Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: periodically use

49 A Study on RFID Privacy Mechanism using Mobile Phone

Authors: Haedong Lee, Dooho Choi, Sokjoon Lee, Howon Kim

Abstract:

This paper is about hiding RFID tag identifier (ID) using handheld device like a cellular phone. By modifying the tag ID of objects periodically or manually using cellular phone built-in a RFID reader chip or with a external RFID reader device, we can prevent other people from gathering the information related with objects querying information server (like an EPC IS) with a tag ID or deriving the information from tag ID-s code structure or tracking the location of the objects and the owner of the objects. In this paper, we use a cryptographic algorithm for modification and restoring of RFID tag ID, and for one original tag ID, there are several different temporary tag ID, periodically.

Keywords: EPC, RFID, Mobile RFID.

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48 Cavity-Type Periodically-Poled LiNbO3 Device for Highly-Efficient Third-Harmonic Generation

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We develop a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) device for highly-efficient third-harmonic generation (THG), where the THG efficiency is enhanced with a cavity. THG can usually be produced via χ(3)-nonlinear materials by optical pumping with very high pump-power. Instead, we here propose THG by moderate-power pumping through a specially-designed PPLN device containing only χ(2)-nonlinearity, where sum-frequency generation in the χ(2) process is employed for the mixing of a pump beam and a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) beam produced from the pump beam. The cavity is designed to increase the SHG power with dichroic mirrors attached to both ends of the device that perfectly reflect the SHG beam back to the device and yet let the pump and THG beams pass through the mirrors. This brings about a THG-power enhancement because of THG power proportional to the enhanced SHG power. We examine the THG-efficiency dependence on the mirror reflectance and show that very high THG-efficiency is obtained at moderate pump-power when compared with that of a cavity-free PPLN device.

Keywords: Cavity, periodically-poled LiNbO3, sum-frequency generation, third-harmonic generation.

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47 Effect of Periodically Use of Garlic (Allium sativum) Powder on Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens

Authors: M. Raeesi, S. A. Hoseini- Aliabad, A. Roofchaee, A. Zare Shahneh, S. Pirali

Abstract:

A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of periodically use of garlic on performance and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens. 240 1-day-old Ross broiler chicks randomly allocated into the 10 dietary treatments (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and J) for 6 wk. Treatment A or control group, received basal diet (based on standards of Ross management guidelines) without supplementation of garlic powder while B, C and D dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0.5, 1 and 3% garlic powder, respectively for the whole time of experiment (6 weeks). Birds in group E, F and G were fed control diet supplemented with 0.5, 1 and 3% garlic powder, respectively just in their starter diet (0- 21d). Birds in three other treatments (H, I and J) received control diet for the first 21 days and 0.5, 1 and 3% of garlic powder was added to their finisher diets, respectively. 1 and 3% supplemented groups in finisher period had better performance as compared with other groups. Since present study conducted in optimum and antiseptic conditions, it seems that better or more responses could be expected in performance if the raising conditions would not be healthy.

Keywords: Garlic powder, periodically use, broiler chickens, carcass characteristics

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46 Evaluation of Risk Attributes Driven by Periodically Changing System Functionality

Authors: Dariusz Dymek, Leszek Kotulski

Abstract:

Modeling of the distributed systems allows us to represent the whole its functionality. The working system instance rarely fulfils the whole functionality represented by model; usually some parts of this functionality should be accessible periodically. The reporting system based on the Data Warehouse concept seams to be an intuitive example of the system that some of its functionality is required only from time to time. Analyzing an enterprise risk associated with the periodical change of the system functionality, we should consider not only the inaccessibility of the components (object) but also their functions (methods), and the impact of such a situation on the system functionality from the business point of view. In the paper we suggest that the risk attributes should be estimated from risk attributes specified at the requirements level (Use Case in the UML model) on the base of the information about the structure of the model (presented at other levels of the UML model). We argue that it is desirable to consider the influence of periodical changes in requirements on the enterprise risk estimation. Finally, the proposition of such a solution basing on the UML system model is presented.

Keywords: Risk assessing, software maintenance, UML, graph grammars.

