Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1292

Search results for: Statistical inference

1292 Informal Inferential Reasoning Using a Modelling Approach within a Computer-Based Simulation

Authors: Theodosia Prodromou

Abstract:

The article investigates how 14- to 15- year-olds build informal conceptions of inferential statistics as they engage in a modelling process and build their own computer simulations with dynamic statistical software. This study proposes four primary phases of informal inferential reasoning for the students in the statistical modeling and simulation process. Findings show shifts in the conceptual structures across the four phases and point to the potential of all of these phases for fostering the development of students- robust knowledge of the logic of inference when using computer based simulations to model and investigate statistical questions.

Keywords: Inferential reasoning, learning, modelling, statistical inference, simulation.

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1291 Data Oriented Modeling of Uniform Random Variable: Applied Approach

Authors: Ahmad Habibizad Navin, Mehdi Naghian Fesharaki, Mirkamal Mirnia, Mohamad Teshnelab, Ehsan Shahamatnia

Abstract:

In this paper we introduce new data oriented modeling of uniform random variable well-matched with computing systems. Due to this conformity with current computers structure, this modeling will be efficiently used in statistical inference.

Keywords: Uniform random variable, Data oriented modeling, Statistical inference, Prodigraph, Statistically complete tree, Uniformdigital probability digraph, Uniform n-complete probability tree.

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1290 Multiple Regression based Graphical Modeling for Images

Authors: Pavan S., Sridhar G., Sridhar V.

Abstract:

Super resolution is one of the commonly referred inference problems in computer vision. In the case of images, this problem is generally addressed using a graphical model framework wherein each node represents a portion of the image and the edges between the nodes represent the statistical dependencies. However, the large dimensionality of images along with the large number of possible states for a node makes the inference problem computationally intractable. In this paper, we propose a representation wherein each node can be represented as acombination of multiple regression functions. The proposed approach achieves a tradeoff between the computational complexity and inference accuracy by varying the number of regression functions for a node.

Keywords: Belief propagation, Graphical model, Regression, Super resolution.

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1289 A Practical Approach for Testing the Process Quality

Authors: Mou-Yuan Liao, Chien-Wei Wu, Chien-Hua Lin

Abstract:

Process capability index Cpk is the most widely used index in making managerial decisions since it provides bounds on the process yield for normally distributed processes. However, existent methods for assessing process performance which constructed by statistical inference may unfortunately lead to fine results, because uncertainties exist in most real-world applications. Thus, this study adopts fuzzy inference to deal with testing of Cpk . A brief score is obtained for assessing a supplier’s process instead of a severe evaluation.

Keywords: Process capability analysis, quality control.

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1288 DJess A Knowledge-Sharing Middleware to Deploy Distributed Inference Systems

Authors: Federico Cabitza, Bernardo Dal Seno

Abstract:

In this paper DJess is presented, a novel distributed production system that provides an infrastructure for factual and procedural knowledge sharing. DJess is a Java package that provides programmers with a lightweight middleware by which inference systems implemented in Jess and running on different nodes of a network can communicate. Communication and coordination among inference systems (agents) is achieved through the ability of each agent to transparently and asynchronously reason on inferred knowledge (facts) that might be collected and asserted by other agents on the basis of inference code (rules) that might be either local or transmitted by any node to any other node.

Keywords: Knowledge-Based Systems, Expert Systems, Distributed Inference Systems, Parallel Production Systems, Ambient Intelligence, Mobile Agents.

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1287 Wind Farm Power Performance Verification Using Non-Parametric Statistical Inference

Authors: M. Celeska, K. Najdenkoski, V. Dimchev, V. Stoilkov

Abstract:

Accurate determination of wind turbine performance is necessary for economic operation of a wind farm. At present, the procedure to carry out the power performance verification of wind turbines is based on a standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In this paper, nonparametric statistical inference is applied to designing a simple, inexpensive method of verifying the power performance of a wind turbine. A statistical test is explained, examined, and the adequacy is tested over real data. The methods use the information that is collected by the SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. The study has used data on the monthly output of wind farm in the Republic of Macedonia, and the time measuring interval was from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. At the end, it is concluded whether the power performance of a wind turbine differed significantly from what would be expected. The results of the implementation of the proposed methods showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.

Keywords: Canonical correlation analysis, power curve, power performance, wind energy.

