Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2432

Search results for: carcass characteristics

2432 Effect of L-Dopa on Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens

Authors: B. R. O. Omidiwura, A. F. Agboola, E. A. Iyayi

Abstract:

Pure form of L-Dopa is used to enhance muscular development, fat breakdown and suppress Parkinson disease in humans. However, the L-Dopa in mucuna seed, when present with other antinutritional factors, causes nutritional disorders in monogastric animals. Information on the utilisation of pure L-Dopa in monogastric animals is scanty. Therefore, effect of L-Dopa on growth performance and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens was investigated. Two hundred and forty one-day-old chicks were allotted to six treatments, which consisted of a positive control (PC) with standard energy (3100Kcal/Kg) and negative control (NC) with high energy (3500Kcal/Kg). The rest 4 diets were NC+0.1, NC+0.2, NC+0.3 and NC+0.4% L-Dopa, respectively. All treatments had 4 replicates in a completely randomized design. Body weight gain, final weight, feed intake, dressed weight and carcass characteristics were determined. Body weight gain and final weight of birds fed PC were 1791.0 and 1830.0g, NC+0.1% L-Dopa were 1827.7 and 1866.7g and NC+0.2% L-Dopa were 1871.9 and 1910.9g respectively, and the feed intake of PC (3231.5g), were better than other treatments. The dressed weight at 1375.0g and 1357.1g of birds fed NC+0.1% and NC+0.2% L-Dopa, respectively, were similar but better than other treatments. Also, the thigh (202.5g and 194.9g) and the breast meat (413.8g and 410.8g) of birds fed NC+0.1% and NC+0.2% L-Dopa, respectively, were similar but better than birds fed other treatments. The drum stick of birds fed NC+0.1% L-Dopa (220.5g) was observed to be better than birds on other diets. Meat to bone ratio and relative organ weights were not affected across treatments. L-Dopa extract, at levels tested, had no detrimental effect on broilers, rather better bird performance and carcass characteristics were observed especially at 0.1% and 0.2% L-Dopa inclusion rates. Therefore, 0.2% inclusion is recommended in diets of broiler chickens for improved performance and carcass characteristics.

Keywords: Broilers, Carcass characteristics, L-Dopa, performance.

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2431 Slaughter and Carcass Characterization, and Sensory Qualities of Native, Pure, and Upgraded Breeds of Goat Raised in the Philippines

Authors: Jonathan N. Nayga, Emelita B. Valdez, Mila R. Andres, Beulah B. Estrada, Emelina A. Lopez, Rogelio B. Tamayo, Aubrey Joy M. Balbin

Abstract:

Goat production is one of the activities included in integrated farming in the Philippines. Goats are raised for its meat and regardless of breed the animal is slaughtered for this purpose. In order to document the carcass yield of different goats slaughtered, five (5) different breeds of goats to include Purebred Boer and Anglo-nubian, Crossbred Boer and Anglo-nubian and Philippine Native goat were used in the study. Data on slaughter parameters, carcass characteristics, and sensory evaluation were gathered and analyzed using Complete Random Design (CRD) at 5% level of significance and the results of carcass conformation were assessed descriptively. Results showed that slaughter data such as slaughter/live weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, dressing percentage and percentage drip loss were significantly different (P>0.05) among breeds. On carcass and meat characteristics, pure breed and upgraded Boer were found to be moderately muscular while Native goat was rated as thin muscular. The color of the carcass also revealed that Purebred and crossbred Boer were described dark red, while Native goat was noted to be slightly pale. On sensory evaluation, the results indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among breeds evaluated. It is therefore concluded that purebred goat has heavier carcass, while both purebred Boer and upgrade are rated slightly muscular. It is further confirms that regardless of breed, goat will have the same sensory characteristics. Thus, it is recommended to slaughter heavier goats to obtain more carcasses with better conformation and quality.

Keywords: Carcass quality, goat, sensory evaluation, slaughter.

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2430 Effect of Periodically Use of Garlic (Allium sativum) Powder on Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens

Authors: M. Raeesi, S. A. Hoseini- Aliabad, A. Roofchaee, A. Zare Shahneh, S. Pirali

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of periodically use of garlic on performance and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens. 240 1-day-old Ross broiler chicks randomly allocated into the 10 dietary treatments (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and J) for 6 wk. Treatment A or control group, received basal diet (based on standards of Ross management guidelines) without supplementation of garlic powder while B, C and D dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0.5, 1 and 3% garlic powder, respectively for the whole time of experiment (6 weeks). Birds in group E, F and G were fed control diet supplemented with 0.5, 1 and 3% garlic powder, respectively just in their starter diet (0- 21d). Birds in three other treatments (H, I and J) received control diet for the first 21 days and 0.5, 1 and 3% of garlic powder was added to their finisher diets, respectively. 1 and 3% supplemented groups in finisher period had better performance as compared with other groups. Since present study conducted in optimum and antiseptic conditions, it seems that better or more responses could be expected in performance if the raising conditions would not be healthy.

