Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 252

Search results for: Behavioral finance.

252 The Investors- Reaction to Investment Rating Change Announcements

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, Liang-Chien Lee, Shu-Ling Wu

Abstract:

This study investigates the investors- behavioral reaction to the investment rating change announcements from the views of behavioral finance. The empirical results indicate that self-interest does affect the intention of securities firms to release investment ratings for individual stocks. In addition, behavioral pitfalls are also found in the response of retail investors to investment rating change announcements.

Keywords: Investment ratings, Behavioral finance, Self-interest, Behavioral pitfalls

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251 Ethical Finance and Islamic Finance: Particularities, Possible Convergence and Potential Development

Authors: Safa Ougoujil, Sidi Mohamed Rigar

Abstract:

Economics is not an exact science. It cannot be from the moment it is a social science that concerns society organization, a human science that depends on the behavior of the men and women who make a part of this society. Therefore, it cannot ignore morality, the instinctive sense of good and evil, the natural order which place us between certain values, and which religion often sheds light on. In terms of finance, the reference to ethics is becoming more popular than ever. This is naturally due to the growing financial crises. Finance is less and less ethical, but some financial practices have continued to do so. This is the case of ethical finance and Islamic finance. After attempting to define the concepts of ethical finance and Islamic finance, in a period when financial innovation seeks to encourage differentiation in order to create more profit margins, this article attempts to expose the particularities, the convergences and the potentialities of development of these two sensibilities.

Keywords: Convergences, ethical finance, Islamic finance, potential development.

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250 Islamic Finance: What Is the Outlook for Italy?

Authors: Paolo Pietro Biancone

Abstract:

The spread of Islamic financial instruments is an opportunity to offer integration for the immigrant population and to attract, through the specific products, the richness of sovereign funds from the "Arab" countries. However, it is important to consider the possibility of comparing a traditional finance model, which in recent times has given rise to many doubts, with an "alternative" finance model, where the ethical aspect arising from religious principles is very important.

Keywords: Banks, Europe, Islamic Finance, Italy.

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249 Investors’ Misreaction to Subsequent Bad News

Authors: Liang-Chien Lee, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Ying-Shu Tseng

Abstract:

Comparing with prior studies mainly focused on the effect of a certain event (it may be the initial announcement of bad news or the repeated announcements of identical bad news) on stock price, the aim of this study is to explore how investors react to subsequent bad news with identical content. Empirical results show that as a result of behavioral pitfalls, investors underreact to the initial announcement of the bad news (i.e., unknown bad news) and overreact to the repeated announcements of the identical bad news (i.e., known bad news).

Keywords: Subsequent bad news, Behavioral finance, Investors’ misreaction, Behavioral pitfalls.

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248 Financial Literacy of Students of Finance: An Empirical Study from the Czech Republic

Authors: Barbora Chmelíková

Abstract:

Financial literacy is a widely discussed topic on the national and international level by governments, organizations and academia. For this reason, this study analyses financial knowledge, financial behavior, and financial attitudes of students of finance. The aim of the paper is to determine whether the financial literacy of university students studying finance differs from the level of financial literacy in selected OECD countries. The research was conducted at Masaryk University in the Czech Republic. The empirical study comprises questions related to several aspects of financial literacy, such as financial knowledge, personal finance behavior, or decisionmaking. The results indicate that improvement in financial literacy of university students is still required, even though their major is finance related.

Keywords: Financial literacy, financial behavior, personal finance management, university students.

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247 Elucidating the Influence of Demographics and Psychological Traits on Investment Biases

Authors: Huei-Wen Lin

Abstract:

This study explored the relationship between psychological traits, demographics and financial behavioral biases for individual investors in Taiwan stock market. By using questionnaire survey method conducted in 2010, there are 554 valid convenient samples collected to examine the determinants of three types of behavioral biases. Based on literature review, two hypothesized models are constructed and further used to evaluate the effects of big five personality traits and demographic variables on investment biases through Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis. The results showed that investment biases of individual investors are significantly related to four personality traits as well as some demographics.