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1286 The Effects of the Inference Process in Reading Texts in Arabic

Authors: May George

Abstract:

Inference plays an important role in the learning process and it can lead to a rapid acquisition of a second language. When learning a non-native language i.e., a critical language like Arabic, the students depend on the teacher’s support most of the time to learn new concepts. The students focus on memorizing the new vocabulary and stress on learning all the grammatical rules. Hence, the students became mechanical and cannot produce the language easily. As a result, they are unable to predicate the meaning of words in the context by relying heavily on the teacher, in that they cannot link their prior knowledge or even identify the meaning of the words without the support of the teacher. This study explores how the teacher guides students learning during the inference process and what are the processes of learning that can direct student’s inference.

Keywords: Inference, Reading, Arabic, and Language Acquisition.

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1285 Maximizer of the Posterior Marginal Estimate of Phase Unwrapping Based On Statistical Mechanics of the Q-Ising Model

Authors: Yohei Saika, Tatsuya Uezu

Abstract:

We constructed a method of phase unwrapping for a typical wave-front by utilizing the maximizer of the posterior marginal (MPM) estimate corresponding to equilibrium statistical mechanics of the three-state Ising model on a square lattice on the basis of an analogy between statistical mechanics and Bayesian inference. We investigated the static properties of an MPM estimate from a phase diagram using Monte Carlo simulation for a typical wave-front with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry. The simulations clarified that the surface-consistency conditions were useful for extending the phase where the MPM estimate was successful in phase unwrapping with a high degree of accuracy and that introducing prior information into the MPM estimate also made it possible to extend the phase under the constraint of the surface-consistency conditions with a high degree of accuracy. We also found that the MPM estimate could be used to reconstruct the original wave-fronts more smoothly, if we appropriately tuned hyper-parameters corresponding to temperature to utilize fluctuations around the MAP solution. Also, from the viewpoint of statistical mechanics of the Q-Ising model, we found that the MPM estimate was regarded as a method for searching the ground state by utilizing thermal fluctuations under the constraint of the surface-consistency condition.

Keywords: Bayesian inference, maximizer of the posterior marginal estimate, phase unwrapping, Monte Carlo simulation, statistical mechanics

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1284 A Comparative Study of Fine Grained Security Techniques Based on Data Accessibility and Inference

Authors: Azhar Rauf, Sareer Badshah, Shah Khusro

Abstract:

This paper analyzes different techniques of the fine grained security of relational databases for the two variables-data accessibility and inference. Data accessibility measures the amount of data available to the users after applying a security technique on a table. Inference is the proportion of information leakage after suppressing a cell containing secret data. A row containing a secret cell which is suppressed can become a security threat if an intruder generates useful information from the related visible information of the same row. This paper measures data accessibility and inference associated with row, cell, and column level security techniques. Cell level security offers greatest data accessibility as it suppresses secret data only. But on the other hand, there is a high probability of inference in cell level security. Row and column level security techniques have least data accessibility and inference. This paper introduces cell plus innocent security technique that utilizes the cell level security method but suppresses some innocent data to dodge an intruder that a suppressed cell may not necessarily contain secret data. Four variations of the technique namely cell plus innocent 1/4, cell plus innocent 2/4, cell plus innocent 3/4, and cell plus innocent 4/4 respectively have been introduced to suppress innocent data equal to 1/4, 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 percent of the true secret data inside the database. Results show that the new technique offers better control over data accessibility and inference as compared to the state-of-theart security techniques. This paper further discusses the combination of techniques together to be used. The paper shows that cell plus innocent 1/4, 2/4, and 3/4 techniques can be used as a replacement for the cell level security.

Keywords: Fine Grained Security, Data Accessibility, Inference, Row, Cell, Column Level Security.

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1283 Mamdani Model based Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System and its Application

Authors: Yuanyuan Chai, Limin Jia, Zundong Zhang

Abstract:

Hybrid algorithm is the hot issue in Computational Intelligence (CI) study. From in-depth discussion on Simulation Mechanism Based (SMB) classification method and composite patterns, this paper presents the Mamdani model based Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (M-ANFIS) and weight updating formula in consideration with qualitative representation of inference consequent parts in fuzzy neural networks. M-ANFIS model adopts Mamdani fuzzy inference system which has advantages in consequent part. Experiment results of applying M-ANFIS to evaluate traffic Level of service show that M-ANFIS, as a new hybrid algorithm in computational intelligence, has great advantages in non-linear modeling, membership functions in consequent parts, scale of training data and amount of adjusted parameters.