Keywords: Garlic powder, periodically use, broiler chickens, carcass characteristics

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2429 Influence of Dietary Inclusion of Butyric Acids, Calcium Formate, Organic Acids and Its Salts on Rabbits Productive Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality

Authors: V. Viliene, A. Raceviciute-Stupeliene, V. Sasyte, V. Slausgalvis, R. Gruzauskas, J. Al-Saifi

Abstract:

Animal nutritionists and scientists have searched for alternative measures to improve the production. One of such alternative is use of organic acids as feed additive in animal nutrition. The study was conducted to investigate the impact of butyric acids, calcium formate, organic acids, and its salts (BCOS) additives on rabbit’s productive performance, carcass traits and meat quality. The study was conducted with 14 Californian breed rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to two treatment groups (seven rabbits per each treatment group). The dietary treatments were 1) control diet, 2) diet supplemented with a mixture BCOS - 2 kg/t of feed. Growth performance characteristics (body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality) were evaluated. Rabbits were slaughtered; carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated. Samples loin and hind leg meat were analysed to determine carcass characteristics, pH and colour measurements, cholesterol, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content in loin and hind leg meat. Differences between treatments were significant for body weight (1.30 vs. 1.36 kg; P<0.05), daily weight gain (16.60 vs. 17.85 g; P<0.05), and daily feed intake (78.25 vs. 80.58 g; P<0.05) for control and experimental group respectively for the entire experimental period (from 28–77 days old). No significant differences were found in feed conversion ratio and mortality. The feed additives insertion in the diets did not significantly influence the carcass yield or the proportions of the various carcass parts and organs. Differences between treatments were significant for pH value after 48h in loin (5.86 vs. 5.74; P<0.05), hind leg meat (6.62 vs. 6.65; P<0.05), more intense colour b* of loin (5.57 vs. 6.06; P<0.05), less intense colour a* (14.99 vs. 13.15; P<0.05) in hind leg meat. Cholesterol content in hind leg meat decreased by 17.67 mg/100g compared to control group (P<0.05). After storage for three months, MDA concentration decreased in loin and hind leg meat by 0.3 μmol/kg and 0.26 μmol/kg respectively compared to that of the control group (P<0.05). The results of this study suggest that BCOS could potentially be used in rabbit nutrition with consequent benefits on the rabbits’ productivity and nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

Keywords: Butyric acids, calcium formate, meat quality, organic acids salts, rabbits, productivity.

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2428 Performance, Carcass Yield, Hematological Parameters, and Feather Pecking Damage of Thai Indigenous Chickens Raised Indoors or with Outdoor Access

Authors: W. Molee, P. Puttaraksa, S. Pitakwong, S. Khempaka

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the rearing system on growth performance, carcass yield, hematological parameters, and feather pecking damage of Thai indigenous chickens. Three hundred and sixty 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned to 2 treatments: indoor treatment and outdoor access treatment. In the indoor treatment, the chickens were housed in floor pens (5 birds/m2). In the outdoor access treatment, the chickens were housed in a similar indoor house; in addition, they also had an outdoor grass paddock (1 bird/m2). All birds were provided with same diet and were raised for 16 wk of age. The results showed that growth performance and carcass yield were not different among treatment (P>0.05). Outdoor access had no effect on hematological parameters (P>0.05). However, the feather pecking damage of the chickens in the outdoor access treatment was lower than that of the chickens in the indoor treatment (P<0.05).

Keywords: Hematology, performance, rearing system, Thai indigenous chickens

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2427 Comparison of Alternative Models to Predict Lean Meat Percentage of Lamb Carcasses

Authors: Vasco A. P. Cadavez, Fernando C. Monteiro

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to develop and compare alternative prediction equations of lean meat proportion (LMP) of lamb carcasses. Forty (40) male lambs, 22 of Churra Galega Bragançana Portuguese local breed and 18 of Suffolk breed were used. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcasses weighed approximately 30 min later in order to obtain hot carcass weight (HCW). After cooling at 4º C for 24-h a set of seventeen carcass measurements was recorded. The left side of carcasses was dissected into muscle, subcutaneous fat, inter-muscular fat, bone, and remainder (major blood vessels, ligaments, tendons, and thick connective tissue sheets associated with muscles), and the LMP was evaluated as the dissected muscle percentage. Prediction equations of LMP were developed, and fitting quality was evaluated through the coefficient of determination of estimation (R2 e) and standard error of estimate (SEE). Models validation was performed by k-fold crossvalidation and the coefficient of determination of prediction (R2 p) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were computed. The BT2 measurement was the best single predictor and accounted for 37.8% of the LMP variation with a SEP of 2.30%. The prediction of LMP of lamb carcasses can be based simple models, using as predictors the HCW and one fat thickness measurement.

