Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 627

Search results for: electromagnetic radiation

627 Characterization of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Created by Multiple Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: C. Temaneh-Nyah, J. Makiche, J. Nujoma

Abstract:

This paper considers the characterization of a complex electromagnetic environment due to multiple sources of electromagnetic radiation as a five-dimensional surface which can be described by a set of several surface sections including: instant EM field intensity distribution maps at a given frequency and altitude, instantaneous spectrum at a given location in space and the time evolution of the electromagnetic field spectrum at a given point in space. This characterization if done over time can enable the exposure levels of Radio Frequency Radiation at every point in the analysis area to be determined and results interpreted based on comparison of the determined RFR exposure level with the safe guidelines for general public exposure given by recognized body such as the International commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA).

Keywords: Electromagnetic Environment, Electric Field Strength, Mathematical Models.

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626 Electromagnetic Source Direction of Arrival Estimation via Virtual Antenna Array

Authors: Meiling Yang, Shuguo Xie, Yilong Zhu

Abstract:

Nowadays, due to diverse electric products and complex electromagnetic environment, the localization and troubleshooting of the electromagnetic radiation source is urgent and necessary especially on the condition of far field. However, based on the existing DOA positioning method, the system or devices are complex, bulky and expensive. To address this issue, this paper proposes a single antenna radiation source localization method. A single antenna moves to form a virtual antenna array combined with DOA and MUSIC algorithm to position accurately, meanwhile reducing the cost and simplify the equipment. As shown in the results of simulations and experiments, the virtual antenna array DOA estimation modeling is correct and its positioning is credible.

Keywords: Virtual antenna array, DOA, localization, far field.

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625 Three-Dimensional Simulation of Free Electron Laser with Prebunching and Efficiency Enhancement

Authors: M. Chitsazi, B. Maraghechi, M. H. Rouhani

Abstract:

Three-dimensional simulation of harmonic up generation in free electron laser amplifier operating simultaneously with a cold and relativistic electron beam is presented in steady-state regime where the slippage of the electromagnetic wave with respect to the electron beam is ignored. By using slowly varying envelope approximation and applying the source-dependent expansion to wave equations, electromagnetic fields are represented in terms of the Hermit Gaussian modes which are well suited for the planar wiggler configuration. The electron dynamics is described by the fully threedimensional Lorentz force equation in presence of the realistic planar magnetostatic wiggler and electromagnetic fields. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations is derived and solved numerically. The fundamental and third harmonic radiation of the beam is considered. In addition to uniform beam, prebunched electron beam has also been studied. For this effect of sinusoidal distribution of entry times for the electron beam on the evolution of radiation is compared with uniform distribution. It is shown that prebunching reduces the saturation length substantially. For efficiency enhancement the wiggler is set to decrease linearly when the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point of tapering and the slope of radiation in the amplitude of wiggler are found by successive run of the code.

Keywords: Free electron laser, Prebunching, Undulator, Wiggler.

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624 Collective Oscillations in a Magnetized Plasma Subjected to a Radiation Field

Authors: Daniel Santos, Bruno Ribeiro, Marco Amato, Antonio Fonseca

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss the behaviour of the longitudinal modes of a magnetized non collisional plasma subjected to an external electromagnetic field. We apply a semiclassical formalism, with the electrons being studied in a quantum mechanical viewpoint whereas the electromagnetic field in the classical context. We calculate the dielectric function in order to obtains the modes and found that, unlike the Bernstein modes, the presence of radiation induces oscillations around the cyclotron harmonics, which are smoothed as the energy stored in the radiation field becomes small compared to the thermal energy of the electrons. We analyze the influence of the number of photon involved in the electronic transitions between the Landau levels and how the parameters such as the external fields strength, plasma density and temperature affect the dispersion relation

Keywords: Collective oscillations, External fields, Dispersion relation.

