing quality requirements make reliable and effective quality management indispensable. This includes the complaint handling in which the 8D method is widely used. The 8D report as a written documentation of the 8D method is one of the key quality documents as it internally secures the quality standards and acts as a communication medium to the customer. In practice, however, the 8D report is mostly faulty and of poor quality. There is no quality control of 8D reports today. This paper describes the use of natural language processing for the automated evaluation of 8D reports. Based on semantic analysis and text-mining algorithms the presented system is able to uncover content and formal quality deficiencies and thus increases the quality of the complaint processing in the long term.
Keywords: 8D report, complaint management, evaluation system, text-mining.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 891
37 Reliability of Eyewitness Statements in Fire and Explosion Investigations
Authors: Jeff D. Colwell, Benjamin W. Knox
While fire and explosion incidents are often observed by eyewitnesses, the weight that fire investigators should place on those observations in their investigations is a complex issue. There is no doubt that eyewitness statements can be an important component to an investigation, particularly when other evidence is sparse, as is often the case when damage to the scene is severe. However, it is well known that eyewitness statements can be incorrect for a variety of reasons, including deception. In this paper, we reviewed factors that can have an effect on the complex processes associated with the perception, retention, and retrieval of an event. We then review the accuracy of eyewitness statements from unique criminal and civil incidents, including fire and explosion incidents, in which the accuracy of the statements could be independently evaluated. Finally, the motives for deceptive eyewitness statements are described, along with techniques that fire and explosion investigators can employ, to increase the accuracy of the eyewitness statements that they solicit.
Keywords: Explosion, eyewitness, fire, reliability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 131
36 A Comparative Study on the Financial Characteristics for Development Methods of Urban Development Project - Focusing on Multi-level Replotting Method -
Authors: Jin hui Kim, Hyung kwan Cho, Ji won Moon, Hoon Chang
Abstract:The purpose of this study is comparing and analysing of the financial characteristics for development methods of the urban development project in the established area, focusing on the multi-level replotting. Analysis showed that the type of the lowest expenditure was 'combination type of group-land and multi-level replotting' and the type of the highest profitability was 'multi-level replotting type'. But 'multi-level replotting type' has still risk of amount of cost for the additional architecture. In addition, we subdivided standard amount for liquidation of replotting and analysed income-expenditure flow. Analysis showed that both of 'multi-level replotting type' and 'combination type of group-land and multi-level replotting' improved profitability of project and property change ratio. However, when the standard was under a certain amount, amount of original property for the replotting was increased exponentially, and profitability of project.
Keywords: Urban development, multi-level replotting, financial characteristics, expropriation type, combination type, urban meteorology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1432
35 Cross-Industry Innovations – Systematic Identification and Adaption
Authors: Niklas Echterhoff, Benjamin Amshoff, Jürgen Gausemeier
Abstract:Due to today-s fierce competition, companies have to be proactive creators of the future by effectively developing innovations. Especially radical innovations allow high profit margins – but they also entail high risks. One possibility to realize radical innovations and reduce the risk of failure is cross-industry innovation (CII). CII brings together problems and solution ideas from different industries. However, there is a lack of systematic ways towards CII. Bridging this gap, the present paper provides a systematic approach towards planned CII. Starting with the analysis of potentials, the definition of promising search strategies is crucial. Subsequently, identified solution ideas need to be assessed. For the most promising ones, the adaption process has to be systematically planned – regarding the risk affinity of a company. The introduced method is explained on a project from the furniture industry.
Keywords: Analogy building, cross-industry innovations, knowledge transfer, solution adaption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2533
34 Optimal Retrofit Design of Reinforced Concrete Frame with Infill Wall Using Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials
Authors: Sang Wook Park, Se Woon Choi, Yousok Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park
Various retrofit techniques for reinforced concrete frame with infill wall have been steadily developed. Among those techniques, strengthening methodology based on diagonal FRP strips (FRP bracings) has numerous advantages such as feasibility of implementing without interrupting the building under operation, reduction of cost and time, and easy application. Considering the safety of structure and retrofit cost, the most appropriate retrofit solution is needed. Thus, the objective of this study is to suggest pareto-optimal solution for existing building using FRP bracings. To find pareto-optimal solution analysis, NSGA-II is applied. Moreover, the seismic performance of retrofit building is evaluated. The example building is 5-storey, 3-bay RC frames with infill wall. Nonlinear static pushover analyses are performed with FEMA 356. The criterion of performance evaluation is inter-story drift ratio at the performance level IO, LS, CP. Optimal retrofit solutions is obtained for 32 individuals and 200 generations. Through the proposed optimal solutions, we confirm the improvement of seismic performance of the example building.