Keywords: Bootstrap, Carcass, Lambs, Lean meat

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2426 Preparation Influences of Breed, sex and Sodium Butyrate Supplementation on the Performance, Carcass Traits and Mortality of Fattening Rabbits

Authors: U.E.Mahrous, A. Abd El-Aziz, A.I.El-Shiekh, S.Z. EL-kholya

Abstract:

Twenty four New Zealand white rabbits (12 does and 12 bucks) and twenty four Flanders (12 does and 12 bucks) rabbits, allotted into two feeding regime (6 for each breed, 3 males and 3 females) first one fed commercial ration and second one fed commercial diet plus sodium butyrate (300 g/ton). The obtained results showed that at end of 8th week experimental period New Zealand white rabbits were heavier body weight than Flanders rabbits (1934.55+39.05 vs. 1802.5+30.99 g); significantly high body weight gain during experimental period especially during 8th week (136.1+3.5 vs. 126.8+1.8 g/week); better feed conversion ratio during all weeks of experiment from first week (3.07+0.16 vs. 3.12+0.10) till the 8th week of experiment (5.54+0.16 vs. 5.76+0.07) with significantly high dressing percentages (0.54+0.01 vs. 0.52+0.01). Also all carcass cuts were significantly high in New Zealand white rabbits than Flanders. Females rabbits (at the same age) were lower body weight than males from start of experiment (941.1+39.8 vs.972.1+33.5 g) till the end of experiment (1833.64+37.69 vs. 1903.41+36.93 g); gained less during all weeks of experiment except during 8th week (132.1+2.3 vs. 130.9+3.4 g/week), with lower dressing percentage (0.52+0.01 vs. 0.53+0.01) and lighter carcass cuts than males, however, they had better feed conversion ratio during 1st week, 7th week and 8th week of experiment. Addition of 300g sodium butyrate/ton of rabbit increased the body weight of rabbits at the end of experimental period (1882.71+26.45 vs. 1851.5+49.82 g); improve body weight gain at 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th week of experiment and significantly improve feed conversion ratio during all weeks of the experiment from 1st week (2.85+0.07 vs. 3.30+0.15) till the 8th week of the experiment (5.51+0.12 vs. 5.77+0.12). Also the dressing percentage was higher in Sodium butyrate fed groups than control one (0.53+0.01 vs. 0.52+0.01) and the most important results of feeding sodium butyrate is the reducing of the mortality percentage in rabbits during 8 week experiment to zero percentage as compared with 16% in control group.

Keywords: rabbit, productive performance, carcass quality, sodium byturate

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2425 A Study of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristic, Meat Quality and Association of Polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II Gene with Fat Accumulation in the Female Broiler, Thai Native and Betong Chickens (KU Line)

Authors: C. Kridtayopas, W. Danvilai, P. Sopannarath, A. Kayan, W. Loongyai

Abstract:

Both Betong chicken (KU Line) and Thai Native chickens were the high quality of the meat and low carcass fat compared to broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the growth performance, carcass characteristic, meat quality and association of polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene with fat accumulation in the female broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens at 4-14 weeks. The chickens were used and reared under the same environment and management (100 chicks per breed). The results showed that body weight (BW) of broiler chickens was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01) through all the experiment. At 4-8 weeks of age, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broiler chickens was significantly better than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01), then increased at week 8-14. The percentage of breast, abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat of broiler chickens was significantly greater than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01). However, Thai Native chickens showed the highest percentage of liver (P < 0.01) when compared to other breeds. In addition, the percentage of wing of Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than broiler chickens. Meat quality was also determined and found that, pH of breast meat left from slaughter 45 minutes (pH45) and 24 hours (pH24) of broiler was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01) whereas the percentage of drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss and shear force was not significantly different between breeds. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to genotype the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene in the broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens. The results found that, the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene at VLDL6 loci was not associated with fat accumulation in those studied population.

Keywords: ApoVLDL-II Gene, Betong (KU line) chickens, broiler chickens, carcass characteristic, growth performance, meat quality, Thai Native Chickens.

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2424 Improving the Utilization of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf Meal with Cellulase-Glucanase-Xylanase Combination and Selected Probiotic in Broiler Diets

Authors: Ayodeji Fasuyi

Abstract:

Telfairia occidentalis is a leafy vegetable commonly grown in the tropics for nutritional benefits. The use of enzymes and probiotics is becoming prominent due to the ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in many parts of the world. It is conceived that with enzymes and probiotics additives, fibrous leafy vegetables can be incorporated into poultry feeds as protein source. However, certain antinutrients were also found in the leaves of Telfairia occidentalis. Four broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated for the two phases of the broiler experiments. A mixture of fiber degrading enzymes, Roxazyme G2 (combination of cellulase, glucanase and xylanase) and probiotics (Turbotox), a growth promoter, were used in broiler diets at 1:1. The Roxazyme G2/Turbotox mixtures were used in diets containing four varying levels of Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal (TOLM) at 0, 10, 20 and 30%. Diets 1 were standard broiler diets without TOLM and Roxazyme G2 and Turbotox additives. Diets 2, 3 and 4 had enzymes and probiotics additives. Certain mineral elements such as Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in notable quantities viz. 2.6 g/100 g, 1.2 g/100 g, 6.2 g/100 g, 5.1 g/100 g, 4.7 g/100 g, 5875 ppm, 182 ppm, 136 ppm and 1036 ppm, respectively. Phytin, phytin-P, oxalate, tannin and HCN were also found in ample quantities viz. 189.2 mg/100 g, 120.1 mg/100 g, 80.7 mg/100 g, 43.1 mg/100 g and 61.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The average weight gain was highest at 46.3 g/bird/day for birds on 10% TOLM diet but similar (P > 0.05) to 46.2 g/bird/day for birds on 20% TOLM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 2.27 was the lowest and optimum for birds on 10% TOLM although similar (P > 0.05) to 2.29 obtained for birds on 20% TOLM. FCR of 2.61 was the highest at 2.61 for birds on 30% TOLM diet. The lowest FCR of 2.27 was obtained for birds on 10% TOLM diet although similar (P > 0.05) to 2.29 for birds on 20% TOLM diet. Most carcass characteristics and organ weights were similar (P > 0.05) for the experimental birds on the different diets except for kidney, gizzard and intestinal length. The values for kidney, gizzard and intestinal length were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for birds on the TOLM diets. The nitrogen retention had the highest value of 72.37 ± 0.10% for birds on 10% TOLM diet although similar (P > 0.05) to 71.54 ± 1.89 obtained for birds on the control diet without TOLM and enzymes/probiotics mixture. There was evidence of a better utilization of TOLM as a plant protein source. The carcass characteristics and organ weights all showed evidence of uniform tissue buildup and muscles development particularly in diets containing 10% of TOLM level. There was also better nitrogen utilization in birds on the 10% TOLM diet. Considering the cheap cost of TOLM, it is envisaged that its introduction into poultry feeds as a plant protein source will ultimately reduce the cost of poultry feeds.

Keywords: Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal, enzymes, probiotics, additives.

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2423 Influence of Chelators, Zn Sulphate and Silicic Acid on Productivity and Meat Quality of Fattening Pigs

Authors: A. Raceviciute-Stupeliene, V. Sasyte, V. Viliene, V. Slausgalvis, J. Al-Saifi, R. Gruzauskas

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of special additives such as chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid on productivity parameters, carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening pigs. The test started with 40 days old fattening pigs (mongrel (mother) and Yorkshire (father)) and lasted up to 156 days of age. During the fattening period, 32 pigs were divided into 2 groups (control and experimental) with 4 replicates (total of 8 pens).  The pigs were fed for 16 weeks’ ad libitum with a standard wheat-barley-soybean meal compound (Control group) supplemented with chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid (dosage 2 kg/t of feed, Experimental group). Meat traits in live pigs were measured by ultrasonic equipment Piglog 105. The results obtained throughout the experimental period suggest that supplementation of chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid tend to positively affect average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of pigs for fattening (p < 0.05). Pigs’ evaluation with Piglog 105 showed that thickness of fat in the first and second point was by 4% and 3% respectively higher in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). Carcass weight, yield, and length, also thickness of fat showed no significant difference among the groups. The water holding capacity of meat in Experimental group was lower by 5.28%, and tenderness – lower by 12% compared with that of the pigs in the Control group (p < 0.05). Regarding pigs’ meat chemical composition of the experimental group, a statistically significant difference comparing with the data of the control group was not determined. Cholesterol concentration in muscles of pigs fed diets supplemented with chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid was lower by 7.93 mg/100 g of muscle in comparison to that of the control group. These results suggest that supplementation of chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid in the feed for fattening pigs had significant effect on pigs growing performance and meat quality.

Keywords: Chelators, meat quality, pigs, silicic acid, zinc sulphate.

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2422 Relative Contribution of Livestock Species to Meat Supply in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi, Nigeria

Authors: M M Abubakar, Y M Burrah

Abstract:

Primary and secondary data from the Bauchi abattoir were utilized to determine the relative contributions of different livestock species to meat supply in Bauchi Metropolis. Daily livestock slaughter figures for five months (June – October 2011) indicated that more goats (64.0) were slaughtered than either sheep (47.3) or cattle (41.30) each day (P<0.001) and fewer (P<0.05) animals (45.65) were slaughtered daily in June than either in August (57.07) or October (55.95). Five year (2006 – 2010) monthly slaughter records indicated that both species and year had significant (P<0.001) effects on number of animals slaughtered. More goats (2727.8) were slaughtered than either sheep (731.09) or cattle (520.06) each month and more animals were slaughtered in 2006 (1847.72/month) than in 2008, 2009 and 2010 (997.67, 1029.13 and 1273.75/month respectively). In terms of total carcass output, cattle accounted for 61-80% of the meat supply obtained from ruminant animals slaughtered at the Bauchi abattoir.

