Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: Detonation initiation

89 The Study of Chain Initiation Effect on the Direct Initiation of Detonation

Authors: Masoud Afrand, Saeid Farahat, Mehdi Alamkar

Abstract:

In this research, effect of combustion reaction mechanism on direct initiation of detonation has been studied numerically. For this purpose, reaction mechanism has been simulated by using a three-step chemical kinetics model. The reaction scheme consists sequentially of a chain-initiation and chainbranching step, followed by a temperature -independent chaintermination. In a previous research, the effect of chain-branching on the direct initiation of detonation is studied. In this research effect of chain-initiation on direct initiation of detonation is investigated. For the investigation, first a characteristic time (τ) for each step of mechanism, which includes effect of different kinetics parameters, is defined. Then the effect of characteristic time of chain-initiation (τI) on critical initiation energy is studied. It is seen that increasing τI, causes critical initiation energy to be increased. Drawing detonation's shock pressure diagrams for different cases, shows that in small value of τI , kinetics has more important effect on the behavior of the wave.

Keywords: Detonation initiation, Initiation energy, Reaction rate, Characteristic time.

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88 Gas Detonation Forming by a Mixture of H2+O2 Detonation

Authors: Morteza Khaleghi Meybodi, Hossein Bisadi

Abstract:

Explosive forming is one of the unconventional techniques in which, most commonly, the water is used as the pressure transmission medium. One of the newest methods in explosive forming is gas detonation forming which uses a normal shock wave derived of gas detonation, to form sheet metals. For this purpose a detonation is developed from the reaction of H2+O2 mixture in a long cylindrical detonation tube. The detonation wave goes through the detonation tube and acts as a blast load on the steel blank and forms it. Experimental results are compared with a finite element model; and the comparison of the experimental and numerical results obtained from strain, thickness variation and deformed geometry is carried out. Numerical and experimental results showed approximately 75 – 90 % similarity in formability of desired shape. Also optimum percent of gas mixture obtained when we mix 68% H2 with 32% O2.

Keywords: Explosive forming, High strain rate, Gas detonation, Finite element analysis.

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87 Efficient Oxyhydrogen Mixture Determination in Gas Detonation Forming

Authors: Morteza Khaleghi, Babak Seyed Aghazadeh, Hosein Bisadi

Abstract:

Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of Hydrogen (H2) and Oxygen (O2) gases. Detonative mixtures of oxyhydrogens with various combinations of these two gases were used in Gas Detonation Forming (GDF) to form sheets of mild steel. In die forming experiments, three types of conical dies with apex angles of 60, 90 and 120 degrees were used. Pressure of mixtures inside the chamber before detonation was varied from 3 Bar to 5 Bar to investigate the effect of pre-detonation pressure in the forming process. On each conical die, several experiments with different percentages of Hydrogen were carried out to determine the optimum gaseous mixture. According to our results the best forming process occurred when approximately 50-70%. Hydrogen was employed in the mixture. Furthermore, the experimental results were compared to the ones from FEM analysis. The FEM simulation results of thickness strain, hoop strain, thickness variation and deformed geometry are promising.

Keywords: Sheet metal forming, Gas detonation, FEM, Oxyhydrogen

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86 Estimation of Shock Velocity and Pressure of Detonations and Finding Their Flow Parameters

Authors: Mahmoud Zarrini, R. N. Pralhad

Abstract:

In this paper, mathematical modeling of detonation in the ground is studied. Estimation of flow parameters such as velocity, maximum velocity, acceleration, maximum acceleration, shock pressure as a result of an explosion in the ground have been computed in an appropriate dynamic model approach. The variation of these parameters with the diameter of detonation place (L), density of earth or stone (¤ü), time decay of detonation (T), peak pressure (Pm), and time (t) have been analyzed. The model has been developed from the concept of underwater explosions [Refs. [1]-[3]] with appropriate changes to the present model requirements.

Keywords: Shock velocity, detonation, shock acceleration, shock pressure.