Keywords: Behavioral finance, Big Five, Disposition effect, Herding, Overconfidence, Personality traits.

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246 Financial Decision-Making among Finance Students: An Empirical Study from the Czech Republic

Authors: Barbora Chmelíková

Abstract:

Making sound financial decisions is an essential skill which can have an impact on life of each consumer of financial products. The aim of this paper is to examine decision-making concerning financial matters and personal finance. The selected target group was university students majoring in finance related fields. The study was conducted in the Czech Republic at Masaryk University in 2015. In order to analyze financial decision-making questions related to basic finance decisions were developed to address the research objective. The results of the study suggest gaps in detecting best solutions to given financial decision-making questions among finance students. The analysis results indicate relation between financial decision-making and own experience with holding and using concrete financial products.

Keywords: Financial decision-making, financial literacy, personal finance, university students.

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245 SMEs Access to Finance in Croatia – Model Approach

Authors: Vinko Vidučić, Ljiljana Vidučić, Damir Boras

Abstract:

The goals of the research include the determination of the characteristics of SMEs finance in Croatia, as well as the determination of indirect growth rates of the information model of the entrepreneurs` perception of business environment. The research results show that cost of finance and access to finance are most important constraining factor in setting up and running the business of small entrepreneurs in Croatia. Furthermore, small entrepreneurs in Croatia are significantly dissatisfied with the administrative barriers although relatively to a lesser extent than was the case in the pre crisis time. High collateral requirement represents the main characteristic of bank lending concerning SMEs followed by long credit elaboration process. Formulated information model has defined the individual impact of indirect growth rates of the remaining variables on the model’s specific variable.

Keywords: Business environment, information model, indirect growth rates, SME finance.

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244 Increasing the Heterogeneity and Competition of Early Stage Financing: An Analysis of the Role of Crowdfunding in Entrepreneurial Ventures

Authors: Lars Silver, Björn Berggren, Andreas Fili

Abstract:

The financial crisis has decreased the opportunities of small businesses to acquire financing through conventional financial actors, such as commercial banks. This credit constraint is partly the reason for the emergence of new alternatives of financing, in addition to the spreading opportunities for communication and secure financial transfer through Internet. One of the most interesting venues for finance is termed “crowdfunding". As the term suggests crowdfunding is an appeal to prospective customers and investors to form a crowd that will finance projects that otherwise would find it hard to generate support through the most common financial actors. Crowdfunding is in this paper divided into different models; the threshold model, the microfinance model, the micro loan model and the equity model. All these models add to the financial possibilities of emerging entrepreneurs.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, crowdfunding, equity finance, bank finance.

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243 Access of Small and Medium Enterprises to Finance in Rural Areas: Case of Indonesia and Thailand

Authors: N. Ikasari, T. Sumransat, U. Eko, R. Kusumastuti

Abstract:

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are regarded as the engine for economic development, notwithstanding their continuous financing conundrum. In the case of developing countries, access to finance is a reflection of the effectiveness of government policy. The widely accepted perspective to assess small businesses’ access to finance is that of economic view. The existing body of literature presents access to finance in three dimensions; they are accessibility, eligibility and affordability. Within this perspective, the role of socio-cultural has not explored. This study is aimed at investigating the existence of any socio-cultural factors within access to finance issue in Asian countries where governance is enriched by countries’ values and beliefs. The significance of this study is the instigation of supplementary dimension to assess access to finance that eventually contributes to the development of micro-finance policy. Indonesia and Thailand are selected as cases in point, where distinction is drawn on the level of cultural diversity and micro-finance policy in respective country. A questionnaire is used to collect information related to the three dimensions of access to finance as well as to explore alternative financing reasoning to elaborate the issue from the demand side. Questionnaires are distributed to 60 small business owners operating in Indonesia and the same number in Thailand. In order to present a complete understanding on the matter at hand, interviews with banks are conducted to capture the perspective as presented by the supply side. Research findings show that small business owners and banks in Indonesia and Thailand are in agreement that access to finance is not deemed as an issue. However, trust issue that exists mutually between financing users and providers leads small business owners in Indonesia to look for alternative financing other than banks. The findings contribute to the refinement of micro-financing policy in Indonesia and Thailand.