Keywords: Carcass Output, Livestock Slaughter Figures, Meat Supply, Ruminant Animals.

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2421 Effect of Commercial or Bovine Yeasts on the Performance and Blood Variables of Broiler Chickens Intoxicated with Aflatoxins

Authors: W. Suksombat, P. Suksombat, R. Mirattanaphrai

Abstract:

The effects of commercial or bovine yeasts on the performance and blood variables of broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxin were investigated in broilers. Four hundred eighty broilers (Arbor Acres; 3-wk-old) were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Each group (120 broiler chickens) was further randomly divided into 6 replicates of 20 chickens. The treatments were control diet without additives (treatment 1), 250 ppb AFB1 (treatment 2), commercial yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (CY 2.5 x 107 CFU/g) + 250 ppb AFB1 (treatment 3) and bovine yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (BY 2.5 x 107 CFU/g + 250 ppb AFB1 (treatment 4). Complete randomized design (CRD) was used in the experiment. Feed consumption and body weight were recorded at every five-day period. On day 42, carcass compositions were determined from 30 birds per treatment. While chicks were sacrificed, 3-4 ml blood sample was taken and stored frozen at (-20°C) for serum chemical analysis to determine effects of consumption of diets on blood chemistry (total protein, albumin, glucose, urea, cholesterol and triglycerides). There were no significant differences in ADFI among the treatments(P>0.05). However, BWG, FCR and mortality were highly significantly different (P<0.01) between treatments. ADG was significantly reduced (P<0.05) by aflatoxin but was unaffected by aflatoxin supplemented with either commercial or bovine yeasts (P>0.05). In terms of carcass portions, percentage of carcass was unaffected by the treatments, however, percentages of drumstick were reduced by aflatoxin and aflatoxin supplemented commercial yeast. Abdominal fat was significantly reduced (P<0.01) when commercial or bovine yeasts were added to the aflatoxin contaminated diets. Percentage of liver were significantly increased by aflatoxin contamination but were unaffected when yeasts were added to the diets. Blood chemical parameters, i.e. albumin, blood urea nitrogen and glucose were unaffected the treatments, while total protein, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly decreased by aflatoxin. When yeasts were supplemented, such effect was not differed from the control. It is clearly indicated in the present study that supplementation of either commercial or bovine yeasts had beneficial effects on performance of broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxins.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, Commercial yeast, Bovine yeast, Growth performance, Blood chemical parameters, Broilers

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2420 Utilization Juice Wastes as Corn Replacement in the Broiler Diet

Authors: Yose Rizal, Maria Endo Mahata, Mira Andriani, Guoyao Wu

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted with 80 unsexed broilers of the Arbor Acress strain to determine the capability of a carrot and fruit juice wastes mixture (carrot, apple, manggo, avocado, orange, melon and Dutch egg plant) in the same proportion for replacing corn in broiler diet. This study involved a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of juice wastes mixture in diets) and 4 replicates per treatment. Diets were isonitrogenous (22% crude protein) and isocaloric (3000 kcal/kg diet). Measured variables were feed consumption, average daily gain, feed conversion, as well as percentages of abdominal fat pad, carcass, digestive organs (liver, pancreas and gizzard), and heart. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance for CRD. Increasing juice wastes mixture levels in diets increased feed consumption (P<0.05) and average daily gain (P<0.01), while improving feed utilization efficiency (P<0.05). These treatments also affected (P<0.05) abdominal fat pad percentage but had no effect (P>0.05) on carcass, liver, pancreas, gizzard or heart percentages. In conclusion, up to 20% of juice wastes mixture could be included for the broiler diet to effectively replace up to 40% corn in the diet.

Keywords: average daily gain, feed consumption, feedconversion, juice waste mixture

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2419 Influence of Overfeeding on Productive Performance Traits, Foie Gras Production, Blood Parameters, Internal Organs, Carcass Traits, and Mortality Rate in Two Breeds of Ducks

Authors: El-Sayed, Mona, Y., U. E. Mahrous

Abstract:

A total of 60 male mule ducks and 60 male Muscovy ducks were allotted into three groups (n = 20) to estimate the effects of overfeeding (two and four meals) versus ad libitum feeding on productive performance traits, foie gras production, internal organs, and blood parameters.

The results show that force-feeding four meals significantly increased (P < 0.01) body weight, weight gain, and gain percentage compared to force-feeding two meals. Both force-feeding regimes (two or four meals) induced significantly higher body weight, weight gain, gain percentage, and absolute carcass weight than ad libitum feeding; however, carcass percentage was significantly higher in ad libitum feeding. Mule ducks had significantly higher weight gain and weight gain percentages than Muscovy ducks.