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623 The Calculation of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Substations of Shopping Centers

Authors: Adnan Muharemovic, Hidajet Salkic, Mario Klaric, Irfan Turkovic, Aida Muharemovic

Abstract:

In nature, electromagnetic fields always appear like atmosphere static electric field, the earth's static magnetic field and the wide-rang frequency electromagnetic field caused by lightening. However, besides natural electromagnetic fields (EMF), today human beings are mostly exposed to artificial electromagnetic fields due to technology progress and outspread use of electrical devices. To evaluate nuisance of EMF, it is necessary to know field intensity for every frequency which appears and compare it with allowed values. Low frequency EMF-s around transmission and distribution lines are time-varying quasi-static electromagnetic fields which have conservative component of low frequency electrical field caused by charges and eddy component of low frequency magnetic field caused by currents. Displacement current or field delay are negligible, so energy flow in quasi-static EMF involves diffusion, analog like heat transfer. Electrical and magnetic field can be analyzed separately. This paper analysis the numerical calculations in ELF-400 software of EMF in distribution substation in shopping center. Analyzing the results it is possible to specify locations exposed to the fields and give useful suggestion to eliminate electromagnetic effect or reduce it on acceptable level within the non-ionizing radiation norms and norms of protection from EMF.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Field, Density of Electromagnetic Flow, Place of Proffesional Exposure, Place of Increased Sensitivity

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622 Ribbon Beam Antenna for RFID Technology

Authors: T. Zalabsky, P. Bezousek, T. Shejbal

Abstract:

The paper describes new concept of the ribbon beam antenna for RFID technology. Antenna is located near to railway lines to monitor tags situated on trains. Antenna works at 2.45 GHz and it is fabricated by microstrip technology. Antenna contains two same mirrored parts having the same radiation patterns. Each part consists of three dielectric layers. The first layer has on one side radiation elements. The second layer is only for mechanical construction and it sets optimal electromagnetic field for each radiating elements. The third layer has on its top side a ground plane and on the bottom side a microstrip circuit used for individual radiation elements feeding.

Keywords: RFID, cosecant radiation pattern, ribbon beam, patch antenna, microstrip.

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621 Perturbations of the EM-field Meters Reading Caused by Flat Roof Security Wall

Authors: Alfonso Bahillo, Juan Blas, Santiago Mazuelas, Patricia Fernanadez, Ruben Mateo Lorenzo, Evaristo Jose Abril

Abstract:

The wide increase and diffusion on telecommunication technologies have caused a huge spread of electromagnetic sources in most European Countries. Since the public is continuously being exposed to electromagnetic radiation the possible health effects have become the focus of population concerns. As a result, electromagnetic field monitoring stations which control field strength in commercial frequency bands are being placed on the flat roof of many buildings. However there is no guidance on where to place them. This paper presents an analysis of frequency, polarization and angles of incidence of a plane wave which impinges on a flat roof security wall and its dependence on electromagnetic field strength meters placement.

Keywords: EM field exposition, EM field strength meter, FDTD method, flat roof security wall, plane wave propagation.

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620 Introduction to Electron Spectroscopy for Surfaces Characterization

Authors: Abdelkader Benzian

Abstract:

Spectroscopy is the study of the spectrum produced by the radiation-matter interaction which requires the study of electromagnetic radiation (or electrons) emitted, absorbed, or scattered by matter. Thus, the spectral analysis is using spectrometers which enables us to obtain curves that express the distribution of the energy emitted (spectrum). Analysis of emission spectra can therefore constitute several methods depending on the range of radiation energy. The most common methods used are Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Electron Energy Losses Spectroscopy (EELS), which allow the determination of the atomic structure on the surface. This paper focalized essentially on the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy.

Keywords: Dielectric, plasmon, mean free path, spectroscopy of electron energy losses.