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85 Fatigue Crack Initiation of Al-Alloys “Effect of Heat Treatment Condition”

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this investigation an empirical study was made on fatigue crack initiation on 7075 T6 and 7075 T71 Al-alloys under constant amplitude loading. In initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was applied. Single Edge Notch Tensile specimen with semi circular notch is used. Based on experimental results, effect of mean stress, is highlights on fatigue initiation life. Results show that fatigue life initiation is affected by notch geometry and mean stress. 

Keywords: Fatigue crack initiation, Al-Alloy, mean stress, heat treatment state.

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84 Investigating the Fatigue Crack Initiation Location in Interference Fitted and/or bolt Clamped Al 2024-T3 Double Shear Lap Joints

Authors: Babak Abazadeh, Hadi Rezghi Maleki

Abstract:

In this paper the fatigue crack initiation location of double shear lap joints, treated by interference fit and bolt clamping, have been investigated both experimentally and numerically. To do so, using the fracture section of available fatigue tested specimens of interference fitted and torque tightened Aluminum 2024-T3 plates, the crack initiation location was determined. The stress distribution attained from the finite element analysis was used to help explain the results observed in the experimental tests. The results showed that the fatigue crack initiation location changes from top and mid plane at the hole edge to somewhere far from the hole edge (stress concentration region) in different combination of clamping force, interference fit size and applied cyclic load ranges. It is worth mentioning that the fatigue crack initiation location affects the fatigue life of the specimens too.

Keywords: Fatigue crack initiation, interference fit, bolt clamping, double shear lap joint.

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83 Stress Ratio and Notch Effect on Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation in 2024 Al-alloy

Authors: N. Benachour, A. Hadjoui, M. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

This study reports an empirical investigation of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in 2024 T351 aluminium alloy using constant amplitude loading. In initiation stage, local strain approach at the notch was used and in stable propagation stage NASGRO model was applied. In this investigation, the flat plate of double through crack at hole is used. Based on experimental results (AFGROW Database), effect of stress ratio, R, is highlights on fatigue initiation life (FIL) and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR). The increasing of dimension of hole characterizing the notch effect decrease the fatigue life.

Keywords: Fatigue crack growth, initiation life, Al-Alloy, stressratio, notch effect

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82 Slug Initiation Evaluation in Long Horizontal Channels Experimentally

Authors: P. Adibi, M. R. Ansari, S. Jafari, B. Habibpour, E. Salimi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of gas and liquid superficial inlet velocities and for the first time the effect of liquid holdup on slug initiation position are studied experimentally. Empirical correlations are also presented based on the obtained results. The tests are conducted for three liquid holdups in a long horizontal channel with dimensions of 5cm10cm and 36m length. Usl and Usg rated as to 0.11m/s to 0.56m/s and 1.88m/s to 13m/s, respectively. The obtained results show that as αl=0.25, slug initiation position is increasing monotonically with Usl and Usg. During αl=0.50, slug initiation position is almost constant. For αl=0.75, slug initiation position is decreasing monotonically with Usl and Usg. In the case of equal void fraction of phases, generated slugs are weakly (low pressure). However, for the unequal void fraction of phases strong slugs (high pressure) are formed.

Keywords: Liquid holdup, Long horizontal channel, Slug initiation position, Superficial inlet velocity.

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81 Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation through Residual Stress Field

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour, M. Benguediab

Abstract:

In this paper fatigue crack initiation and propagation in notched plate under constant amplitude loading through tensile residual stress field of 2024 T351 Al-alloy plate were investigated. Residual stress field was generated by plastic deformation using finite element method (FEM) where isotropic hardening in Von Mises model was applied. Simulation of fatigue behavior was made on AFGROW code. It was shown that the fatigue crack initiation and propagation were affected by level of residual stress filed. In this investigation, the presence of tensile residual stresses at notch (hole) reduces considerably the total fatigue life. It was shown that the decreasing in stress reduces the fatigue crack growth rates.

Keywords: Residual stress, fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, Al-alloy.