Keywords: Access to finance, Indonesia, small and medium enterprises, Thailand.

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242 Assessment-Assisted and Relationship-Based Financial Advising: Using an Empirical Assessment to Understand Personal Investor Risk Tolerance in Professional Advising Relationships

Authors: Jerry Szatko, Edan L. Jorgensen, Stacia Jorgensen

Abstract:

A crucial component to the success of any financial advising relationship is for the financial professional to understand the perceptions, preferences and thought-processes carried by the financial clients they serve. Armed with this information, financial professionals are more quickly able to understand how they can tailor their approach to best match the individual preferences and needs of each personal investor. Our research explores the use of a quantitative assessment tool in the financial services industry to assist in the identification of the personal investor’s consumer behaviors, especially in terms of financial risk tolerance, as it relates to their financial decision making. Through this process, the Unitifi Consumer Insight Tool (UCIT) was created and refined to capture and categorize personal investor financial behavioral categories and the financial personality tendencies of individuals prior to the initiation of a financial advisement relationship. This paper discusses the use of this tool to place individuals in one of four behavior-based financial risk tolerance categories. Our discoveries and research were aided through administration of a web-based survey to a group of over 1,000 individuals. Our findings indicate that it is possible to use a quantitative assessment tool to assist in predicting the behavioral tendencies of personal consumers when faced with consumer financial risk and decisions.

Keywords: Behavior based advising, behavioral finance, financial advising, financial advisor tools, financial risk tolerance.

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241 Bounded Rational Heterogeneous Agents in Artificial Stock Markets: Literature Review and Research Direction

Authors: Talal Alsulaiman, Khaldoun Khashanah

Abstract:

In this paper, we provided a literature survey on the artificial stock problem (ASM). The paper began by exploring the complexity of the stock market and the needs for ASM. ASM aims to investigate the link between individual behaviors (micro level) and financial market dynamics (macro level). The variety of patterns at the macro level is a function of the AFM complexity. The financial market system is a complex system where the relationship between the micro and macro level cannot be captured analytically. Computational approaches, such as simulation, are expected to comprehend this connection. Agent-based simulation is a simulation technique commonly used to build AFMs. The paper proceeds by discussing the components of the ASM. We consider the roles of behavioral finance (BF) alongside the traditionally risk-averse assumption in the construction of agent’s attributes. Also, the influence of social networks in the developing of agents interactions is addressed. Network topologies such as a small world, distance-based, and scale-free networks may be utilized to outline economic collaborations. In addition, the primary methods for developing agents learning and adaptive abilities have been summarized. These incorporated approach such as Genetic Algorithm, Genetic Programming, Artificial neural network and Reinforcement Learning. In addition, the most common statistical properties (the stylized facts) of stock that are used for calibration and validation of ASM are discussed. Besides, we have reviewed the major related previous studies and categorize the utilized approaches as a part of these studies. Finally, research directions and potential research questions are argued. The research directions of ASM may focus on the macro level by analyzing the market dynamic or on the micro level by investigating the wealth distributions of the agents.

Keywords: Artificial stock markets, agent based simulation, bounded rationality, behavioral finance, artificial neural network, interaction, scale-free networks.

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240 PEIBM- Perceiving Emotions using an Intelligent Behavioral Model

Authors: Maryam Humayun, Zafar I. Malik, Shaukat Ali

Abstract:

Computer animation is a widely adopted technique used to specify the movement of various objects on screen. The key issue of this technique is the specification of motion. Motion Control Methods are such methods which are used to specify the actions of objects. This paper discusses the various types of motion control methods with special focus on behavioral animation. A behavioral model is also proposed which takes into account the emotions and perceptions of an actor which in turn generate its behavior. This model makes use of an expert system to generate tasks for the actors which specify the actions to be performed in the virtual environment.

Keywords: Behavioral animation, emotion, expert system, perception.