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619 Efficiency Improvement for Conventional Rectangular Horn Antenna by Using EBG Technique

Authors: S. Kampeephat, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

Abstract:

The conventional rectangular horn has been used for microwave antenna a long time. Its gain can be increased by enlarging the construction of horn to flare exponentially. This paper presents a study of the shaped woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) to improve its gain for conventional horn without construction enlargement. The gain enhancement synthesis method for shaped woodpile EBG that has to transfer the electromagnetic fields from aperture of a horn antenna through woodpile EBG is presented by using the variety of shaped woodpile EBGs such as planar, triangular, quadratic, circular, gaussian, cosine, and squared cosine structures. The proposed technique has the advantages of low profile, low cost for fabrication and light weight. The antenna characteristics such as reflection coefficient (S11), radiation patterns and gain are simulated by utilized A Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. With the proposed concept, an antenna prototype was fabricated and experimented. The S11 and radiation patterns obtained from measurements show a good impedance matching and a gain enhancement of the proposed antenna. The gain at dominant frequency of 10 GHz is 25.6 dB, application for X- and Ku-Band Radar, that higher than the gain of the basic rectangular horn antenna around 8 dB with adding only one appropriated EBG structures.

Keywords: Conventional Rectangular Horn Antenna, Electromagnetic Band Gap, Gain Enhancement, X- and Ku-Band Radar.

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618 Analysis of the Effect of HV Transmission Lines on the Control Room and its Proposed Shielding

Authors: Diako Azizi, Hosein Heydari, Ahmad Gholami

Abstract:

Today with the rapid growth of telecommunications equipment, electronic and developing more and more networks of power, influence of electromagnetic waves on one another has become hot topic discussions. So in this article, this issue and appropriate mechanisms for EMC operations have been presented. First, impact of high voltage lines on the surrounding environment especially on the control room has been investigated, then to reduce electromagnetic radiation, various methods of shielding are provided and shielding effectiveness of them has been compared. It should be expressed that simulations have been done by the finite element method (FEM).

Keywords: Electrical field, EMC, field distribution, finite element method

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617 Identification of Impact of Electromagnetic Fields at Low and High Frequency on Human Body

Authors: P. Sowa

Abstract:

The article reviews the current state of large-scale studies about the impact of electromagnetic field on natural environment. The scenario of investigations – simulation of natural conditions at the workplace, taking into consideration the influence both low and high frequency electromagnetic fields is shown.The biological effects of low and high frequency electromagnetic fields are below presented. Results of investigation with animals are shown. The norms and regulations concerning the levels of electromagnetic field intensity are reviewed.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field and environment, biological effects of electric field on human body, simulation of natural condition at workplace

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616 Mitigation of Radiation Levels for Base Transceiver Stations based on ITU-T Recommendation K.70

Authors: Reyes C., Ramos B.

Abstract:

This essay presents applicative methods to reduce human exposure levels in the area around base transceiver stations in a environment with multiple sources based on ITU-T recommendation K.70. An example is presented to understand the mitigation techniques and their results and also to learn how they can be applied, especially in developing countries where there is not much research on non-ionizing radiations.

Keywords: Electromagnetic fields (EMF), human exposure limits, intentional radiator, cumulative exposure ratio, base transceiver station (BTS), radiation levels.

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615 Magneto-Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Electromagnetic Devices Using the Finite Element Method

Authors: Michael G. Pantelyat

Abstract:

Fundamental basics of pure and applied research in the area of magneto-thermo-mechanical numerical analysis and design of innovative electromagnetic devices (modern induction heaters, novel thermoelastic actuators, rotating electrical machines, induction cookers, electrophysical devices) are elaborated. Thus, mathematical models of magneto-thermo-mechanical processes in electromagnetic devices taking into account main interactions of interrelated phenomena are developed. In addition, graphical representation of coupled (multiphysics) phenomena under consideration is proposed. Besides, numerical techniques for nonlinear problems solution are developed. On this base, effective numerical algorithms for solution of actual problems of practical interest are proposed, validated and implemented in applied 2D and 3D computer codes developed. Many applied problems of practical interest regarding modern electrical engineering devices are numerically solved. Investigations of the influences of various interrelated physical phenomena (temperature dependences of material properties, thermal radiation, conditions of convective heat transfer, contact phenomena, etc.) on the accuracy of the electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses are conducted. Important practical recommendations on the choice of rational structures, materials and operation modes of electromagnetic devices under consideration are proposed and implemented in industry.

Keywords: Electromagnetic devices, multiphysics, numerical analysis, simulation and design.

