Improving the Utilization of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf Meal with Cellulase-Glucanase-Xylanase Combination and Selected Probiotic in Broiler Diets
Authors: Ayodeji Fasuyi
Telfairia occidentalis is a leafy vegetable commonly grown in the tropics for nutritional benefits. The use of enzymes and probiotics is becoming prominent due to the ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in many parts of the world. It is conceived that with enzymes and probiotics additives, fibrous leafy vegetables can be incorporated into poultry feeds as protein source. However, certain antinutrients were also found in the leaves of Telfairia occidentalis. Four broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated for the two phases of the broiler experiments. A mixture of fiber degrading enzymes, Roxazyme G2 (combination of cellulase, glucanase and xylanase) and probiotics (Turbotox), a growth promoter, were used in broiler diets at 1:1. The Roxazyme G2/Turbotox mixtures were used in diets containing four varying levels of Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal (TOLM) at 0, 10, 20 and 30%. Diets 1 were standard broiler diets without TOLM and Roxazyme G2 and Turbotox additives. Diets 2, 3 and 4 had enzymes and probiotics additives. Certain mineral elements such as Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in notable quantities viz. 2.6 g/100 g, 1.2 g/100 g, 6.2 g/100 g, 5.1 g/100 g, 4.7 g/100 g, 5875 ppm, 182 ppm, 136 ppm and 1036 ppm, respectively. Phytin, phytin-P, oxalate, tannin and HCN were also found in ample quantities viz. 189.2 mg/100 g, 120.1 mg/100 g, 80.7 mg/100 g, 43.1 mg/100 g and 61.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The average weight gain was highest at 46.3 g/bird/day for birds on 10% TOLM diet but similar (P > 0.05) to 46.2 g/bird/day for birds on 20% TOLM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 2.27 was the lowest and optimum for birds on 10% TOLM although similar (P > 0.05) to 2.29 obtained for birds on 20% TOLM. FCR of 2.61 was the highest at 2.61 for birds on 30% TOLM diet. The lowest FCR of 2.27 was obtained for birds on 10% TOLM diet although similar (P > 0.05) to 2.29 for birds on 20% TOLM diet. Most carcass characteristics and organ weights were similar (P > 0.05) for the experimental birds on the different diets except for kidney, gizzard and intestinal length. The values for kidney, gizzard and intestinal length were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for birds on the TOLM diets. The nitrogen retention had the highest value of 72.37 ± 0.10% for birds on 10% TOLM diet although similar (P > 0.05) to 71.54 ± 1.89 obtained for birds on the control diet without TOLM and enzymes/probiotics mixture. There was evidence of a better utilization of TOLM as a plant protein source. The carcass characteristics and organ weights all showed evidence of uniform tissue buildup and muscles development particularly in diets containing 10% of TOLM level. There was also better nitrogen utilization in birds on the 10% TOLM diet. Considering the cheap cost of TOLM, it is envisaged that its introduction into poultry feeds as a plant protein source will ultimately reduce the cost of poultry feeds.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 105
 Fasuyi A.O., Kehinde O.A. (2009). Effect of cellulase-glucanase-xylanase combination on the nutritive value of Telfairia occidentalis leaf meal in broiler diets. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology. 3 (11): 188-195 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/jcab
 Aletor VA, Adeogun OA (1995). Nutrients and Anti-Nutrient Component of Some Tropical Leafy Vegetables. Food Chem. 54 (4): 375-379.
 Fasuyi, A.O.(2007). Effects of graded levels of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf meal on the nutrition, biochemistry and haematology of broiler finisher. Agricultural Sciences Research Journal. 1 (1): 05-12.
 Bi Yu, Chung TK (2004). Effects of multiple-Enzyme mixtures on growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean meal diets. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 13: 178-182
 Kocher A, Choct M, Ross G, Broz J, Chung TK (2003). Effects of enzyme combinations on apparent metabolizable energy of corn-soybean mea/l-based diets in broilers. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 12: 275-283.
 Bedford MR (2000). Exogenous enzymes in monogastric nutrition – Their current value and future benefits. Livest. Prod. Sci. 86:1-13.
 Lutful Kabir S.M. (2009). The role of probiotics in the poultry industry. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 10(8): 3531-3546. Doi 10.3390/ijms 10083531.