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239 Financing - Scheduling Optimization for Construction Projects by using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Hesham Abdel-Khalek, Sherif M. Hafez, Abdel-Hamid M. el-Lakany, Yasser Abuel-Magd

Abstract:

Investment in a constructed facility represents a cost in the short term that returns benefits only over the long term use of the facility. Thus, the costs occur earlier than the benefits, and the owners of facilities must obtain the capital resources to finance the costs of construction. A project cannot proceed without an adequate financing, and the cost of providing an adequate financing can be quite large. For these reasons, the attention to the project finance is an important aspect of project management. Finance is also a concern to the other organizations involved in a project such as the general contractor and material suppliers. Unless an owner immediately and completely covers the costs incurred by each participant, these organizations face financing problems of their own. At a more general level, the project finance is the only one aspect of the general problem of corporate finance. If numerous projects are considered and financed together, then the net cash flow requirements constitute the corporate financing problem for capital investment. Whether project finance is performed at the project or at the corporate level does not alter the basic financing problem .In this paper, we will first consider facility financing from the owner's perspective, with due consideration for its interaction with other organizations involved in a project. Later, we discuss the problems of construction financing which are crucial to the profitability and solvency of construction contractors. The objective of this paper is to present the steps utilized to determine the best combination of minimum project financing. The proposed model considers financing; schedule and maximum net area .The proposed model is called Project Financing and Schedule Integration using Genetic Algorithms "PFSIGA". This model intended to determine more steps (maximum net area) for any project with a subproject. An illustrative example will demonstrate the feature of this technique. The model verification and testing are put into consideration.

Keywords: Project Management, Large-scale ConstructionProjects, Cash flow, Interest, Investment, Loan, Optimization, Scheduling, Financing and Genetic Algorithms.

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238 Factors Determining the Women Empowerment through Microfinance: An Empirical Study in Sri Lanka

Authors: Y. Rathiranee, D. M. Semasinghe

Abstract:

This study attempts to identify the factors influencing on women empowerment of rural area in Sri Lanka through micro finance services. Data were collected from one hundred (100) rural women involving self-employment activities through a questionnaire using direct personal interviews. Judgment and Convenience Random sampling technique was used to select the sample size from three Divisional Secretariat divisions of Kandawalai, Poonakari and Karachchi in Kilinochchi District. The factor analysis was performed on fourteen (14) variables for screening and reducing the variables to identify the influencing factors on empowerment. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between the three empowerment factors and the impact of micro finance on overall empowerment of rural women. The result of this study summarized the variables into three factors namely decision making, freedom to mobility and family support and which are positively associated with empowerment. In addition to this the value of adjusted R2 is 0.248 indicates that all the variables extracted can be explained 24.8% of the variation in the women empowerment through microfinance. Independent variables of these three factors have positive correlation with women empowerment as well as significant values at 5 percent level.

Keywords: Influencing factors, Micro finance, rural women and women empowerment.

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237 Market Acceptance of a Murabaha-Based Finance Structure within a Social Network of Non-Islamic Small and Medium Enterprise Owners in African Procurement

Authors: Craig M. Allen

Abstract:

Twenty two African entrepreneurs with Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in a single social network centered around a non-Muslim population in a smaller African country, selected an Islamic financing structure, a form of Murabaha, based solely on market rationale. These entrepreneurs had all won procurement contracts from major purchasers of goods within their country and faced difficulty arranging traditional bank financing to support their supply-chain needs. The Murabaha-based structure satisfied their market-driven demand and provided an attractive alternative to the traditional bank-offered lending products. The Murabaha-styled trade-financing structure was not promoted with any religious implications, but solely as a market solution to the existing problems associated with bank-related financing. This indicates the strong market forces that draw SMEs to financing structures that are traditionally considered within the framework of Islamic finance.

Keywords: Africa, entrepreneurs, Islamic finance, market acceptance, Murabaha, SMEs.

