Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32586
Influence of Chelators, Zn Sulphate and Silicic Acid on Productivity and Meat Quality of Fattening Pigs

Authors: A. Raceviciute-Stupeliene, V. Sasyte, V. Viliene, V. Slausgalvis, J. Al-Saifi, R. Gruzauskas


The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of special additives such as chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid on productivity parameters, carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening pigs. The test started with 40 days old fattening pigs (mongrel (mother) and Yorkshire (father)) and lasted up to 156 days of age. During the fattening period, 32 pigs were divided into 2 groups (control and experimental) with 4 replicates (total of 8 pens).  The pigs were fed for 16 weeks’ ad libitum with a standard wheat-barley-soybean meal compound (Control group) supplemented with chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid (dosage 2 kg/t of feed, Experimental group). Meat traits in live pigs were measured by ultrasonic equipment Piglog 105. The results obtained throughout the experimental period suggest that supplementation of chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid tend to positively affect average daily gain and feed conversion ratio of pigs for fattening (p < 0.05). Pigs’ evaluation with Piglog 105 showed that thickness of fat in the first and second point was by 4% and 3% respectively higher in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). Carcass weight, yield, and length, also thickness of fat showed no significant difference among the groups. The water holding capacity of meat in Experimental group was lower by 5.28%, and tenderness – lower by 12% compared with that of the pigs in the Control group (p < 0.05). Regarding pigs’ meat chemical composition of the experimental group, a statistically significant difference comparing with the data of the control group was not determined. Cholesterol concentration in muscles of pigs fed diets supplemented with chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid was lower by 7.93 mg/100 g of muscle in comparison to that of the control group. These results suggest that supplementation of chelators, zinc sulphate and silicic acid in the feed for fattening pigs had significant effect on pigs growing performance and meat quality.

Keywords: Chelators, meat quality, pigs, silicic acid, zinc sulphate.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 868


[1] D. H. Beermann, “ASAS Centennial Paper: a century of pioneers and progress in meat science in the United States leads to new frontiers”, J. Anim. Sci., vol. 87, pp. 1192–1198, 2009.
[2] R. G. Kauffman, “Meat composition”, In Y. H. Hui, W. K. Nip, R. W. Rogers, & O. A. Young (Eds.), Meat Science and Applications New York: MarcelDekker, Inc., pp. 1–19, 2001.
[3] F. Toldrá and M. Reig, “Innovations for healthier processed meats”, Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 22, pp. 517–522, 2011.
[4] M. Reig, M. C. Aristoy and F. Toldrá, “Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases”, Food Chemistry, vol. 140, pp. 478-482, 2013.
[5] E. Kanis, K. H. De Greef, A. Hiemstra, and J. A. M. van Arendonk, “Breeding for societally important traits in pigs, Animal Breeding and Genetics Group”, Wageningen University, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands; and Animal Sciences Group, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands, J. Anim. Sci., vol. 83, pp. 948–957, 2005.
[6] R. Roehe, G. S. Plastow and P. W. Knap, “Quantitative and Molecular Genetic Determination of Protein and Fat Deposition”, Homo, vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 191 – 131, 2003.
[7] H. J. van Wijk, D. J. G. Arts, J. O. Matthews, M. Webster, B. J. Ducro and E. F. Knol, “Genetic parameters for carcass composition and pork quality estimated in a commercial production chain”, J. Anim. Sci., vol. 83, pp. 324 – 333, 2005.
[8] G. Otto, R. Roehe, H. Looft, L. Thoelking and E. Kalm, “Comparison of different methods for determination of drip loss and their relationships to meat quality and carcass characteristics in pigs”, Meat Science, vol. 68, pp. 401−409, 2004.
[9] P. Sellier, “Genetics of meat and carcass traits”, In: The Genetics of the Pig (eds. M.F. Rothschild, A. Ruvinsky). CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, pp. 463–510, 1998.
[10] G. Otto, R. Roehe, H. Looft, L. Thoelking, M. Henning, G. S. Plastow and E. Kalm, “Drip loss of case-ready meat and of premium cuts and their associations with earlier measured sample drip loss, meat quality and carcass traits in pigs”, Meat Science, vol. 72, 680−687, 2006.
[11] K. Nuernberg, U. Kuechenmeister, G. Kuhn, G. Nuernberg, K. Winnefeld, K. Ender, U. Coganc and S. Mokady, “Influence of dietary vitamin E and selenium on muscle fatty acid composition in pigs”, Food Res. Intern., vol. 35, pp. 505-510, 2002.