 Casewell M., Friis C., Marco E., McMullin P., and Phillips I. (2003). The European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics and emerging consequences for human and animal health. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 52(2):159–161, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkg313
 Trafalska E, Grzybowska K. Probiotics-An alternative for antibiotics? Wiad Lek. 2004;57:491–498.
 Griggs JP, Jacob JP. Alternatives to antibiotics for organic poultry production. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 2005;14:750–756.
 Nava GM, Bielke LR, Callaway TR, Castañeda MP. Probiotic alternatives to reduce gastrointestinal infections: The poultry experience. Animal Health Res. Rev. 2005;6:105–118.
 AOAC (1995). Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Edition. Association of Official Analysis Chemist. Washington DC.
 Fernandes ACG, Fontes CMGA, Gilbert HG, Hazelwood GP, Fernandes TH, Ferreira LMA (1999). Homologous xylanases from Clostridium thermocellum: Evidence for bi-functional activity, synergism between xylanases catalytic modules and the presence of xylan-binding domains in enzyme complexes. Biochem. J. 342:105-110.
 Afrimash.com: https://www.afrimash.com/product-category/medicine/?goal=0_732e10ce94-ff8b1cd4b2-26697248&mc_cid=ff8b1cd4b2&mc_eid=038f82420f
 Oyenuga VA (1968). Nigeria feeding stuffs 3rd Edition, Ibadan University, pp99.
 Oke OL (1972). Leaf Protein Research in Nigeria; a Review Trop. Sci. 15: 139-155.
 Oke OL (1973). Mode of Cyanide Detoxification in Mclntyre E, Nestle C (Eds); Chronic Cassava Toxicity.
 Wyatt C, Soto-Salamova M, Pack M (1997). Applying enzymes to sorghum-based diet. Pages 116-118 in proceedings of Aust. Poult. Sci. Symp. 9. Sydney, Australia.
 Pack M, Bedford M, Wyatt C (1998). Feed enzymes may improve corn, sorghum diet. Feedstuffs 2(Feb.): 18-19.
 Fasuyi, A.O. (2010). Effect of cellulase/glucanase/xylanase (Roxazyme G2) enzymes combination on nutrients utilization of vegetable meal (Amaranthus cruentus) fed as sole dietary protein source in rat assay. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 45:683-689.
 Ogunsipe M.H., Adejumo J.O., Agbede J.O. and Asaniyan E.K (2015). Effect of roxazyme G2G supplementation on cassava plant meal fed to broiler chickens. Livestock Research for rural development. 27(12)
 Menconi A. and Barton J. (2017). Field experience on the use of probiotics in chickens and turkeys. Zootecnica International. Zootecnica.com
 Patterson J.A. and Burkholder K.M. (2003). Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production (Review). Poultry Science, 82: 627-631.
 Pelicano ERL, Souza PA, De Souza HBA, De Oba A, Norkus EA, Kodawara LM and Lima TMA (2003). Effect of different probiotics on broiler carcass and meat quality. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, 5(3): 207-214.
 Sabiha MKA, Elizabeth VK and Jalaludeen A (2005). Effect of supplementation of probiotic on the growth performance of broiler chicken. Indian Journal of poultry Science, 40(1): 73-75.
 Ray PP (2006). Effect of feeding probiotics with phytase in commercial broilers. M.V.Sc thesis, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Krishi Vishvidyalaya (H.P), India.
 Jadhav K., Sharma K.S, Katoch S., Sharma V.K.and Mane B.G (2015). Probiotics in Broiler Poultry Feeds: A Review. Journal of Animal Nutrition and Physiology. 1:4-16
 Král M., Angelovičová M. and Mrázová L. (2012). Application of probiotics in poultry production. Animal Science and Biotechnologies. 45 (1)
 Mutuş R, Kocabagli N, Alp M, Acar N, Eren M, Gezen SS. (2006). The effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on tibial bone characteristics and strength in broilers. Poult. Sci. 85:1621–1625
 Mahajan P, Sahoo J, Panda PC. (1999)Effects of probiotic feeding and seasons on the growth performance and carcass quality of broilers. Indian J. Poult. Sci. 1999;34:167–176.
 Kabir SML, Rahman MM, Rahman MB, Rahman MM, Ahmed SU. (2004). The dynamics of probiotics on growth performance and immune response in broilers. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 3:361–364.