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80 Methodologies for Crack Initiation in Welded Joints Applied to Inspection Planning

Authors: Guang Zou, Kian Banisoleiman, Arturo González

Abstract:

Crack initiation and propagation threatens structural integrity of welded joints and normally inspections are assigned based on crack propagation models. However, the approach based on crack propagation models may not be applicable for some high-quality welded joints, because the initial flaws in them may be so small that it may take long time for the flaws to develop into a detectable size. This raises a concern regarding the inspection planning of high-quality welded joins, as there is no generally acceptable approach for modeling the whole fatigue process that includes the crack initiation period. In order to address the issue, this paper reviews treatment methods for crack initiation period and initial crack size in crack propagation models applied to inspection planning. Generally, there are four approaches, by: 1) Neglecting the crack initiation period and fitting a probabilistic distribution for initial crack size based on statistical data; 2) Extrapolating the crack propagation stage to a very small fictitious initial crack size, so that the whole fatigue process can be modeled by crack propagation models; 3) Assuming a fixed detectable initial crack size and fitting a probabilistic distribution for crack initiation time based on specimen tests; and, 4) Modeling the crack initiation and propagation stage separately using small crack growth theories and Paris law or similar models. The conclusion is that in view of trade-off between accuracy and computation efforts, calibration of a small fictitious initial crack size to S-N curves is the most efficient approach.

Keywords: Crack initiation, fatigue reliability, inspection planning, welded joints.

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79 Numerical Modelling of Crack Initiation around a Wellbore Due to Explosion

Authors: Meysam Lak, Mohammad Fatehi Marji, Alireza Yarahamdi Bafghi, Abolfazl Abdollahipour

Abstract:

A wellbore is a hole that is drilled to aid in the exploration and recovery of natural resources including oil and gas. Occasionally, in order to increase productivity index and porosity of the wellbore and reservoir, the well stimulation methods have been used. Hydraulic fracturing is one of these methods. Moreover, several explosions at the end of the well can stimulate the reservoir and create fractures around it. In this study, crack initiation in rock around the wellbore has been numerically modeled due to explosion. One, two, three, and four pairs of explosion have been set at the end of the wellbore on its wall. After each stage of the explosion, results have been presented and discussed. Results show that this method can initiate and probably propagate several fractures around the wellbore.

Keywords: Crack initiation, explosion, finite difference modelling, well productivity.

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78 Failure Analysis of a Medium Duty Vehicle Leaf Spring

Authors: Gül Çevik

Abstract:

This paper summarizes the work conducted to assess the root cause of the failure of a medium commercial vehicle leaf spring failed in service. Macro- and micro-fractographic analyses by scanning electron microscope as well as material verification tests were conducted in order to understand the failure mechanisms and root cause of the failure. Findings from the fractographic analyses indicated that failure mechanism is fatigue. Crack initiation was identified to have occurred from a point on the top surface near to the front face and to the left side. Two other crack initiation points were also observed, however, these cracks did not propagate. The propagation mode of the fatigue crack revealed that the cyclic loads resulting in crack initiation and propagation were unidirectional bending. Fractographic analyses have also showed that the root cause of the fatigue crack initiation and propagation was loading the part above design stress. Material properties of the part were also verified by chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and hardness tests.

Keywords: Leaf spring, failure analysis, fatigue, fractography.

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77 Influence of Model Hydrometeor Form on Probability of Discharge Initiation from Artificial Charged Water Aerosol Cloud

Authors: A. G. Temnikov, O. S. Belova, L. L. Chernensky, T. K. Gerastenok, N. Y. Lysov, A. V. Orlov, D. S. Zhuravkova

Abstract:

Hypothesis of the lightning initiation on the arrays of large hydrometeors are in the consideration. There is no agreement about the form the hydrometeors that could be the best for the lightning initiation from the thundercloud. Artificial charged water aerosol clouds of the positive or negative polarity could help investigate the possible influence of the hydrometeor form on the peculiarities and the probability of the lightning discharge initiation between the thundercloud and the ground. Artificial charged aerosol clouds that could create the electric field strength in the range of 5-6 kV/cm to 16-18 kV/cm have been used in experiments. The array of the model hydrometeors of the volume and plate form has been disposed near the bottom cloud boundary. It was established that the different kinds of the discharge could be initiated in the presence of the model hydrometeors array – from the cloud discharges up to the diffuse and channel discharges between the charged cloud and the ground. It was found that the form of the model hydrometeors could significantly influence the channel discharge initiation from the artificial charged aerosol cloud of the negative or positive polarity correspondingly. Analysis and generalization of the experimental results have shown that the maximal probability of the channel discharge initiation and propagation stimulation has been observed for the artificial charged cloud of the positive polarity when the arrays of the model hydrometeors of the cylinder revolution form have been used. At the same time, for the artificial charged clouds of the negative polarity, application of the model hydrometeor array of the plate rhombus form has provided the maximal probability of the channel discharge formation between the charged cloud and the ground. The established influence of the form of the model hydrometeors on the channel discharge initiation and from the artificial charged water aerosol cloud and its following successful propagation has been related with the different character of the positive and negative streamer and volume leader development on the model hydrometeors array being near the bottom boundary of the charged cloud. The received experimental results have shown the possibly important role of the form of the large hail particles precipitated in thundercloud on the discharge initiation.

Keywords: Cloud and channel discharges, hydrometeor form, lightning initiation, negative and positive artificial charged aerosol cloud.

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76 Predicting Crack Initiation Due to Ratchetting in Rail Heads Using Critical Element Analysis

Authors: I. U. Wickramasinghe, D. J. Hargreaves, D. V. De Pellegrin

Abstract:

This paper presents a strategy to predict the lifetime of rails subjected to large rolling contact loads that induce ratchetting strains in the rail head. A critical element concept is used to calculate the number of loading cycles needed for crack initiation to occur in the rail head surface. In this technique the finite element method (FEM) is used to determine the maximum equivalent ratchetting strain per load cycle, which is calculated by combining longitudinal and shear stains in the critical element. This technique builds on a previously developed critical plane concept that has been used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation in rolling contact fatigue under ratchetting failure conditions. The critical element concept simplifies the analytical difficulties of critical plane analysis. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to identify the critical element in the mesh, and then the strain values of the critical element are used to calculate the ratchetting rate analytically. Finally, a ratchetting criterion is used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation from the ratchetting rate calculated.

Keywords: Critical element analysis, finite element modeling (FEM), wheel/rail contact.

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75 Substantial Fatigue Similarity of a New Small-Scale Test Rig to Actual Wheel-Rail System

Authors: Meysam Naeimi, Zili Li, Roumen Petrov, Rolf Dollevoet, Jilt Sietsma, Jun Wu

Abstract:

The substantial similarity of fatigue mechanism in a new test rig for rolling contact fatigue (RCF) has been investigated. A new reduced-scale test rig is designed to perform controlled RCF tests in wheel-rail materials. The fatigue mechanism of the rig is evaluated in this study using a combined finite element-fatigue prediction approach. The influences of loading conditions on fatigue crack initiation have been studied. Furthermore, the effects of some artificial defects (squat-shape) on fatigue lives are examined. To simulate the vehicle-track interaction by means of the test rig, a threedimensional finite element (FE) model is built up. The nonlinear material behaviour of the rail steel is modelled in the contact interface. The results of FE simulations are combined with the critical plane concept to determine the material points with the greatest possibility of fatigue failure. Based on the stress-strain responses, by employing of previously postulated criteria for fatigue crack initiation (plastic shakedown and ratchetting), fatigue life analysis is carried out. The results are reported for various loading conditions and different defect sizes. Afterward, the cyclic mechanism of the test rig is evaluated from the operational viewpoint. The results of fatigue life predictions are compared with the expected number of cycles of the test rig by its cyclic nature. Finally, the estimative duration of the experiments until fatigue crack initiation is roughly determined.

Keywords: Fatigue, test rig, crack initiation, life, rail, squats.

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74 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari

Abstract:

Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: Rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic, finite element modeling, reliability analysis.