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236 The Determinants of Senior Students' Behavioral Intention on the Blended E-Learning for the Ceramics Teaching Course at the Active Aging University

Authors: Horng-Jyh Chen, Yi-Fang Chen, Chien-Liang Lin

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors try to investigate the determinants of behavioral intention of the blended E-learning course for senior students at the Active Ageing University in Taiwan. Due to lower proficiency in the use of computers and less experience on learning styles of the blended E-learning course for senior students will be expected quite different from those for most young students. After more than five weeks course for two years the questionnaire survey is executed to collect data for statistical analysis in order to understand the determinants of the behavioral intention for senior students. The object of this study is at one of the Active Ageing University in Taiwan total of 84 senior students in the blended E-learning for the ceramics teaching course. The research results show that only the perceived usefulness of the blended E-learning course has significant positive relationship with the behavioral intention.

Keywords: Active Aging University, blended E-learning, ceramics teaching course, behavioral intention

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235 Behavioral Signature Generation using Shadow Honeypot

Authors: Maros Barabas, Michal Drozd, Petr Hanacek

Abstract:

A novel behavioral detection framework is proposed to detect zero day buffer overflow vulnerabilities (based on network behavioral signatures) using zero-day exploits, instead of the signature-based or anomaly-based detection solutions currently available for IDPS techniques. At first we present the detection model that uses shadow honeypot. Our system is used for the online processing of network attacks and generating a behavior detection profile. The detection profile represents the dataset of 112 types of metrics describing the exact behavior of malware in the network. In this paper we present the examples of generating behavioral signatures for two attacks – a buffer overflow exploit on FTP server and well known Conficker worm. We demonstrated the visualization of important aspects by showing the differences between valid behavior and the attacks. Based on these metrics we can detect attacks with a very high probability of success, the process of detection is however very expensive.

Keywords: behavioral signatures, metrics, network, security design

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234 Working Capital Efficiency and Firm Profitability – Nigeria and Kenya

Authors: Lucian J. Pitt

Abstract:

The primary purpose of this study is to understand the differences in the relationship between working capital management efficiency, working capital investment decisions and working capital finance decisions and the profitability of firms within the context of two African developing economies, Kenya and Nigeria. The study finds that there is a significant difference in the relationship between the firm’s profitability and the working capital variables which suggests different challenges for working capital management in each of these countries.

Keywords: Working Capital Management, Working Capital Investment, Working Capital Finance, Profitability, Cash Conversion Cycle.

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233 Consequential Influences of Work-Induced Emotions on the Work-Induced Happiness of Frontline Workers in Finance-Oriented Firms

Authors: Mohammed-Aminu Sanda, Emmanuel K. Mawuena

Abstract:

Frontline workers performing client service duties in finance-oriented firms in most sub-Saharan African countries, such as Ghana, are known to be challenged in the conduct of their activities. The challenge is attributed to clients’ continued demand for real-time services from such workers, despite the introduction of technological interventions to offset the situation. This has caused such frontline workers to experience increases in their work-induced emotions with consequential effects on their work-induced happiness. This study, therefore, explored the effect of frontline workers’ work-induced emotions on their worked-induced happiness when providing tellering services to clients. A cross-sectional design and quantitative technique were used. Data were collected from a sample of 280 frontline workers using questionnaire. Based on the analysis, it was found that an increase in the frontline workers’ work-induced emotions, caused by their feelings of strain, burnout, frustration, and hard work, had consequential effect on their work-induced happiness. This consequential effect was also found to be aggravated by the workers’ senses of being stretched beyond limit, being emotionally drained, and being used up by their work activities. It is concluded that frontline workers in finance-oriented firms can provide quality real-time services to clients without increases in their work-induced emotions, but with enhanced work-induced happiness, when the psychological and physiological emotional factors associated with the challenged work activities are understood and remedied. Management of the firms can use such understanding to redesign the activities of their frontline workers and improve the quality of their service delivery interactivity with clients.

Keywords: Client-service activity, finance industrial sector, frontline workers, work-induced emotion, work-induced happiness.