[12] K. S. Swigert, F. K. Mckeith, T. C. Carr, M. S. Brewer and M. Culbertson, “Effects of dietary vitamin D3, vitamin E, and magnesium supplementation on pork quality”, Meat Sci., vol. 67, pp. 81-86, 2004.
[13] N. Kjeldsen, “Producing pork antibiotic growth promoters: the Danish experience”, Adv. Pork Prod., vol. 13, pp. 107–115, 2002.
[14] J. H. Kim, H. Y. Noh, G. H. Kim, G. E. Hong, S. K. Kim and C. H. Lee, “Effect of dietary supplementation with processed sulfur on meat quality and oxidative stability in Longissimus dorsi of pigs”, Korean J. Food Sc. Anim. Resour., vol. 35, pp. 330–338, 2015.
[15] C. Wenk, “Herbs and botanicals as feed additives in monogastric animals”, Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., vol. 16, pp. 282–289, 2003.
[16] J. D. Wood, G. R. Nute, R. I. Richardson, F. M. Whittington, O. Southwood, G. Plastow, R. Mansbridge, N. Costa and K. C. Chang, “Effects of breed, diet and muscle on fat deposition and eating quality in pigs”, Meat Sci., vol. 67, pp. 651–667, 2004.
[17] S. T, Joo, G. D. Kim, Y. H. Hwang, and Y. C. Ryu, “Control of freshmeatquality through manipulation of muscle fiber characteristics”, Meat Science, vol. 95, pp. 826-836, 2013.
[18] J. B. Schutte, “Nutritive and antimicrobial effects of organic acids in pigs”, Revista Computadoriz ada de Producción Porcina. Organic acids for pigs/Acidos orgánicos para credos, vol. 18, pp. 101- 105, 2011.
[19] M. Štukelj, Z. Valenčak, M. Krsnik and A. N. Svete, “The effect of the combination of acids and tannin in diet on the performance and selected biochemical, haematological and antioxidant enzyme parameters in grower pigs”, Acta Vet Scand, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 19, 2010.
[20] K. Partanen and Z. Mroz, “Organic acids for performance enhancement in pig diets”, Nutrition Research Reviews, vol.12, pp. 117-145. 1999.
[21] J. C. Witte, L. M. Amoroso and P. E. N. Howard, “Research methodology—method and representation in Internet-based survey tools”, Social Science Computer Review, vol. 18, pp. 179–195, 2000.
[22] G. Bolduan, H. Jung, R. Schneider, J. Block and B. Klenke, Die Wirkung von Propion- und Ameisensaure in der Ferkelaufzucht. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 59, 72–78. 1988.
[23] N. Canibe, N. Miquel, H. Miettinen and B. B. Jensen, “Addition of formic acid or starter cultures to liquid feed. Effect on pH, microflora composition, organic acid and ammonia concentration”, Applied Biotechnol., Gent, Belgium. 15th Forum, pp. 431–432, 2001.
[24] Z. Mroz, “Organic acids as potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for pigs”, Adv. Pork Prod., vol. 16, pp. 269-182, 2005.
[25] NRC Nutrition Requirements of Swine. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press, 11, 2012.
[26] PIGLOG 105 Users Guide. Soborg, Denmark: SFK – Technology. 1991.
[27] AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Association of official analytical chemists. Arlington, Virginia, USA. 1990.
[28] I. Janson, A. Jemeljanovs, I. H. Konosonoka, V. Sterna and B. Lujane, “The Influence of Organic Acid Additive, Phytoadditive and Complex of Organic Acid Additive Phytoadditive on Pig Productivity, Meat Quality”, Agronomy Research 9 (Special Issue II), pp. 389–394, 2011.
[29] J. Zhang, J. E. Pettigrew, H. Chester-Jones, S. G. Cornelius and R. L. Moser, “Efficacy of sodium diacetate as a growth promotant for swine”, Nutrition Reports International, vol. 33, pp. 893-898, 1986.
[30] F. X. Roth and M. Kirchgessner, “Use of acetic acid in pig nutrition”, Andwirtschaftliche Forschung, vol. 41, pp. 253-258, 1988.
[31] M. Overland, N. P. Kjos, M. Borg, E. Skjerve and H. Sorum, “Organic acids in diets for entire male pigs: Effect on skatole level, microbiota in digesta, and growth performance”, Livest Science, vol. 115, pp. 169-178, 2008.
[32] B. Eckel, M. Kirchgessner and F. X. Roth, “Influence of formic acid on daily weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate and digestibility”. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, vol. 67, pp. 93-100, 1992.
[33] von B. Gedek, M. Kirchgessner, U. Eidelsburger, S. Wiehler, A. Bott and F. X. Roth, “Influence of formic acid on the microflora indifferent segments of the gastrointestinal tract”, J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr, vol. 67, pp. 206-214, 1992.