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73 Multiaxial Fatigue Analysis of a High Performance Nickel-Based Superalloy

Authors: P. Selva, B. Lorrain, J. Alexis, A. Seror, A. Longuet, C. Mary, F. Denard

Abstract:

Over the past four decades, the fatigue behavior of nickel-based alloys has been widely studied. However, in recent years, significant advances in the fabrication process leading to grain size reduction have been made in order to improve fatigue properties of aircraft turbine discs. Indeed, a change in particle size affects the initiation mode of fatigue cracks as well as the fatigue life of the material. The present study aims to investigate the fatigue behavior of a newly developed nickel-based superalloy under biaxial-planar loading. Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) tests are performed at different stress ratios so as to study the influence of the multiaxial stress state on the fatigue life of the material. Full-field displacement and strain measurements as well as crack initiation detection are obtained using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques. The aim of this presentation is first to provide an in-depth description of both the experimental set-up and protocol: the multiaxial testing machine, the specific design of the cruciform specimen and performances of the DIC code are introduced. Second, results for sixteen specimens related to different load ratios are presented. Crack detection, strain amplitude and number of cycles to crack initiation vs. triaxial stress ratio for each loading case are given. Third, from fractographic investigations by scanning electron microscopy it is found that the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation does not depend on the triaxial stress ratio and that most fatigue cracks initiate from subsurface carbides.

Keywords: Cruciform specimen, multiaxial fatigue, Nickelbased superalloy.

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72 A Study for the Effect of Fire Initiated Location on Evacuation Success Rate

Authors: Jin A Ryu, Ga Ye Kim, Hee Sun Kim

Abstract:

As the number of fire accidents is gradually raising, many studies have been reported on evacuation. Previous studies have mostly focused on evaluating the safety of evacuation and the risk of fire in particular buildings. However, studies on effects of various parameters on evacuation have not been nearly done. Therefore, this paper aims at observing evacuation time under the effect of fire initiated location. In this study, evacuation simulations are performed on a 5-floor building located in Seoul, South Korea using the commercial program, Fire Dynamics Simulator with Evacuation (FDS+EVAC). Only the fourth and fifth floors are modeled with an assumption that fire starts in a room located on the fourth floor. The parameter for evacuation simulations is location of fire initiation to observe the evacuation time and safety. Results show that the location of fire initiation is closer to exit, the more time is taken to evacuate. The case having the nearest location of fire initiation to exit has the lowest ratio of successful occupants to the total occupants. In addition, for safety evaluation, the evacuation time calculated from computer simulation model is compared with the tolerable evacuation time according to code in Japan. As a result, all cases are completed within the tolerable evacuation time. This study allows predicting evacuation time under various conditions of fire and can be used to evaluate evacuation appropriateness and fire safety of building.

Keywords: Evacuation safety, Evacuation simulation, FDS+Evac, Time.

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71 An Overview of Handoff Techniques in Cellular Networks

Authors: Nasıf Ekiz, Tara Salih, Sibel Küçüköner, Kemal Fidanboylu

Abstract:

Continuation of an active call is one of the most important quality measurements in the cellular systems. Handoff process enables a cellular system to provide such a facility by transferring an active call from one cell to another. Different approaches are proposed and applied in order to achieve better handoff service. The principal parameters used to evaluate handoff techniques are: forced termination probability and call blocking probability. The mechanisms such as guard channels and queuing handoff calls decrease the forced termination probability while increasing the call blocking probability. In this paper we present an overview about the issues related to handoff initiation and decision and discuss about different types of handoff techniques available in the literature.

Keywords: Handoff, Forced Termination Probability, Blocking probability, Handoff Initiation, Handoff Decision, Handoff Prioritization Schemes.