Keywords: Retrofit, FRP bracings, reinforced concrete frame with infill wall, seismic performance evaluation, NSGA-II.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1782
33 Non-Invasive Technology on a Classroom Chair for Detection of Emotions Used for the Personalization of Learning Resources
Authors: Carlos Ramirez, Carlos Concha, Benjamin Valdes
Abstract:Emotions are related with learning processes and physiological signals can be used to detect them for the personalization of learning resources and to control the pace of instruction. A model of relevant emotions has been developed, where specific combinations of emotions and cognition processes are connected and integrated with the concept of 'flow', in order to improve learning. The cardiac pulse is a reliable signal that carries useful information about the subject-s emotional condition; it is detected using a classroom chair adapted with non invasive EMFi sensor and an acquisition system that generates a ballistocardiogram (BCG), the signal is processed by an algorithm to obtain characteristics that match a specific emotional condition. The complete chair system is presented in this work, along with a framework for the personalization of learning resources.
Keywords: Ballistocardiogram, emotions in learning, noninvasive sensors, personalization of learning resources.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1536
32 Virtual Prototyping and Operational Monitoring of PLC-Based Control System
Authors: Kwan Hee Han, Jun Woo Park, Seock Kyu Yoo, Geon Lee
Abstract:As business environments are rapidly changing, the manufacturing system must be reconfigured to adapt to various customer needs. In order to cope with this challenge, it is quintessential to test industrial control logic rapidly and easily in the design time, and monitor operational behavior in the run time of automated manufacturing system. Proposed integrated model for virtual prototyping and operational monitoring of industrial control logic is to improve limitations of current ladder programming practices and general discrete event simulation method. Each plant layout model using HMI package and object-oriented control logic model is designed independently and is executed simultaneously in integrated manner to reflect design practices of automation system in the design time. Control logic is designed and executed using UML activity diagram without considering complicated control behavior to deal with current trend of reconfigurable manufacturing. After the physical installation, layout model of virtual prototype constructed in the design time is reused for operational monitoring of system behavior during run time.
Keywords: automated manufacturing system, HMI, monitoring, object-oriented, PLC, virtual prototypingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2055
31 The Keys to Innovation: Defining and Evaluating Attributes that Measure Innovation Capabilities
Authors: Mohammad Samarah, Benjamin Stark, Jennifer Kindle, Langley Payton
Innovation is a key driver for companies, society, and economic growth. However, assessing and measuring innovation for individuals as well as organizations remains difficult. Our i5-Score presented in this study will help to overcome this difficulty and facilitate measuring the innovation potential. The score is based on a framework we call the 5Gs of innovation which defines specific innovation attributes. Those are 1) the drive for long-term goals 2) the audacity to generate new ideas, 3) the openness to share ideas with others, 4) the ability to grow, and 5) the ability to maintain high levels of optimism. To validate the i5-Score, we conducted a study at Florida Polytechnic University. The results show that the i5-Score is a good measure reflecting the innovative mindset of an individual or a group. Thus, the score can be utilized for evaluating, refining and enhancing innovation capabilities.
Keywords: Change management, innovation attributes, organizational development, STEM and venture creation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 827
30 Evaluation of Sensor Pattern Noise Estimators for Source Camera Identification
Authors: Benjamin Anderson-Sackaney, Amr Abdel-Dayem
Abstract:This paper presents a comprehensive survey of recent source camera identification (SCI) systems. Then, the performance of various sensor pattern noise (SPN) estimators was experimentally assessed, under common photo response non-uniformity (PRNU) frameworks. The experiments used 1350 natural and 900 flat-field images, captured by 18 individual cameras. 12 different experiments, grouped into three sets, were conducted. The results were analyzed using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. The experimental results demonstrated that combining the basic SPN estimator with a wavelet-based filtering scheme provides promising results. However, the phase SPN estimator fits better with both patch-based (BM3D) and anisotropic diffusion (AD) filtering schemes.
Keywords: Sensor pattern noise, source camera identification, photo response non-uniformity, anisotropic diffusion, peak to correlation energy ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 918
29 Continuous Feature Adaptation for Non-Native Speech Recognition
Authors: Y. Deng, X. Li, C. Kwan, B. Raj, R. Stern
Abstract:The current speech interfaces in many military applications may be adequate for native speakers. However, the recognition rate drops quite a lot for non-native speakers (people with foreign accents). This is mainly because the nonnative speakers have large temporal and intra-phoneme variations when they pronounce the same words. This problem is also complicated by the presence of large environmental noise such as tank noise, helicopter noise, etc. In this paper, we proposed a novel continuous acoustic feature adaptation algorithm for on-line accent and environmental adaptation. Implemented by incremental singular value decomposition (SVD), the algorithm captures local acoustic variation and runs in real-time. This feature-based adaptation method is then integrated with conventional model-based maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) algorithm. Extensive experiments have been performed on the NATO non-native speech corpus with baseline acoustic model trained on native American English. The proposed feature-based adaptation algorithm improved the average recognition accuracy by 15%, while the MLLR model based adaptation achieved 11% improvement. The corresponding word error rate (WER) reduction was 25.8% and 2.73%, as compared to that without adaptation. The combined adaptation achieved overall recognition accuracy improvement of 29.5%, and WER reduction of 31.8%, as compared to that without adaptation.