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614 Analysis of the Shielding Effectiveness of Several Magnetic Shields

Authors: Diako Azizi, Hosein Heydari, Ahmad Gholami

Abstract:

Today with the rapid growth of telecommunications equipment, electronic and developing more and more networks of power, influence of electromagnetic waves on one another has become hot topic discussions. So in this article, this issue and appropriate mechanisms for EMC operations have been presented. First, a source of alternating current (50 Hz) and a clear victim in a certain distance from the source is placed. With this simple model, the effects of electromagnetic radiation from the source to the victim will be investigated and several methods to reduce these effects have been presented. Therefore passive and active shields have been used. In some steps, shielding effectiveness of proposed shields will be compared. . It should be noted that simulations have been done by the finite element method (FEM).

Keywords: Electrical field, field distribution, finite element method, shielding effectiveness

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613 A New Approach to Signal Processing for DC-Electromagnetic Flowmeters

Authors: Michael Schukat

Abstract:

Electromagnetic flowmeters with DC excitation are used for a wide range of fluid measurement tasks, but are rarely found in dosing applications with short measurement cycles due to the achievable accuracy. This paper will identify a number of factors that influence the accuracy of this sensor type when used for short-term measurements. Based on these results a new signal-processing algorithm will be described that overcomes the identified problems to some extend. This new method allows principally a higher accuracy of electromagnetic flowmeters with DC excitation than traditional methods.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Flowmeter, Kalman Filter, ShortMeasurement Cycles, Signal Estimation

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612 Potential of Solar Energy in Zarqa Region

Authors: Ali M. Jawarneh, Ahmad S. AL-Shyyab

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to present the potential of solar energy in Zarqa region. The solar radiation along year 2009 was obtained from Pyranometer which measures the global radiation over horizontal surfaces. Solar data in several different forms, over period of 5 minutes, hour-by-hour, daily and monthly data radiation have been presented. Briefly, the yearly global solar radiation in Zarqa is 7297.5 MJ/m2 (2027 kWh/m²) and the average annual solar radiation per day is 20 MJ/m2 (5.5 Kwh/m2). More specifically, the average annual solar radiation per day is 12.9 MJ/m2 (3.57 Kwh/m2) in winter and 25 MJ/m2 (7 Kwh/m2) in summer.

Keywords: Solar Energy, Pyranometer, Zarqa Region

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611 Solar Radiation Studies for Dubai and Sharjah, UAE

Authors: Muhammed A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh

Abstract:

Global Solar Radiation (H) for Dubai and Sharjah, Latitude 25.25oN, Longitude 55oE and 25.29oN, Longitude 55oE respectively have been studied using sunshine hour data (n) of the areas using various methods. These calculated global solar radiation values are then compared to the measured values presented by NASA. Furthermore, the extraterrestrial (H0), diffuse (Hd) and beam radiation (Hb) are also calculated. The diffuse radiation is calculated using methods proposed by Page and Liu and Jordan (L-J). Diffuse Radiation from the Page method is higher than the L-J method. Moreover, the clearness index (KT) signifies a clear sky almost all year round. Rainy days are hardly a few in a year and limited in the months December to March. The temperature remains between 25oC in winter to 44oC in summer and is desirable for thermal applications of solar energy. From the estimated results, it appears that solar radiation can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year for photovoltaic and thermal applications.

Keywords: Dubai, Sharjah, Global Solar Radiation, Diffuse Radiation

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610 Electromagnetic Field Modeling in Human Tissue

Authors: Iliana Marinova, Valentin Mateev

Abstract:

For investigations of electromagnetic field distributions in biological structures by Finite Element Method (FEM), a method for automatic 3D model building of human anatomical objects is developed. Models are made by meshed structures and specific electromagnetic material properties for each tissue type. Mesh is built according to specific FEM criteria for achieving good solution accuracy. Several FEM models of anatomical objects are built. Formulation using magnetic vector potential and scalar electric potential (A-V, A) is used for modeling of electromagnetic fields in human tissue objects. The developed models are suitable for investigations of electromagnetic field distributions in human tissues exposed in external fields during magnetic stimulation, defibrillation, impedance tomography etc.