Keywords: Fuzzy neural networks, Mamdani fuzzy inference, M-ANFIS

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1282 Bayesian Inference for Phase Unwrapping Using Conjugate Gradient Method in One and Two Dimensions

Authors: Yohei Saika, Hiroki Sakaematsu, Shota Akiyama

Abstract:

We investigated statistical performance of Bayesian inference using maximum entropy and MAP estimation for several models which approximated wave-fronts in remote sensing using SAR interferometry. Using Monte Carlo simulation for a set of wave-fronts generated by assumed true prior, we found that the method of maximum entropy realized the optimal performance around the Bayes-optimal conditions by using model of the true prior and the likelihood representing optical measurement due to the interferometer. Also, we found that the MAP estimation regarded as a deterministic limit of maximum entropy almost achieved the same performance as the Bayes-optimal solution for the set of wave-fronts. Then, we clarified that the MAP estimation perfectly carried out phase unwrapping without using prior information, and also that the MAP estimation realized accurate phase unwrapping using conjugate gradient (CG) method, if we assumed the model of the true prior appropriately.

Keywords: Bayesian inference using maximum entropy, MAP estimation using conjugate gradient method, SAR interferometry.

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1281 Generalized Mean-field Theory of Phase Unwrapping via Multiple Interferograms

Authors: Yohei Saika

Abstract:

On the basis of Bayesian inference using the maximizer of the posterior marginal estimate, we carry out phase unwrapping using multiple interferograms via generalized mean-field theory. Numerical calculations for a typical wave-front in remote sensing using the synthetic aperture radar interferometry, phase diagram in hyper-parameter space clarifies that the present method succeeds in phase unwrapping perfectly under the constraint of surface- consistency condition, if the interferograms are not corrupted by any noises. Also, we find that prior is useful for extending a phase in which phase unwrapping under the constraint of the surface-consistency condition. These results are quantitatively confirmed by the Monte Carlo simulation.

Keywords: Bayesian inference, generalized mean-field theory, phase unwrapping, statistical mechanics.

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1280 An Overview of the Application of Fuzzy Inference System for the Automation of Breast Cancer Grading with Spectral Data

Authors: Shabbar Naqvi, Jonathan M. Garibaldi

Abstract:

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent occurring cancers in women throughout the world including U.K. The grading of this cancer plays a vital role in the prognosis of the disease. In this paper we present an overview of the use of advanced computational method of fuzzy inference system as a tool for the automation of breast cancer grading. A new spectral data set obtained from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of cancer patients has been used for this study. The future work outlines the potential areas of fuzzy systems that can be used for the automation of breast cancer grading.

Keywords: Breast cancer, FTIR, fuzzy inference system, principal component analysis

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1279 Influence of Noise on the Inference of Dynamic Bayesian Networks from Short Time Series

Authors: Frank Emmert Streib, Matthias Dehmer, Gökhan H. Bakır, Max Mühlhauser

Abstract:

In this paper we investigate the influence of external noise on the inference of network structures. The purpose of our simulations is to gain insights in the experimental design of microarray experiments to infer, e.g., transcription regulatory networks from microarray experiments. Here external noise means, that the dynamics of the system under investigation, e.g., temporal changes of mRNA concentration, is affected by measurement errors. Additionally to external noise another problem occurs in the context of microarray experiments. Practically, it is not possible to monitor the mRNA concentration over an arbitrary long time period as demanded by the statistical methods used to learn the underlying network structure. For this reason, we use only short time series to make our simulations more biologically plausible.

Keywords: Dynamic Bayesian networks, structure learning, gene networks, Markov chain Monte Carlo, microarray data.

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1278 Temporal Signal Processing by Inference Bayesian Approach for Detection of Abrupt Variation of Statistical Characteristics of Noisy Signals

Authors: Farhad Asadi, Hossein Sadati

Abstract:

In fields such as neuroscience and especially in cognition modeling of mental processes, uncertainty processing in temporal zone of signal is vital. In this paper, Bayesian online inferences in estimation of change-points location in signal are constructed. This method separated the observed signal into independent series and studies the change and variation of the regime of data locally with related statistical characteristics. We give conditions on simulations of the method when the data characteristics of signals vary, and provide empirical evidence to show the performance of method. It is verified that correlation between series around the change point location and its characteristics such as Signal to Noise Ratios and mean value of signal has important factor on fluctuating in finding proper location of change point. And one of the main contributions of this study is related to representing of these influences of signal statistical characteristics for finding abrupt variation in signal. There are two different structures for simulations which in first case one abrupt change in temporal section of signal is considered with variable position and secondly multiple variations are considered. Finally, influence of statistical characteristic for changing the location of change point is explained in details in simulation results with different artificial signals.