Feed consumption per kilogram of foie gras and per kilogram weight gain was lower for the four-meal than for the two-meal forced feeding regime. Force-feeding four meals induced significantly higher liver weight and percentage (488.96 ± 25.78g, 7.82 ± 0.40%) than force-feeding two meals (381.98 ± 13.60g, 6.42 ± 0.21%). Moreover, feed conversion was significantly higher under forced feeding than under ad libitum feeding (77.65 ± 3.41g, 1.72 ± 0.05%; P < 0.01).

Forced feeding (two or four meals) increased all organ weights (intestine, proventriculus, heart, spleen, and pancreas) over ad libitum feeding weights, except for the gizzard; however intestinal and abdominal fat values were higher for four-meal forced feeding than for two-meal forced feeding.

Overfeeding did not change blood parameters significantly compared to ad libitum feeding; however, four-meal forced feeding improved the quality of foie gras since it significantly increased the percentage of grade A foie gras (62.5%) at the expense of grades B (33.33%) and C (4.17%) compared with the two-meal forced feeding.

The mortality percentage among Muscovy ducks during the forced feeding period was 22.5%, compared to 0% in mule ducks. Liver weight was highly significantly correlated with life weight after overfeeding and certain blood plasma traits.

Keywords: Foie gras, overfeeding, ducks, productive performance.

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2418 Tests and Measurements of Image Acquisition Characteristics for Image Sensors

Authors: Seongsoo Lee, Jong-Bae Lee, Wookkang Lee, Duyen Hai Pham

Abstract:

In the image sensors, the acquired image often differs from the real image in luminance or chrominance due to fabrication defects or nonlinear characteristics, which often lead to pixel defects or sensor failure. Therefore, the image acquisition characteristics of image sensors should be measured and tested before they are mounted on the target product. In this paper, the standardized test and measurement methods of image sensors are introduced. It applies standard light source to the image sensor under test, and the characteristics of the acquired image is compared with ideal values.

Keywords: Image Sensor, Image Acquisition Characteristics, Defect, Failure, Standard, Test, Measurement.

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2417 Optimization of Fuel Consumption of a Bus used in City Line with Regulation of Driving Characteristics

Authors: Muammer Ozkan, Orkun Ozener, Irfan Yavasliol

Abstract:

The fuel cost of the motor vehicle operating on its common route is an important part of the operating cost. Therefore, the importance of the fuel saving is increasing day by day. One of the parameters which improve fuel saving is the regulation of driving characteristics. The number and duration of stop is increased by the heavy traffic load. It is possible to improve the fuel saving with regulation of traffic flow and driving characteristics. The researches show that the regulation of the traffic flow decreases fuel consumption, but it is not enough to improve fuel saving without the regulation of driving characteristics. This study analyses the fuel consumption of two trips of city bus operating on its common route and determines the effect of traffic density and driving characteristics on fuel consumption. Finally it offers some suggestions about regulation of driving characteristics to improve the fuel saving. Fuel saving is determined according to the results obtained from simulation program. When experimental and simulation results are compared, it has been found that the fuel saving was reached up the to 40 percent ratios.

Keywords: Fuel Consumption, Fuel Economy, Driving Characteristics, Optimization

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2416 The Study of Rapeseed Characteristics by Factor Analysis under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions

Authors: Ali Bakhtiari Gharibdosti, Mohammad Hosein Bijeh Keshavarzi, Samira Alijani

Abstract:

To understand internal characteristics relationships and determine factors which explain under consideration characteristics in rapeseed varieties, 10 rapeseed genotypes were implemented in complete accidental plot with three-time repetitions under drought stress in 2009-2010 in research field of agriculture college, Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch. In this research, 11 characteristics include of characteristics related to growth, production and functions stages was considered. Variance analysis results showed that there is a significant difference among rapeseed varieties characteristics. By calculating simple correlation coefficient under both conditions, normal and drought stress indicate that seed function characteristics in plant and pod number have positive and significant correlation in 1% probable level with seed function and selection on the base of these characteristics was effective for improving this function. Under normal and drought stress, analyzing the main factors showed that numbers of factors which have more than one amount, had five factors under normal conditions which were 82.72% of total variance totally, but under drought stress four factors diagnosed which were 76.78% of total variance. By considering total results of this research and by assessing effective characteristics for factor analysis and selecting different components of these characteristics, they can be used for modifying works to select applicable and tolerant genotypes in drought stress conditions.

Keywords: Correlation, drought stress, factor analysis, rapeseed.