Keywords: electromagnetic field, finite element method, humantissue.

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609 Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter

Authors: Priyanka R. Oberoi, Chandra B. Maurya, Prakash A. Mahanwar

Abstract:

Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.

Keywords: Bromophenol blue, dosimeter, gamma radiation, polymer.

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608 Magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell Nanofluids Flow over a Stretching Surface through a Porous Medium: Effects of Non-Linear Thermal Radiation, Convective Boundary Conditions and Heat Generation/Absorption

Authors: Sameh E. Ahmed, Ramadan A. Mohamed, Abd Elraheem M. Aly, Mahmoud S. Soliman

Abstract:

In this paper, an enhancement of the heat transfer using non-Newtonian nanofluids by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection along stretching sheets embedded in an isotropic porous medium is investigated. Case of the Maxwell nanofluids is studied using the two phase mathematical model of nanofluids and the Darcy model is applied for the porous medium. Important effects are taken into account, namely, non-linear thermal radiation, convective boundary conditions, electromagnetic force and presence of the heat source/sink. Suitable similarity transformations are used to convert the governing equations to a system of ordinary differential equations then it is solved numerically using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. The main results of the study revealed that the velocity profiles are decreasing functions of the Darcy number, the Deborah number and the magnetic field parameter. Also, the increase in the non-linear radiation parameters causes an enhancement in the local Nusselt number.

Keywords: MHD, nanofluids, stretching surface, non-linear thermal radiation, convective condition.

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607 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Characteristics for Stainless Wire Mesh and Number of Plies of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Seong Woo Hong, Min Jae Yu, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac

Abstract:

In this paper, the electromagnetic shielding characteristics of an up-to-date typical carbon filler material, carbon fiber used with a metal mesh were investigated. Carbon fiber 12k-prepregs, where carbon fibers were impregnated with epoxy, were laminated with wire meshes, vacuum bag-molded and hardened to manufacture hybrid-type specimens, with which an electromagnetic shield test was performed in accordance with ASTM D4935-10, through which was known as the most excellent reproducibility is obtainable among electromagnetic shield tests. In addition, glass fiber prepregs whose electromagnetic shielding effect were known as insignificant were laminated and formed with wire meshes to verify the validity of the electromagnetic shield effect of wire meshes in order to confirm the electromagnetic shielding effect of metal meshes corresponding existing carbon fiber 12k-prepregs. By grafting carbon fibers, on which studies are being actively underway in the environmental aspects and electromagnetic shielding effect, with hybrid-type wire meshes that were analysed through the tests, in this study, the applicability and possibility are proposed.

Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP), Stainless Wire Mesh, Electromagnetic Shielding.

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606 Beam and Diffuse Solar Energy in Zarqa City

Authors: Ali M. Jawarneh

Abstract:

Beam and diffuse radiation data are extracted analytically from previous measured data on a horizontal surface in Zarqa city. Moreover, radiation data on a tilted surfaces with different slopes have been derived and analyzed. These data are consisting of of beam contribution, diffuse contribution, and ground reflected contribution radiation. Hourly radiation data for horizontal surface possess the highest radiation values on June, and then the values decay as the slope increases and the sharp decreasing happened for vertical surface. The beam radiation on a horizontal surface owns the highest values comparing to diffuse radiation for all days of June. The total daily radiation on the tilted surface decreases with slopes. The beam radiation data also decays with slopes especially for vertical surface. Diffuse radiation slightly decreases with slopes with sharp decreases for vertical surface. The groundreflected radiation grows with slopes especially for vertical surface. It-s clear that in June the highest harvesting of solar energy occurred for horizontal surface, then the harvesting decreases as the slope increases.