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45 An Energy Efficient Protocol for Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shun-Kai Yang, Kuo-Feng Ssu

Abstract:

Target tracking and localization are important applications in wireless sensor networks. In these applications, sensor nodes collectively monitor and track the movement of a target. They have limited energy supplied by batteries, so energy efficiency is essential for sensor networks. Most existing target tracking protocols need to wake up sensors periodically to perform tracking. Some unnecessary energy waste is thus introduced. In this paper, an energy efficient protocol for target localization is proposed. In order to preserve energy, the protocol fixes the number of sensors for target tracking, but it retains the quality of target localization in an acceptable level. By selecting a set of sensors for target localization, the other sensors can sleep rather than periodically wake up to track the target. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol saves a significant amount of energy and also prolongs the network lifetime.

Keywords: Coverage, energy efficiency, target localization, wireless sensor network.

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44 Inventory Control for a Joint Replenishment Problem with Stochastic Demand

Authors: Bassem Roushdy, Nahed Sobhy, Abdelrhim Abdelhamid, Ahmed Mahmoud

Abstract:

Most papers model Joint Replenishment Problem (JRP) as a (kT,S) where kT is a multiple value for a common review period T,and S is a predefined order up to level. In general the (T,S) policy is characterized by a long out of control period which requires a large amount of safety stock compared to the (R,Q) policy. In this paper a probabilistic model is built where an item, call it item(i), with the shortest order time between interval (T)is modeled under (R,Q) policy and its inventory is continuously reviewed, while the rest of items (j) are periodically reviewed at a definite time corresponding to item

Keywords: Inventory management, Joint replenishment, policy evaluation, stochastic process

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43 Numerical Implementation of an Interfacial Edge Dislocation Solution in a Multi-Layered Medium

Authors: Aditya Khanna, Andrei Kotousov

Abstract:

A novel method is presented for obtaining the stress field induced by an edge dislocation in a multilayered composite. To demonstrate the applications of the obtained solution, we consider the problem of an interfacial crack in a periodically layered bimaterial medium. The crack is modelled as a continuous distribution of edge dislocations and the Distributed Dislocation Technique (DDT) is utilized to obtain numerical results for the energy release rate (ERR). The numerical implementation of the dislocation solution in MATLAB is also provided.

Keywords: Distributed dislocation technique, Edge dislocation, Elastic field, Interfacial crack, Multi-layered composite.

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42 Searching k-Nearest Neighbors to be Appropriate under Gamming Environments

Authors: Jae Moon Lee

Abstract:

In general, algorithms to find continuous k-nearest neighbors have been researched on the location based services, monitoring periodically the moving objects such as vehicles and mobile phone. Those researches assume the environment that the number of query points is much less than that of moving objects and the query points are not moved but fixed. In gaming environments, this problem is when computing the next movement considering the neighbors such as flocking, crowd and robot simulations. In this case, every moving object becomes a query point so that the number of query point is same to that of moving objects and the query points are also moving. In this paper, we analyze the performance of the existing algorithms focused on location based services how they operate under gaming environments.

Keywords: Flocking behavior, heterogeneous agents, similarity, simulation.

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41 Wheel Diameter and Width Influence in Variability of Brake Data Measurement at Ministry of Transport Facilities

Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Emilio Velasco

Abstract:

The brake systems of vehicles are tested periodically by a “brake tester” at Ministry of Transport (MOT) stations. This tester measures the effectiveness of vehicle. This parameter is established by the International Committee of Vehicle Inspection (CITA). In this paper, we present an investigation of the influence of the tire size on the measurements of brake force on three MOT brake testers. We performed an analysis of the vehicle braking capacity test at MOT stations. The influence of varying wheel diameter and width on the measurement of braking at MOT stations has been analyzed. Thereby, the MOT brake tester as a verification system for a vehicle has been evaluated.

Keywords: Brake tester, wheel diameter, Ministry of transport facilities.

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40 Development of Transmission Line Sleeve Inspection Robot

Authors: Jae-Kyung Lee, Nam-Joon Jung, Byung-Hak Cho

Abstract:

The line sleeves on power transmission line connects two conductors while the transmission line is constructing. However, the line sleeves sometimes cause transmission line break down, because the line sleeves are deteriorated and decayed by acid rain. When the transmission line is broken, the economical loss is huge. Therefore the line sleeves on power transmission lines should be inspected periodically to prevent power failure. In this paper, Korea Electric Power Research Institute reviewed several robots to inspect line status and proposes a robot to inspect line sleeve by measuring magnetic field on line sleeve. The developed inspection tool can reliable to move along transmission line and overcome several obstacles on transmission line. The developed system is also applied on power transmission line and verified the efficiency of the robot.