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232 Entrepreneurship Game: Digital 'Catur Bistari'

Authors: A.A. Amran, S. R. M. Shukri, S. M. Taib

Abstract:

The role of entrepreneurs in generating the economy is very important. Thus, nurturing entrepreneurship skills among society is very crucial and should start from the early age. One of the methods is to teach through game such as board game. Game provides a fun and interactive platform for players to learn and play. Besides that as today-s world is moving towards Islamic approach in terms of finance, banking and entertainment but Islamic based game is still hard to find in the market especially games on entrepreneurship. Therefore, there is a gap in this segment that can be filled by learning entrepreneurship through game. The objective of this paper is to develop an entrepreneurship digital-based game entitled “Catur Bistari" that is based on Islamic business approach. Knowledge and skill of entrepreneurship and Islamic business approach will be learned through the tasks that are incorporated inside the game.

Keywords: Board game, educational game, entrepreneurship, Islamic finance and simulation.

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231 Political Finance in Africa: Ethiopia as a Case Study

Authors: Wondwosen Teshome B.

Abstract:

Since 1991 Ethiopia has officially adopted multi-party democracy. At present, there are 89 registered political parties in the country. Though political parties play an important role in the functioning of a democratic government, how to fund them is an issue of major concern. Political parties and individual candidates running for political office have to raise funds for election campaigns, and to survive as political candidates. The aim of this paper is to examine party funding problems in Africa by taking the case of Ethiopia as an example. The paper also evaluates the motives of local and international donors in giving financial and material support to political parties in emerging democracies and assesses the merits and de-merits of their donations.

Keywords: Africa, State funding, Ethiopia, Political finance, Political party, Western donors.

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230 SMEs Relationship Banking: Length, Loyalty, Trust. Do SMEs get Something in Return?

Authors: Daniel Badulescu

Abstract:

Under the difficult access to finance of SMEs, they expect that its relationship with the banks shall constitute a real help to access appropriate financing, at reasonable costs and requirements, given the possibility of mutually beneficial and long lasting relation. The literature, but also the research we have carried on, is centered on such determinants as concentration and the length of the relationship, but at the same time, there is little certainty that banks are responding positively to them. Furthermore, although the trust is considered as being a fundamental element of bank relationship – see the case house bank – SMEs find that the banks finance them looking rather on collaterals and covenants than to trust. Moreover, a positive behavior, such as prompt or advance repayments of loans, doesn-t generate any positive feedback from the banks side. All these show a deep un-satisfaction of the SMEs concerning their relationship banking.

Keywords: Banks' behavior, relationship banking, SMEs.

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229 The Relationship between the Disposition Effect and Herding Behavior: Evidence from Taiwan’s Information Technology Stocks

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the relationship between the disposition effect and herding behavior of investors trading Taiwanese information technology stocks. This study differs from previous literature in two aspects. First, in contrast with the earlier studies that focused on investigating investors’ herding behavior, this study explores the possibility that the disposition effect drives investors’ herding behavior. Additionally, it takes an in-depth look at the interdependence between the disposition effect and herding behavior of investors, including lead-lag relationship and volatility transmission effect. Empirical results show that investors trading Taiwan’s information technology stocks exhibit pronounced herding behavior and that the disposition effect has a great impact on their herding behavior.

Keywords: Herding behavior, Disposition effect, Behavioral finance.

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228 Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Financing Practice and Accessing Bank Loan Issues -The Case of Libya

Authors: Kalsom Abd Wahab, Khalid Hassan Abdesamed

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the financing practices of SMEs in Libya in two different phases of business life cycle: start-up and matured stages. Moreover, SMEs- accessing bank loan issues is also identified. The study was conducted by taking into account the aspect of demand. The findings are based on a sample of 76 SMEs in Libya through the adoption of questionnaires. The results have pinpointed several things- evidently, SMEs use informal financing sources which prefer personal savings; SME owners are willing to apply for bank loan, that the most pressing problem has been identified, not to apply bank loan is loan with interest (religion factor).

Keywords: SMEs, Formal Finance (loan from bank), Informal Finance, Loan with interest (religion factor), Libya.