Keywords: Beam and Diffuse Radiation, Zarqa City

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605 Developing a Statistical Model for Electromagnetic Environment for Mobile Wireless Networks

Authors: C. Temaneh Nyah

Abstract:

The analysis of electromagnetic environment using deterministic mathematical models is characterized by the impossibility of analyzing a large number of interacting network stations with a priori unknown parameters, and this is characteristic, for example, of mobile wireless communication networks. One of the tasks of the tools used in designing, planning and optimization of mobile wireless network is to carry out simulation of electromagnetic environment based on mathematical modelling methods, including computer experiment, and to estimate its effect on radio communication devices. This paper proposes the development of a statistical model of electromagnetic environment of a mobile wireless communication network by describing the parameters and factors affecting it including the propagation channel and their statistical models.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Environment, Statistical model, Wireless communication network.

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604 Linear-Operator Formalism in the Analysis of Omega Planar Layered Waveguides

Authors: António L. Topa

Abstract:

A complete spectral representation for the electromagnetic field of planar multilayered waveguides inhomogeneously filled with omega media is presented. The problem of guided electromagnetic propagation is reduced to an eigenvalue equation related to a 2 ´ 2 matrix differential operator. Using the concept of adjoint waveguide, general bi-orthogonality relations for the hybrid modes (either from the discrete or from the continuous spectrum) are derived. For the special case of homogeneous layers the linear operator formalism is reduced to a simple 2 ´ 2 coupling matrix eigenvalue problem. Finally, as an example of application, the surface and the radiation modes of a grounded omega slab waveguide are analyzed.

Keywords: Metamaterials, linear operators, omega media, layered waveguide, orthogonality relations

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603 A Model of a Heat Radiation on a Mould Surface in the Car Industry

Authors: J. Mlýnek, R. Srb

Abstract:

This article is focused on the calculation of heat radiation intensity and its optimization on an aluminum mould surface. The inside of the mould is sprinkled with a special powder and its outside is heated by infra heaters located above the mould surface, up to a temperature of 250°C. By this way artificial leathers in the car industry are produced (e. g. the artificial leather on a car dashboard). A mathematical model of heat radiation of infra heaters on a mould surface is described in this paper. This model allows us to calculate a heat-intensity radiation on the mould surface for the concrete location of infra heaters above the mould surface. It is necessary to ensure approximately the same heat intensity radiation on the mould surface by finding a suitable location for the infra heaters, and in this way the same material structure and color of artificial leather. In the model we have used a genetic algorithm to optimize the radiation intensity on the mould surface. Experimental measured values for the heat radiation intensity by a sensor in the surroundings of an infra heater are used for the calculation procedures. A computational procedure was programmed in language Matlab.

Keywords: Genetic algorithm, mathematical model of heat radiation, optimization of radiation intensity, software implementation

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602 Parameters of Main Stage of Discharge between Artificial Charged Aerosol Cloud and Ground in Presence of Model Hydrometeor Arrays

Authors: D. S. Zhuravkova, A. G. Temnikov, O. S. Belova, L. L. Chernensky, T. K. Gerastenok, I. Y. Kalugina, N. Y. Lysov, A.V. Orlov

Abstract:

Investigation of the discharges from the artificial charged water aerosol clouds in presence of the arrays of the model hydrometeors could help to receive the new data about the peculiarities of the return stroke formation between the thundercloud and the ground when the large volumes of the hail particles participate in the lightning discharge initiation and propagation stimulation. Artificial charged water aerosol clouds of the negative or positive polarity with the potential up to one million volts have been used. Hail has been simulated by the group of the conductive model hydrometeors of the different form. Parameters of the impulse current of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial positively and negatively charged water aerosol clouds and the ground in presence of the model hydrometeors array and of its corresponding electromagnetic radiation have been determined. It was established that the parameters of the array of the model hydrometeors influence on the parameters of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial thundercloud cell and the ground. The maximal values of the main stage current impulse parameters and the electromagnetic radiation registered by the plate antennas have been found for the array of the model hydrometeors of the cylinder revolution form for the negatively charged aerosol cloud and for the array of the hydrometeors of the plate rhombus form for the positively charged aerosol cloud, correspondingly. It was found that parameters of the main stage of the discharge between the artificial charged water aerosol cloud and the ground in presence of the model hydrometeor array of the different considered forms depend on the polarity of the artificial charged aerosol cloud. In average, for all forms of the investigated model hydrometeors arrays, the values of the amplitude and the current rise of the main stage impulse current and the amplitude of the corresponding electromagnetic radiation for the artificial charged aerosol cloud of the positive polarity were in 1.1-1.9 times higher than for the charged aerosol cloud of the negative polarity. Thus, the received results could indicate to the possible more important role of the big volumes of the large hail arrays in the thundercloud on the parameters of the return stroke for the positive lightning.