Keywords: Transmission line inspection, line sleeve, transmission line inspection robot, line sleeve inspection

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39 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol.

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38 Battery Operation Time Enhancement Based On Alternating Battery Cell Discharge

Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes an alternating discharge method of multiple battery cells to extend battery operation time. In the proposed method, two battery cells are periodically connected in turn to a mobile device and only one cell supply power while the other rests. Battery operation time of the connecting cell decreases due to rate-capacity effect, while that of the resting cell increases due to recovery effect. These two effects conflict each other, but recovery effect is generally larger than rate-capacity effect and battery lifetime is extended. It was found from the result that battery operation time increase about 7% by using alternating battery cell discharge.

Keywords: Battery, Recovery Effect, Rate-Capacity Effect, Low-Power, Alternating Battery Cell Discharge.

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37 Numerical Study of Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor: Longitudinal and Transverse Detection of Temperature and Strain

Authors: K. Khelil, H. Ammar, K. Saouchi

Abstract:

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) structure is an periodically modulated optical fiber. It acts as a selective filter of wavelength whose reflected peak is called Bragg wavelength and it depends on the period of the fiber and the refractive index. The simulation of FBG is based on solving the Coupled Mode Theory equation by using the Transfer Matrix Method which is carried out using MATLAB. It is found that spectral reflectivity is shifted when the change of temperature and strain is uniform. Under non-uniform temperature or strain perturbation, the spectrum is both shifted and destroyed. In case of transverse loading, reflectivity spectrum is split into two peaks, the first is specific to X axis, and the second belongs to Y axis. FBGs are used in civil engineering to detect perturbations applied to buildings.

Keywords: Bragg wavelength, coupled mode theory, optical fiber, temperature measurement.

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36 Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications

Authors: Maidul Islam, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury, Gagan Kumar

Abstract:

We investigate sensing capabilities of a planar plasmonic THz waveguide. The waveguide is comprised of one dimensional array of periodically arranged sub wavelength scale corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure the plasmonic response. The THz waveguide transmission is observed for polyimide (as thin film) substance filling the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance supported by the waveguide. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in developing new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.

Keywords: Terahertz, plasmonic, sensor, sub-wavelength structures.

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35 Performance of Random Diagonal Codes for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical CDMA Systems

Authors: Hilal A. Fadhil, Syed A. Aljunid, R. Badlishah Ahmed

Abstract:

In this paper we study the use of a new code called Random Diagonal (RD) code for Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) networks, using Fiber Bragg-Grating (FBG), FBG consists of a fiber segment whose index of reflection varies periodically along its length. RD code is constructed using code level and data level, one of the important properties of this code is that the cross correlation at data level is always zero, which means that Phase intensity Induced Phase (PIIN) is reduced. We find that the performance of the RD code will be better than Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) and Hadamard code It has been observed through experimental and theoretical simulation that BER for RD code perform significantly better than other codes. Proof –of-principle simulations of encoding with 3 channels, and 10 Gbps data transmission have been successfully demonstrated together with FBG decoding scheme for canceling the code level from SAC-signal.

Keywords: FBG, MFH, OCDMA, PIIN, BER.

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34 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin

Abstract:

A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: Multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion.

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33 An Efficient Cache Replacement Strategy for the Hybrid Cache Consistency Approach

Authors: Aline Zeitunlian, Ramzi A. Haraty

Abstract:

Caching was suggested as a solution for reducing bandwidth utilization and minimizing query latency in mobile environments. Over the years, different caching approaches have been proposed, some relying on the server to broadcast reports periodically informing of the updated data while others allowed the clients to request for the data whenever needed. Until recently a hybrid cache consistency scheme Scalable Asynchronous Cache Consistency Scheme SACCS was proposed, which combined the two different approaches benefits- and is proved to be more efficient and scalable. Nevertheless, caching has its limitations too, due to the limited cache size and the limited bandwidth, which makes the implementation of cache replacement strategy an important aspect for improving the cache consistency algorithms. In this thesis, we proposed a new cache replacement strategy, the Least Unified Value strategy (LUV) to replace the Least Recently Used (LRU) that SACCS was based on. This paper studies the advantages and the drawbacks of the new proposed strategy, comparing it with different categories of cache replacement strategies.