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70 Formal Specification and Description Language and Message Sequence Chart to Model and Validate Session Initiation Protocol Services

Authors: Sa’ed Abed, Mohammad H. Al Shayeji, Ovais Ahmed, Sahel Alouneh

Abstract:

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling layer protocol for building, adjusting and ending sessions among participants including Internet conferences, telephone calls and multimedia distribution. SIP facilitates user movement by proxying and forwarding requests to the present location of the user. In this paper, we provide a formal Specification and Description Language (SDL) and Message Sequence Chart (MSC) to model and define the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) SIP protocol and its sample services resulted from informal SIP specification. We create an “Abstract User Interface” using case analysis so that can be applied to identify SIP services more explicitly. The issued sample SIP features are then used as case scenarios; they are revised in MSCs format and validated to their corresponding SDL models.

Keywords: Modeling, MSC, SDL, SIP, validating.

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69 Estimation of the Spent Fuel Pool Water Temperature at a Loss-of-Pool-Cooling Accident

Authors: Chan Hee Park, Arim Lee, Jung Min Lee, Joo Hyun Moon

Abstract:

Accident in spent fuel pool (SFP) of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 4 showed the importance of continuous monitoring of the key environmental parameters such as water temperature, water level, and radiation level in the SFP at accident conditions. Because the SFP water temperature is one of the key parameters indicating SFP conditions, its behavior at accident conditions shall be understood to prepare appropriate measures. This study estimated temporal change in the SFP water temperature at Kori Unit 1 with 587 MWe for 1 hour after initiation of a loss-of-pool-cooling accident. For the estimation, ANSYS CFX 13.0 code was used. The estimation showed that the increasing rate of the water temperature was 3.90C per hour and the SFP water temperature could reach 1000C in 25.6 hours after the initiation of loss-of-pool-cooling accident.

Keywords: Spent fuel pool, water temperature, Kori Unit 1, a loss-of-pool-cooling accident.

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68 Slug Tracking Simulation of Severe Slugging Experiments

Authors: Tor Kindsbekken Kjeldby, Ruud Henkes, Ole Jørgen Nydal

Abstract:

Experimental data from an atmospheric air/water terrain slugging case has been made available by the Shell Amsterdam research center, and has been subject to numerical simulation and comparison with a one-dimensional two-phase slug tracking simulator under development at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The code is based on tracking of liquid slugs in pipelines by use of a Lagrangian grid formulation implemented in Cµ by use of object oriented techniques. An existing hybrid spatial discretization scheme is tested, in which the stratified regions are modelled by the two-fluid model. The slug regions are treated incompressible, thus requiring a single momentum balance over the whole slug. Upon comparison with the experimental data, the period of the simulated severe slugging cycle is observed to be sensitive to slug generation in the horizontal parts of the system. Two different slug initiation methods have been tested with the slug tracking code, and grid dependency has been investigated.

Keywords: Hydrodynamic initiation, slug tracking, terrain slugging, two-fluid model, two-phase flow.

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67 Investigating the Possible use of Session Initiation Protocol for Extending Mobility Service to the Biomedical Engineers

Authors: Anwar Sadat

Abstract:

Today, the Internet based communication has widen the opportunity of event monitoring system in the medical field. There is always a need of analyzing and designing secure and reliable mobile communication between the hospital and biomedical engineers mobile units. This study has been carried out to find possible solution using SIP-based event notification for alerting the technical staff about the Biomedical Device (BMD) status and Patients treatment session. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) can be used to create a medical event notification system. SIP can work on a variety of devices. Its adoption as the protocol of choice for third generation wireless networks allows for a robust and scalable environment. One of the advantages of SIP is that it supports personal mobility through the separation of user addressing and device addressing. The solution for Telemed alert notification system is based on SIP - Specific Event Notification. The aim of this project is to extend mobility service to the hospital technicians who are using Telemedicine system.

Keywords: Biomedical, Mobility Service, Notify, Proxy Server, SIP, Subscribe, Telemedicine.