Keywords: Main stage of discharge, hydrometeor form, lightning parameters, negative and positive artificial charged aerosol cloud.

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601 FEM Investigation of Induction Heating System for Pipe Brazing

Authors: Ilona I. Iatcheva, Rumena D. Stancheva, Mario Metodiev

Abstract:

The paper deals with determination of electromagnetic and temperature field distribution of induction heating system used for pipe brazing. The problem is considered as coupled – time harmonic electromagnetic and transient thermal field. It has been solved using finite element method. The detailed maps of electromagnetic and thermal field distribution have been obtained. The good understanding of the processes in the considered system ensures possibilities for control, management and increasing the efficiency of the welding process.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field, temperature field, finiteelement method, induction heating, pipe brazing.

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600 Dynamics and Control of a Chaotic Electromagnetic System

Authors: Shun-Chang Chang

Abstract:

In this paper, different nonlinear dynamics analysis techniques are employed to unveil the rich nonlinear phenomena of the electromagnetic system. In particular, bifurcation diagrams, time responses, phase portraits, Poincare maps, power spectrum analysis, and the construction of basins of attraction are all powerful and effective tools for nonlinear dynamics problems. We also employ the method of Lyapunov exponents to show the occurrence of chaotic motion and to verify those numerical simulation results. Finally, two cases of a chaotic electromagnetic system being effectively controlled by a reference signal or being synchronized to another nonlinear electromagnetic system are presented.

Keywords: bifurcation, Poincare map, Lyapunov exponent, chaotic motion.

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599 Design and Simulation of Electromagnetic Flow Meter for Circular Pipe Type

Authors: M. Karamifard, M. Kazeminejad, A. Maghsoodloo

Abstract:

Electromagnetic flow meter by measuring the varying of magnetic flux, which is related to the velocity of conductive flow, can measure the rate of fluids very carefully and precisely. Electromagnetic flow meter operation is based on famous Faraday's second Law. In these equipments, the constant magnetostatic field is produced by electromagnet (winding around the tube) outside of pipe and inducting voltage that is due to conductive liquid flow is measured by electrodes located on two end side of the pipe wall. In this research, we consider to 2-dimensional mathematical model that can be solved by numerical finite difference (FD) solution approach to calculate induction potential between electrodes. The fundamental concept to design the electromagnetic flow meter, exciting winding and simulations are come out by using MATLAB and PDE-Tool software. In the last stage, simulations results will be shown for improvement and accuracy of technical provision.

Keywords: Electromagnetic Flow Meter, Induction Voltage, Finite Difference

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598 Radiation Workers’ Occupational Doses: Are We Really Careful or Overconscious

Authors: Sajjad A. Memon, Sadaf T. Qureshi, Naeem A. Laghari, Noor M. Khuhro

Abstract:

The present study represents the occupational radiation doses received by selected workers of Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA) Jamshoro Pakistan and conducted to discuss about how we be careful and try to avoid make ourselves overconscious. Film badges with unique identification number were issued to radiation worker to detect occupational radiation doses. In this study, only 08 workers with high radiation doses were assessed amongst 35 radiation workers during the period of January 2012 to December 2012. The selected radiation workers’ occupational doses were according to designated work areas and in the range of 1.21 to 7.78 mSv (mili Sieveret) out of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. By the comparison of different studies and earth’s HNBR (High Natural Background Radiation) locations’ doses, it is concluded that the worker’s high doses are of magnitude of HNBR Regions and were in the acceptable range of National and International regulatory bodies so we must not to show any type of overconsciousness but be careful in handling the radioactive sources.

Keywords: Natural background radiation, Occupational dose, Overconscious, Personal monitoring.

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