Keywords: Cache consistency, hybrid algorithm, and mobileenvironments

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32 GSM Based Automated Embedded System for Monitoring and Controlling of Smart Grid

Authors: Amit Sachan

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to acquire the remote electrical parameters like Voltage, Current, and Frequency from Smart grid and send these real time values over GSM network using GSM Modem/phone along with temperature at power station. This project is also designed to protect the electrical circuitry by operating an Electromagnetic Relay. The Relay can be used to operate a Circuit Breaker to switch off the main electrical supply. User can send commands in the form of SMS messages to read the remote electrical parameters. This system also can automatically send the real time electrical parameters periodically (based on time settings) in the form of SMS. This system also send SMS alerts whenever the Circuit Breaker trips or whenever the Voltage or Current exceeds the predefined limits.

Keywords: GSM Modem, Initialization of ADC module of microcontroller, PIC-C compiler for Embedded C programming, PIC kit 2 programmer for dumping code into Micro controller, Express SCH for Circuit design, Proteus for hardware simulation.

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31 The Impact of an Air-Supply Guide Vane on the Indoor Air Distribution

Authors: C.-C. Tsao, S.-W. Nien, W.-H. Chen , Y.-C. Shih

Abstract:

Indoor air distribution has great impact on people-s thermal sensation. Therefore, how to remove the indoor excess heat becomes an important issue to create a thermally comfortable indoor environment. To expel the extra indoor heat effectively, this paper used a dynamic CFD approach to study the effect of an air-supply guide vane swinging periodically on the indoor air distribution within a model room. The numerical results revealed that the indoor heat transfer performance caused by the swing guide vane had close relation with the number of vortices developing under the inlet cold jet. At larger swing amplitude, two smaller vortices continued to shed outward under the cold jet and remove the indoor heat load more effectively. As a result, it can be found that the average Nusselt number on the floor increased with the increase of the swing amplitude of the guide vane.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), dynamic mesh, heat transfer, indoor air distribution, thermal comfort.

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30 Evaluation of the Microbiological, Chemical and Sensory Quality of Carp Processed by the Sous Vide Method

Authors: Özlem Pelin Can

Abstract:

This study evaluated the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics of carp fillets processed by the sousvide method when stored at 2 and 10 °C. Four different combinations of sauced–storage were studied then stored at 2 or 10 °C was evaluate periodically sensory, microbiological and chemical quality. Batches stored at 2 °C had lower growth rates of mesophiles and psychrotrophs. Moreover, these counts decreased by increasing the heating temperature and time. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes were not found in any of the samples. The heat treatment of 90 °C for 15 min and sauced was the most effective to ensure the safety and extend the shelf-life of sousvide carp preserving its sensory characteristics. This study establishes the microbiological quality of sous vide carp and emphasizes the relevance of the raw materials, heat treatment and storage temperature to ensure the safety of the product.

Keywords: Sous- vide methods, carp, sauce, microbiological, chemical and sensory quality

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29 Solar-Inducted Cluster Head Relocation Algorithm

Authors: Goran Djukanovic, Goran Popovic

Abstract:

A special area in the study of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is how to move sensor nodes, as it expands the scope of application of wireless sensors and provides new opportunities to improve network performance. On the other side, it opens a set of new problems, especially if complete clusters are mobile. Node mobility can prolong the network lifetime. In such WSN, some nodes are possibly moveable or nomadic (relocated periodically), while others are static. This paper presents an idea of mobile, solar-powered CHs that relocate themselves inside clusters in such a way that the total energy consumption in the network reduces, and the lifetime of the network extends. Positioning of CHs is made in each round based on selfish herd hypothesis, where leader retreats to the center of gravity. Based on this idea, an algorithm, together with its modified version, has been presented and tested in this paper. Simulation results show that both algorithms have benefits in network lifetime, and prolongation of network stability period duration.

Keywords: CH-active algorithm, mobile cluster head, sensors, wireless sensor network.