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227 Predicting Individual Investors- Intention to Invest: An Experimental Analysis of Attitude as a Mediator

Authors: Azwadi Ali

Abstract:

The survival of publicly listed companies largely depends on their stocks being liquidly traded. This goal can be achieved when new investors are attracted to invest on companies- stocks. Among different groups of investors, individual investors are generally less able to objectively evaluate companies- risks and returns, and tend to be emotionally biased in their investing decisions. Therefore their decisions may be formed as a result of perceived risks and returns, and influenced by companies- images. This study finds that perceived risk, perceived returns and trust directly affect individual investors- trading decisions while attitude towards brand partially mediates the relationships. This finding suggests that, in courting individual investors, companies still need to perform financially while building a good image can result in their stocks being accepted quicker than the stocks of good performing companies with hidden images.

Keywords: Behavioral Finance, Investment, Attitude towardsBrand, Partial Least Squares

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226 Impact of Behavioral Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila AL-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir

Abstract:

Cognitive symptoms and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We have measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological Battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASD and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and Motor aspects. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future researches should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, ritual routine adherence, and the use of different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: Autism, Cognitive ability, Motor Behavior, and Neuropsychological battery.

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225 Why Do Pakistani Customers Patronize Islamic Banks- An Empirical Analysis

Authors: Farjana Mumu, Jia Guozho

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Throughout the world, the Islamic way of banking and financing is increasing. The same trend is also visible in Pakistan, where the Islamic banking sector is increasing in size and volume each year. The question immediately arises as why the Pakistanis patronize the Islamic banking system? This study was carried out to find whether following the Islamic rules in finance is the main factor for such selection or whether other factors such as customer service, location, banking hour, physical facilities of the bank etc also have importance. The study was carried by distributing questionnaire and 200 responses were collected from the clients of Islamic banks. The result showed that the service quality and other factors are as important as following the Islamic rules for finance to retain old ustomers and catch new customers. The result is important and Islamic banks can take actions accordingly to look after both the factors

Keywords: Customers' perception, customer satisfaction, customer service, Islamic banking

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224 Relationships among Tourists’ Needs for Uniqueness, Perceived Authenticity and Behavioral Intentions

Authors: Deniz Karagöz Yüncü

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This study tested a structural model which investigates the relationships among tourists’ need for uniqueness, perceived authenticity (object-based authenticity and existential authenticity) and behavioral intentions to consume cultural and heritage destinations. The sample of the study comprised of 281 participants in a cultural heritage site, in Cappadocia, Turkey. The data were provided via face to face interviews in two months (September and October) which considered the high season. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the causal relationships among the hypotheses. Findings revealed tourists’ creative choice had an influence on object-based authenticity and existential authenticity. Tourists’ avoidance had an influence on object-based authenticity. The study concluded that two dimensions, namely, the object based authenticity and existential authenticity had significant impact on behavioral intentions.

Keywords: Needs for uniqueness, object-based authenticity, existential authenticity, behavioral intentions.

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223 Role of Social Capital on Consumer Attitudes, Peer Influence and Behavioral Intentions: A Social Media Perspective

Authors: Qazi Mohammed Ahmed, Osman Sadiq Paracha, Iftikhar Hussain

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The study aims to explore the unaddressed relationship between social capital and consumers’ underlying behavioral intentions. The study postulates that this association is mediated by the role of attitudes and peer influence. The research attains evidence from a usable sample of 673 responses. The majority consists of the young and energetic social media users of Pakistan that utilize virtual communities as a way of life. A variance based structural equation modeling has been applied through SmartPLS 3. The results reveal that social capital exerts a statistically supportive association with both attitudes and peer influence. Contrastingly, this predictor variable shows an insignificant linkage with behavioral intentions but this relationship is fully mediated by consumer attitudes and peer influence. The paper enhances marketing literature with respect to an unexplored society of Pakistan. It also provides a lens for the contemporary advertisers, in terms of supporting their social media campaigns with affiliative and cohesive elements. The study also identifies a series of predictor variables that could further be tested with attitudes, subjective norms and behavioral responses.

Keywords: Behavioral intentions, consumer attitudes, peer influence, social capital.

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