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2415 Investigation of Undular Hydraulic Jump over Smooth Beds

Authors: F. Rostami, M. Shahrokhi, M. A. Md Said, S.R. Sabbagh-Yazdi

Abstract:

Undular hydraulic jumps are illustrated by a smooth rise of the free surface followed by a train of stationary waves. They are sometimes experienced in natural waterways and rivers. The characteristics of undular hydraulic jumps are studied here. The height, amplitude and the main characteristics of undular jump is depended on the upstream Froude number and aspect ratio. The experiments were done on the smooth bed flume. These results compared with other researches and the main characteristics of the undular hydraulic jump were studied in this article.

Keywords: Undular Hydraulic Jump, low Froude Number, wave characteristics

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2414 Deployment of Service Quality Characteristics

Authors: Shuki Dror

Abstract:

This work discusses an innovative methodology for deployment of service quality characteristics. Four groups of organizational features that may influence the quality of services are identified: human resource, technology, planning, and organizational relationships. A House of Service Quality (HOSQ) matrix is built to extract the desired improvement in the service quality characteristics and to translate them into a hierarchy of important organizational features. The Mean Square Error (MSE) criterion enables the pinpointing of the few essential service quality characteristics to be improved as well as selection of the vital organizational features. The method was implemented in an engineering supply enterprise and provides useful information on its vital service dimensions.

Keywords: HOQ, organizational features, service quality.

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2413 Micropolar Fluids Effects on the Dynamic Characteristics of Four-lobe Journal Bearing

Authors: B. Chetti

Abstract:

Dynamic characteristics of a four-lobe journal bearing of micropolar fluids are presented. Lubricating oil containing additives and contaminants is modelled as micropolar fluid. The modified Reynolds equation is obtained using the micropolar lubrication theory and solving it by using finite difference technique. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness, damping coefficients, the critical mass and whirl ratio are determined for various values of size of material characteristic length and the coupling number. The results show compared with Newtonian fluids, that micropolar fluid exhibits better stability.

Keywords: Four-lobe bearings, dynamic characteristics, stabilityanalysis, micropolar fluid

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2412 An Improved Algorithm of SPIHT based on the Human Visual Characteristics

Authors: Meng Wang, Qi-rui Han

Abstract:

Because of excellent properties, people has paid more attention to SPIHI algorithm, which is based on the traditional wavelet transformation theory, but it also has its shortcomings. Combined the progress in the present wavelet domain and the human's visual characteristics, we propose an improved algorithm based on human visual characteristics of SPIHT in the base of analysis of SPIHI algorithm. The experiment indicated that the coding speed and quality has been enhanced well compared to the original SPIHT algorithm, moreover improved the quality of the transmission cut off.

Keywords: Lifted wavelet transform, SPIHT, Human Visual Characteristics.

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2411 Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Unmanned Aircraft in the Wake

Authors: O. Solovyov, S. Eryomenko, V. Kobrin, V. Chmovzh

Abstract:

The methodology of numerical simulation and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft taking into account impact of wake on it has been developed. The results of numerical experiment in comparison with the data obtained in the wind tunnel are presented. Efficiency of methodology of calculation and the reliability of the results is shown.

Keywords: Unmanned aircraft, vortex wake, aerodynamic characteristics.

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2410 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Different Levels of Black Seed (Nigella Sativa L.) on Growth Performance, Immunological, Hematological and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicks

Authors: R. S. Shewita, A. E. Taha

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of different levels of black seed (Nigella sativa L.) on the performance and immune response of broiler chicks. A total 240 day-old broiler chicks were used and randomly allotted equally into six experimental groups designated as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 having black seed at the rate of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g /kg diet respectively. The study was lasted for 42 days. Average body weight, weight gain, relative growth rate, feed conversion, antibody titer against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity and phagocytic index, some blood parameters(GOT, GPT, Glucose, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, Total protein, Albumen, WBCs, RBCs, Hb and PCV), dressing percentage, weight of different body organs, abdominal fat weight, were determined. It was found that, N. Sativa significantly improved final body weight, total body gain and feed conversion ratio of groups 2 and 3 when compared with the control group. Higher levels of N. Sativa did not improve growth performance of the chicks. Non significant differences were observed for antibody titer against Newcastle virus, WBCs count, serum GOT, glucose level, dressing %, relative liver, spleen, heart and head percentages. Lymphoid organs (Bursa and Thymus) improved significantly with increasing N. Sativa level in all supplemented groups. Serum cholesterol, triglyceride and visible fat % significantly decreased with Nigella sativa supplementation while serum GPT level significantly increased with nigella sativa supplementation.

Keywords: Nigella Sativa, broiler, growth, carcass traits, serum, blood

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2409 The effect of the Thickness of Electrical sheet on Overvoltage in the Asynchronous Motors Fed by PWM- converters

Authors: Belassel Mohand-Tahar

Abstract:

This work is devoted to the calculation of the undulatory parameters and the study of the influence thickness of electrical sheet on overvoltage compared to the carcass and between whorls (sections) of the asynchronous motors supplied with PWM converters.