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28 Study of Stress Wave Propagation with NHDMOC

Authors: G.Y. Zhang , M.L. Xu, R.Q. Zhang, W.H. Tang

Abstract:

MOC (method of cell) is a new method of investigating wave propagating in material with periodic microstructure, and can reflect the effect of microstructure. Wave propagation in periodically laminated medium consisting of linearly elastic layers can be treated as a special application of this method. In this paper, it was used to simulate the dynamic response of carbon-phenolic to impulsive loading under certain boundary conditions. From the comparison between the results obtained from this method and the exact results based on propagator matrix theory, excellent agreement is achieved. Conclusion can be made that the oscillation periodicity is decided by the thickness of sub-cells. In the end, the NHDMOC method, which permits studying stress wave propagation with one dimensional strain, was applied to study the one-dimensional stress wave propagation. In this paper, the ZWT nonlinear visco-elastic constitutive relationship with 7 parameters, NHDMOC, and corresponding equations were deduced. The equations were verified, comparing the elastic stress wave propagation in SHPB with, respectively, the elastic and the visco-elastic bar. Finally the dispersion and attenuation of stress wave in SHPB with visco-elastic bar was studied.

Keywords: MOC, NHDMOC, visco-elastic, wave propagation

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27 Urban Floods and Importance of Them in Cities Security Planning (Case Study: Dominant Watershed on Zavvareh City)

Authors: Jalil Emadi, Masoud Nasri, Ali Najafi, Yousef Moradi Shahgharyeh

Abstract:

Development of cities and villages, agricultural farms and industrial regions in abutment and/or in the course of streams and rivers or in prone flood lands has been caused more notations in hydrology problems and city planning topics. In order to protection of cities against of flood damages, embankment construction is a desired and scientific method. The cities that located in arid zones may damage by floods periodically. Zavvareh city in Ardestan township(Isfahan province) with 7704 people located in Ardestan plain that has been damaged by floods that have flowed from dominant mountainous watersheds in past years with regard to return period. In this study, according to flowed floods toward Zavvareh city, was attempt to plan suitable hydraulic structures such as canals, bridges and collectors in order to collection, conduction and depletion of city surface runoff.

Keywords: Flood, flood way, executive consideration, embankment, surface runoff network, Zavvareh.

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26 Benchmarking of Pentesting Tools

Authors: Esteban Alejandro Armas Vega, Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba

Abstract:

The benchmarking of tools for dynamic analysis of vulnerabilities in web applications is something that is done periodically, because these tools from time to time update their knowledge base and search algorithms, in order to improve their accuracy. Unfortunately, the vast majority of these evaluations are made by software enthusiasts who publish their results on blogs or on non-academic websites and always with the same evaluation methodology. Similarly, academics who have carried out this type of analysis from a scientific approach, the majority, make their analysis within the same methodology as well the empirical authors. This paper is based on the interest of finding answers to questions that many users of this type of tools have been asking over the years, such as, to know if the tool truly test and evaluate every vulnerability that it ensures do, or if the tool, really, deliver a real report of all the vulnerabilities tested and exploited. This kind of questions have also motivated previous work but without real answers. The aim of this paper is to show results that truly answer, at least on the tested tools, all those unanswered questions. All the results have been obtained by changing the common model of benchmarking used for all those previous works.

Keywords: Cybersecurity, IDS, security, web scanners, web vulnerabilities.

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25 Effect of Na2O Content on Durability of Geopolymer Mortars in Sulphuric Acid

Authors: Suresh Thokchom, Partha Ghosh, Somnath Ghosh

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of an experimental investigation to study the effect of alkali content in geopolymer mortar specimens exposed to sulphuric acid. Geopolymer mortar specimens were manufactured from Class F fly ash by activation with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution containing 5% to 8% Na2O. Durability of specimens were assessed by immersing them in 10% sulphuric acid solution and periodically monitoring surface deterioration and depth of dealkalization, changes in weight and residual compressive strength over a period of 24 weeks. Microstructural changes in the specimens were studied with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX. Alkali content in the activator solution significantly affects the durability of fly ash based geopolymer mortars in sulphuric acid. Specimens manufactured with higher alkali content performed better than those manufactured with lower alkali content. After 24 weeks in sulphuric acid, specimen with 8% alkali still recorded a residual strength as high as 55%.