Keywords: speaker adaptation; environment adaptation; robust speech recognition; SVD; non-native speech recognitionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3103
28 Analysis of Food Security Situation among Nigerian Rural Farmers
Authors: Victoria A. Okwoche, Benjamin C. Asogwa
Abstract:This paper analysed the food security situation among Nigerian rural farmers. Data collected on 202 rural farmers from Benue State were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that majority of the respondents (60.83%) had medium dietary diversity. Furthermore, household daily calorie requirement for the food secure households was 10,723 and the household daily calorie consumption was 12,598, with a surplus index of 0.04. The food security index was 1.16. The Household daily per capita calorie consumption was 3,221.2. For the food insecure households, the household daily calorie requirement was 20,213 and the household daily calorie consumption was 17,393. The shortfall index was 0.14. The food security index was 0.88. The Household daily per capita calorie consumption was 2,432.8. The most commonly used coping strategies during food stress included intercropping (99.2%), reliance on less preferred food (98.1%), limiting portion size at meal times (85.8%) and crop diversification (70.8%).
Keywords: Analysis, food security, rural areas, farmers, Nigeria.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2755
27 Silver Nanoparticles-Enhanced Luminescence Spectra of Silicon Nanocrystals
Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Benjamin R. Horrocks
Metal-enhanced Luminescence of silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) was determined using two different particle sizes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). SiNCs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm and FCC lattice. AgNPs were synthesized using photochemical reduction of AgNO3 with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The enhanced luminescence of SiNCs by AgNPs was evaluated by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Enhancement up to x9 and x3 times were observed for SiNCs that mixed with AgNPs which have an average particle size of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Silver NPs-enhanced luminescence of SiNCs occurs as a result of the coupling between the excitation laser light and the plasmon bands of AgNPs; thus this intense field at AgNPs surface couples strongly to SiNCs.
Keywords: Luminescence, Silicon Nanocrystals, Silver Nanoparticles, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2677
26 Analysis of Differences between Public and Experts’ Views Regarding Sustainable Development of Developing Cities: A Case Study in the Iraqi Capital Baghdad
Authors: Marwah Mohsin, Thomas Beach, Alan Kwan, Mahdi Ismail
This paper describes the differences in views on sustainable development between the general public and experts in a developing country, Iraq. This paper will answer the question: How do the views of the public differ from the generally accepted view of experts in the context of sustainable urban development in Iraq? In order to answer this question, the views of both the public and the experts will be analysed. These results are taken from a public survey and a Delphi questionnaire. These will be analysed using statistical methods in order to identify the significant differences. This will enable investigation of the different perceptions between the public perceptions and the experts’ views towards urban sustainable development factors. This is important due to the fact that different viewpoints between policy-makers and the public will impact on the acceptance by the public of any future sustainable development work that is undertaken. The brief findings of the statistical analysis show that the views of both the public and the experts are considered different in most of the variables except six variables show no differences. Those variables are ‘The importance of establishing sustainable cities in Iraq’, ‘Mitigate traffic congestion’, ‘Waste recycling and separating’, ‘Use wastewater recycling’, ‘Parks and green spaces’, and ‘Promote investment’.
Keywords: Urban sustainable development, experts’ views, public views, statistical analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 366
25 Fully Printed Strain Gauges: A Comparison of Aerosoljet-Printing and Micropipette-Dispensing
Authors: Benjamin Panreck, Manfred Hild
Abstract:Strain sensors based on a change in resistance are well established for the measurement of forces, stresses, or material fatigue. Within the scope of this paper, fully additive manufactured strain sensors were produced using an ink of silver nanoparticles. Their behavior was evaluated by periodic tensile tests. Printed strain sensors exhibit two advantages: Their measuring grid is adaptable to the use case and they do not need a carrier-foil, as the measuring structure can be printed directly onto a thin sprayed varnish layer on the aluminum specimen. In order to compare quality characteristics, the sensors have been manufactured using two different technologies, namely aerosoljet-printing and micropipette-dispensing. Both processes produce structures which exhibit continuous features (in contrast to what can be achieved with droplets during inkjet printing). Briefly summarized the results show that aerosoljet-printing is the preferable technology for specimen with non-planar surfaces whereas both technologies are suitable for flat specimen.
Keywords: Aerosoljet-printing, micropipette-dispensing, printed electronics, printed sensors, strain gauge.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 815