Keywords: Asynchronous Motors, , PWM, Undulatory Process, Undulatory Parameters, Undulatory Voltage, electrical sheet.

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2408 The Characteristics of Thai Movies and Factors Contributing to Becoming Widely Known in International Markets

Authors: Tanyatorn Panyasopon

Abstract:

Many Thai movies have been very popular domestically and internationally. Some movies were box office hits and receiving awards. However, there has not yet been research about how Thai movies can sell in international markets The objectives of the research were 1) To analyze the characteristics of Thai movies that can sell to world audiences; 2) To investigate the factors making Thai movies into foreign markets. Thai film professionals were interviewed. Their ideas were analyzed to find out what factors contributing to Thai movies widely seen in worldwide markets. Nine foreign audiences were also interviewed to reveal what characteristics of Thai movies would be well accepted by the markets. The results showed that major characteristics of Thai movies proving successful worldwide were cultural and exotic Thai movies, outstanding genres, well-known actors, music and songs. Factors contributing to global market were marketing, qualities of Thai movies, and financial support from the government.

Keywords: Characteristics, factors, international markets, Thai movies.

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2407 The Impact of Process Parameters on the Output Characteristics of an LDMOS Device

Authors: M. A. Malakoutian, V. Fathipour, M. Fathipour, A. Mojab, M. M. Allame, M. Moradinasab

Abstract:

In this paper, we have examined the effect of process parameter variation on the electrical characteristics of an LDMOS device. The rate of change in the electrical parameters such as cut off frequency, breakdown voltage and drain saturation current as a function of the process parameters is investigated

Keywords: LDMOS, Process Parameters, characteristics, parameter variation.

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2406 Resistive Switching Characteristics of Resistive Random Access Memory Devices after Furnace Annealing Processes

Authors: Chi-Yan Chu, Kai-Chi Chuang, Huang-Chung Cheng

Abstract:

In this study, the RRAM devices with the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN structure were fabricated, then the electrical characteristics of the devices without annealing and after 400 °C and 500 °C of the furnace annealing (FA) temperature processes were compared. The RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the lower forming, set and reset voltages than the other devices without annealing. However, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 500 °C did not show any electrical characteristics because the TiN/Ti/HfOx/TiN device was oxidized, as shown in the XPS analysis. From these results, the RRAM devices after the FA’s 400 °C showed the best electrical characteristics.

Keywords: RRAM, furnace annealing, forming, set and reset voltages, XPS.

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2405 Degradation Model of Optical Characteristics of Zno-Pigmented White Paint by Electron Radiation

Authors: Tian Hai, Yang Shengsheng, Jr., Wang Yi

Abstract:

Based on an analysis of the mechanism of degradation of optical characteristics of the ZnO-pigmented white paint by electron irradiation, a model of single molecular color centers is built. An equation that explains the relationship between the changes of variation of the ZnO-pigmented white paint-s spectrum absorptance and electron fluence is derived. The uncertain parameters in the equation can be calculated using the curve fitting by experimental data. The result indicates that the model can be applied to predict the degradation of optical characteristics of ZnO-pigmented white paint by electron radiation.

Keywords: ZnO-pigmented white pain, effects of electron radiation, optical characteristics degradation, prediction model.

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2404 The Effect of the Parameters of the Grinding on the Characteristics of the Deposit Phosphate Ore of Kef Es Sennoun, Djebel Onk-Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: N. Benabdeslam, N. Bouzidi, F. Atmani, R. Boucif, A. Sakhri

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to provide answers for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved during grinding. To obtain a phosphate powder, we carry out sieving - grinding circuits for each parameter influencing the process. The analysis of the average particle size of the different tests carried out served in the first place as a basis for the determination of the granulometric curve area, the characteristics and the granular coefficients, then the exploitation of the different results for the calculation of the energies consumed for the fragmentation of different ore types, the energy coefficients as well as the ability to grind. Indeed, a time of 5 to 10 minutes can be chosen as the optimal grinding time in a disc mill for a % in weight of the highest pass. However, grinding time can influence the granular characteristics of ore.

Keywords: Energy, granular characteristics, grinding, mineralogical composition, phosphate ore.

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2403 Assessment of the Occupancy’s Effect on Speech Intelligibility in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque

Authors: Wasim Orfali, Hesham Tolba

Abstract:

This research investigates the acoustical characteristics of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque. Extensive field measurements were conducted in different locations of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque to characterize its acoustic characteristics. The acoustical characteristics are usually evaluated by the use of objective parameters in unoccupied rooms due to practical considerations. However, under normal conditions, the room occupancy can vary such characteristics due to the effect of the additional sound absorption present in the room or by the change in signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the acoustic measurements carried out in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque with and without occupancy, and the analysis of such measurements, the existence of acoustical deficiencies has been confirmed.

Keywords: Worship sound, Al-Madinah Holy Mosque, mosque acoustics, speech intelligibility.

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