[34] H. Maribo, L. E. Olsen, B. B. Jensen and N. Miquel, “Products for piglets: the combination of lactic acid, formic acid and benzoic acids”, The National Committee for Pig Production, Danish Bacon and Meat Council, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2000, pp. 490.
[35] R. Claus, D. Günthner and H. Letzguß, “Effects of feeding fat-coated butyrate on mucosal morphology and function in the small intestine of the pig”, J. Anim. Phys Anim. Nutr, vol. 91, pp. 312-318, 2007.
[36] M. D. Judge, E. D. Aberle, J. C. Forrest, H. B. Hedrickand and R. A. Merkel, “Principles of Meat Science”, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque,1989.
[37] R. A. Lawrie and D. A. Ledward, “Lawries ́s Meat Science”, 7th ed. CRC Wood head Publishing Limited, Cambridge, 2006.
[38] C. D. Allen, S. M. Russel and D. L. Fletcher, “The Relationship of broiler breast meat color and pH to shelf-life and odor development”, Poultry Science, vol. 76, pp.1042-1046, 1997.
[39] E. Campo, A. Chott, M. C. Kinney, L. Leoncini, C. J. L. M. Meijer, C. S. Papadimitriou, M. A. Piris, H. Stein and S. H. Swerdlow, “Update on extranodal lymphomas”, Greece Histopathology, vol.48, pp. 481-504, 2006.
[40] O. Bučko, D. Hellová and O. Debrecéni, “Effect of organic zinc of pork quality, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of musculus longissimus thoracis in large white breed”, Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovak Republic, T. 7, No. 2, pp. 1-6, 2013.
[41] T. F. Kellogg, R. W. Rogers and H. W. Miller, “Differences in tissue fatty acids and cholesterol of swine from different genetic backgrounds”, J Anim Sci., vol. 44, pp. 47–52, 1977.
[42] K. B. Harris, H. R. Cross, W. G. Pond and H. J. Mersmann, “Effect of dietary fat and cholesterol level on tissue cholesterol concentrations of growing pigs selected for high or low serum cholesterol”, J. Anim. Sci., vol. 71, pp. 807–810, 1993.
[43] X. Fernandez, J. Mourot, A. Mounier and P. Ecolan, “Effect of muscle type and food deprivation for 24 hours on the composition of the lipid fraction in muscle of Large White pigs”, Meat Sci., vol. 41, pp. 335–343, 1995.
[44] D. R. Buege, “A nationwide audit of the composition of pork and chicken cuts at retail”, J Food Comp Anal., vol.11, pp. 249–61, 1998.
[45] P. Hernandez, J. L. Navarro and F. Toldra, “Lipid composition and lipolytic enzyme activities in porcine skeletal muscles with different oxidative pattern”, Meat Sci., vol. 49, No 1, pp. 1–10, 1998.
[46] M. Dorado, E. M. Martin Gomez, F. Jimenez-Colmenero and T. A. Masoud, ”Cholesterol and fat contents of Spanish commercial pork cuts”, Meat Sci., vol. 51, pp. 321–323, 1999.
[47] X. Fernandez, “Influence of intramuscular fat content on the quality of pig meat—1. composition of the lipid fraction and sensory characteristics of m longissimus lumborum”, Meat Sci., vol. 53, pp. 59–65, 1999.
[48] N. Bragagnolo and D. B. Rodriguez-Amaya, “Simultaneous determination of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids in meat and backfat of suckling and adults pigs”, Food Chem., vol. 79, pp. 255–60, 2002.
[49] S. Cannata, T. E. Engle, S. J. Moeller, H. N. Zerby, A. E. Radunz, M. D. Green and P. D. Bass, “Effect of visual marbling on sensory properties and quality traits of pork loin”, Meat Sci., vol. 85,No 3, pp. 428–34, 2010.
[50] D. Kowalska, “Effect of dietary supplementation with rapeseed and fish oil mixture and antioxidant on rabbit meat quality”, Meat Quality and Safety, 9 th World Rabbit Congress, Verona– Italy, 2008, pp. 1371-1375.
[51] W. Migdał, P. Paściak, A. Gardzińska, T. Barowicz, M. Pieszka and D. Wojtysiak, “The effect of genetic and environmental factors on the quality of pork (in Polish)”, Prace i Mater Zoot., vol. 15, pp. 103-117, 2004.
[52] E. Jacyno, A. Pietruszka, A. Kołodziej and R. Czarnecki, “Content of lipid components in m longissimus dorsi of progeny of the boars descending from reciprocal crossing of the Pietrain and Duroc bredss”, Arch. Tierz, Dummerstorf, vol. 45, pp. 237-245, 2002.