Keywords: Alkali content, acid attack, compressive strength, geopolymer

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24 Design of Wireless Readout System for Resonant Gas Sensors

Authors: S. Mohamed Rabeek, Mi Kyoung Park, M. Annamalai Arasu

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of a wireless read out system for tracking the frequency shift of the polymer coated piezoelectric micro electromechanical resonator due to gas absorption. The measure of this frequency shift indicates the percentage of a particular gas the sensor is exposed to. It is measured using an oscillator and an FPGA based frequency counter by employing the resonator as a frequency determining element in the oscillator. This system consists of a Gas Sensing Wireless Readout (GSWR) and an USB Wireless Transceiver (UWT). GSWR consists of an oscillator based on a trans-impedance sustaining amplifier, an FPGA based frequency readout, a sub 1GHz wireless transceiver and a micro controller. UWT can be plugged into the computer via USB port and function as a wireless module to transfer gas sensor data from GSWR to the computer through its USB port. GUI program running on the computer periodically polls for sensor data through UWT - GSWR wireless link, the response from GSWR is logged in a file for post processing as well as displayed on screen.

Keywords: Gas sensor, GSWR, micro-mechanical system, UWT, volatile emissions.

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23 Tree Based Data Aggregation to Resolve Funneling Effect in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: G. Rajesh, B. Vinayaga Sundaram, C. Aarthi

Abstract:

In wireless sensor network, sensor node transmits the sensed data to the sink node in multi-hop communication periodically. This high traffic induces congestion at the node which is present one-hop distance to the sink node. The packet transmission and reception rate of these nodes should be very high, when compared to other sensor nodes in the network. Therefore, the energy consumption of that node is very high and this effect is known as the “funneling effect”. The tree based-data aggregation technique (TBDA) is used to reduce the energy consumption of the node. The throughput of the overall performance shows a considerable decrease in the number of packet transmissions to the sink node. The proposed scheme, TBDA, avoids the funneling effect and extends the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. The average case time complexity for inserting the node in the tree is O(n log n) and for the worst case time complexity is O(n2).

Keywords: Data Aggregation, Funneling Effect, Traffic Congestion, Wireless Sensor Network.

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22 Origins of Chicago Common Brick: Examining a Masonry Shell Encasing a New Ando Museum

Authors: Daniel Joseph Whittaker

Abstract:

This paper examines the broad array of historic sites from which Chicago common brick has emerged, and the methods this brick has been utilized within and around a new hybrid structure recently completed-and periodically opened to the public, as a private art, architecture, design, and social activism gallery space. Various technical aspects regarding the structural and aesthetic reuse methods of salvaged brick within the interior and exterior of this new Tadao Ando-designed building in Lincoln Park, Chicago, are explored. This paper expands specifically upon the multiple possible origins of Chicago common brick, as well as the extant brick currently composing the surrounding alley which is integral to demarcating the southern site boundary of the old apartment building now gallery. Themes encompassing Chicago’s archeological and architectural history, local resource extraction, and labor practices permeate this paper’s investigation into urban, social and architectural history and building construction technology advancements through time.

Keywords: Masonry construction, history brickmaking, private museums, Chicago Illinois, Tadao Ando.

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21 Adaptive Discharge Time Control for Battery Operation Time Enhancement

Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes an adaptive discharge time control method to balance cell voltages in alternating battery cell discharging method. In the alternating battery cell discharging method, battery cells are periodically discharged in turn. Recovery effect increases battery output voltage while the given battery cell rests without discharging, thus battery operation time of target system increases. However, voltage mismatch between cells leads two problems. First, voltage difference between cells induces inter-cell current with wasted power. Second, it degrades battery operation time, since system stops when any cell reaches to the minimum system operation voltage. To solve this problem, the proposed method adaptively controls cell discharge time to equalize both cell voltages. In the proposed method, battery operation time increases about 19%, while alternating battery cell discharging method shows about 7% improvement.

Keywords: Battery, Recovery Effect, Low-Power, Alternating Battery Cell Discharging, Adaptive Discharge Time Control.

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20 A Car Parking Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a car parking monitoring system using wireless sensor networks. Multiple sensor nodes and a sink node, a gateway, and a server constitute a wireless network for monitoring a parking lot. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. Each sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The sensor nodes and sink node use the 448 MHz band for wireless communication. Since RF transmission only occurs when sensor values show abrupt changes, the number of RF transmission operations is reduced and battery power can be conserved. The data from the sensor nodes reach the server via the sink node and gateway. The server determines which parking spaces are taken by cars based upon the received sensor data and reference values. The reference values are average sensor values measured by each sensor node when the corresponding parking spot is not occupied by a vehicle. Because the decision making is done by the server, the computational burden of the sensor node is relieved, which helps reduce the duty cycle of the sensor node.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, magnetometer, sensor node, wireless sensor network.

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