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66 Precipitation Intensity: Duration Based Threshold Analysis for Initiation of Landslides in Upper Alaknanda Valley

Authors: Soumiya Bhattacharjee, P. K. Champati Ray, Shovan L. Chattoraj, Mrinmoy Dhara

Abstract:

The entire Himalayan range is globally renowned for rainfall-induced landslides. The prime focus of the study is to determine rainfall based threshold for initiation of landslides that can be used as an important component of an early warning system for alerting stake holders. This research deals with temporal dimension of slope failures due to extreme rainfall events along the National Highway-58 from Karanprayag to Badrinath in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. Post processed 3-hourly rainfall intensity data and its corresponding duration from daily rainfall data available from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) were used as the prime source of rainfall data. Landslide event records from Border Road Organization (BRO) and some ancillary landslide inventory data for 2013 and 2014 have been used to determine Intensity Duration (ID) based rainfall threshold. The derived governing threshold equation, I= 4.738D-0.025, has been considered for prediction of landslides of the study region. This equation was validated with an accuracy of 70% landslides during August and September 2014. The derived equation was considered for further prediction of landslides of the study region. From the obtained results and validation, it can be inferred that this equation can be used for initiation of landslides in the study area to work as a part of an early warning system. Results can significantly improve with ground based rainfall estimates and better database on landslide records. Thus, the study has demonstrated a very low cost method to get first-hand information on possibility of impending landslide in any region, thereby providing alert and better preparedness for landslide disaster mitigation.

Keywords: Landslide, intensity-duration, rainfall threshold, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, slope, inventory, early warning system.

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65 Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as a New Organic Filler for Electrical Tree Inhibition

Authors: M. H. Ahmad, A. A. A. Jamil, H. Ahmad, M. A. M. Piah, A. Darus, Y. Z. Arief, N. Bashir

Abstract:

The use of synthetic retardants in polymeric insulated cables is not uncommon in the high voltage engineering to study electrical treeing phenomenon. However few studies on organic materials for the same investigation have been carried. .This paper describes the study on the effects of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) microfiller on the tree initiation and propagation in silicone rubber with different weight percentages (wt %) of filler to insulation bulk material. The weight percentages used were 0 wt % and 1 wt % respectively. It was found that the OPEFB retards the propagation of the electrical treeing development. For tree inception study, the addition of 1(wt %) OPEFB has increase the tree inception voltage of silicone rubber. So, OPEFB is a potential retardant to the initiation and growth of electrical treeing occurring in polymeric materials for high voltage application. However more studies on the effects of physical and electrical properties of OPEFB as a tree retardant material are required.

Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch, electrical tree, siliconerubber, fillers.

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64 Modeling of Session Initiation Protocol Invite Transaction using Colored Petri Nets

Authors: Sabina Baraković, Dragan Jevtić, Jasmina Baraković Husić

Abstract:

Wireless mobile communications have experienced the phenomenal growth through last decades. The advances in wireless mobile technologies have brought about a demand for high quality multimedia applications and services. For such applications and services to work, signaling protocol is required for establishing, maintaining and tearing down multimedia sessions. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application layer signaling protocols, based on request/response transaction model. This paper considers SIP INVITE transaction over an unreliable medium, since it has been recently modified in Request for Comments (RFC) 6026. In order to help in assuring that the functional correctness of this modification is achieved, the SIP INVITE transaction is modeled and analyzed using Colored Petri Nets (CPNs). Based on the model analysis, it is concluded that the SIP INVITE transaction is free of livelocks and dead codes, and in the same time it has both desirable and undesirable deadlocks. Therefore, SIP INVITE transaction should be subjected for additional updates in order to eliminate undesirable deadlocks. In order to reduce the cost of implementation and maintenance of SIP, additional remodeling of the SIP INVITE transaction is recommended.

Keywords: Colored Petri Nets, SIP INVITE, state space, dead marking

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63 A FEM Study of Explosive Welding of Double Layer Tubes

Authors: R. Alipour, F.Najarian

Abstract:

Explosive welding is a process which uses explosive detonation to move the flyer plate material into the base material to produce a solid state joint. Experimental tests have been carried out by other researchers; have been considered to explosively welded aluminium 7039 and steel 4340 tubes in one step. The tests have been done using various stand-off distances and explosive ratios. Various interface geometries have been obtained from these experiments. In this paper, all the experiments carried out were simulated using the finite element method. The flyer plate and collision velocities obtained from the analysis were validated by the pin-measurement experiments. The numerical results showed that very high localized plastic deformation produced at the bond interface. The Ls_dyna_971 FEM has been used for all simulation process.

Keywords: Explosive Welding, Johnson-Cook Equation, Finite Element, JWL Equation.

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62 Analytical Development of a Failure Limit and Iso-Uplift Curves for Eccentrically Loaded Shallow Foundations

Authors: N. Abbas, S. Lagomarsino, S. Cattari

Abstract:

Examining existing experimental results for shallow rigid foundations subjected to vertical centric load (N), accompanied or not with a bending moment (M), two main non-linear mechanisms governing the cyclic response of the soil-foundation system can be distinguished: foundation uplift and soil yielding. A soil-foundation failure limit, is defined as a domain of resistance in the two dimensional (2D) load space (N, M) inside of which lie all the admissible combinations of loads; these latter correspond to a pure elastic, non-linear elastic or plastic behavior of the soil-foundation system, while the points lying on the failure limit correspond to a combination of loads leading to a failure of the soil-foundation system. In this study, the proposed resistance domain is constructed analytically based on mechanics. Original elastic limit, uplift initiation limit and iso-uplift limits are constructed inside this domain. These limits give a prediction of the mechanisms activated for each combination of loads applied to the foundation. A comparison of the proposed failure limit with experimental tests existing in the literature shows interesting results. Also, the developed uplift initiation limit and iso-uplift curves are confronted with others already proposed in the literature and widely used due to the absence of other alternatives, and remarkable differences are noted, showing evident errors in the past proposals and relevant accuracy for those given in the present work.

Keywords: Foundation uplift, Iso-uplift curves, Resistance domain, Soil yield.

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61 Amplification of Compression Waves in Clean and Bubbly Liquid

Authors: Robert I. Nigmatulin, Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Nailya K. Vakhitova, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Svetlana I. Konovalova, Nikolai A. Makhota

Abstract:

The theoretical investigation is carried out to describe the effect of increase of pressure waves amplitude in clean and bubbly liquid. The goal of the work is to capture the regime of multiple magnification of acoustic and shock waves in the liquid, which enables to get appropriate conditions to enlarge collapses of micro-bubbles. The influence of boundary conditions and frequency of the governing acoustic field is studied for the case of the cylindrical acoustic resonator. It has been observed the formation of standing waves with large amplitude at resonant frequencies. The interaction of the compression wave with gas and vapor bubbles is investigated for the convergent channel. It is shown theoretically that the chemical reactions, which occur inside gas bubbles, provide additional impulse to the wave, that affect strongly on the collapses of the vapor bubbles

Keywords: acoustics, cavitation, detonation, shock waves

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60 Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Methodology for Solid Fan Blades and Discs

Authors: Andrej Golowin, Viktor Denk, Axel Riepe

Abstract:

Solid fan blades and discs in aero engines are subjected to high combined low and high cycle fatigue loads especially around the contact areas between blade and disc. Therefore, special coatings (e.g. dry film lubricant) and surface treatments (e.g. shot peening or laser shock peening) are applied to increase the strength with respect to combined cyclic fatigue and fretting fatigue, but also to improve damage tolerance capability. The traditional deterministic damage tolerance assessment based on fracture mechanics analysis, which treats service damage as an initial crack, often gives overly conservative results especially in the presence of vibratory stresses. A probabilistic damage tolerance methodology using crack initiation data has been developed for fan discs exposed to relatively high vibratory stresses in cross- and tail-wind conditions at certain resonance speeds for limited time periods. This Monte-Carlo based method uses a damage databank from similar designs, measured vibration levels at typical aircraft operations and wind conditions and experimental crack initiation data derived from testing of artificially damaged specimens with representative surface treatment under combined fatigue conditions. The proposed methodology leads to a more realistic prediction of the minimum damage tolerance life for the most critical locations applicable to modern fan disc designs.

Keywords: Damage tolerance, Monte-Carlo method, fan blade and disc, laser shock peening.

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