Keywords: Time series, fluctuation in statistical characteristics, optimal learning.

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1277 Likelihood Estimation for Stochastic Epidemics with Heterogeneous Mixing Populations

Authors: Yilun Shang

Abstract:

We consider a heterogeneously mixing SIR stochastic epidemic process in populations described by a general graph. Likelihood theory is developed to facilitate statistic inference for the parameters of the model under complete observation. We show that these estimators are asymptotically Gaussian unbiased estimates by using a martingale central limit theorem.

Keywords: statistic inference, maximum likelihood, epidemicmodel, heterogeneous mixing.

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1276 Towards Automatic Recognition and Grading of Ganoderma Infection Pattern Using Fuzzy Systems

Authors: Mazliham Mohd Su'ud, Pierre Loonis, Idris Abu Seman

Abstract:

This paper deals with the extraction of information from the experts to automatically identify and recognize Ganoderma infection in oil palm stem using tomography images. Expert-s knowledge are used as rules in a Fuzzy Inference Systems to classify each individual patterns observed in he tomography image. The classification is done by defining membership functions which assigned a set of three possible hypotheses : Ganoderma infection (G), non Ganoderma infection (N) or intact stem tissue (I) to every abnormalities pattern found in the tomography image. A complete comparison between Mamdani and Sugeno style,triangular, trapezoids and mixed triangular-trapezoids membership functions and different methods of aggregation and defuzzification is also presented and analyzed to select suitable Fuzzy Inference System methods to perform the above mentioned task. The results showed that seven out of 30 initial possible combination of available Fuzzy Inference methods in MATLAB Fuzzy Toolbox were observed giving result close to the experts estimation.

Keywords: Fuzzy Inference Systems, Tomography analysis, Modelizationof expert's information, Ganoderma Infection pattern recognition

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1275 A Novel Modified Adaptive Fuzzy Inference Engine and Its Application to Pattern Classification

Authors: J. Hossen, A. Rahman, K. Samsudin, F. Rokhani, S. Sayeed, R. Hasan

Abstract:

The Neuro-Fuzzy hybridization scheme has become of research interest in pattern classification over the past decade. The present paper proposes a novel Modified Adaptive Fuzzy Inference Engine (MAFIE) for pattern classification. A modified Apriori algorithm technique is utilized to reduce a minimal set of decision rules based on input output data sets. A TSK type fuzzy inference system is constructed by the automatic generation of membership functions and rules by the fuzzy c-means clustering and Apriori algorithm technique, respectively. The generated adaptive fuzzy inference engine is adjusted by the least-squares fit and a conjugate gradient descent algorithm towards better performance with a minimal set of rules. The proposed MAFIE is able to reduce the number of rules which increases exponentially when more input variables are involved. The performance of the proposed MAFIE is compared with other existing applications of pattern classification schemes using Fisher-s Iris and Wisconsin breast cancer data sets and shown to be very competitive.

Keywords: Apriori algorithm, Fuzzy C-means, MAFIE, TSK

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1274 Investigation on Performance of Change Point Algorithm in Time Series Dynamical Regimes and Effect of Data Characteristics

Authors: Farhad Asadi, Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi

Abstract:

In this paper, Bayesian online inference in models of data series are constructed by change-points algorithm, which separated the observed time series into independent series and study the change and variation of the regime of the data with related statistical characteristics. variation of statistical characteristics of time series data often represent separated phenomena in the some dynamical system, like a change in state of brain dynamical reflected in EEG signal data measurement or a change in important regime of data in many dynamical system. In this paper, prediction algorithm for studying change point location in some time series data is simulated. It is verified that pattern of proposed distribution of data has important factor on simpler and smother fluctuation of hazard rate parameter and also for better identification of change point locations. Finally, the conditions of how the time series distribution effect on factors in this approach are explained and validated with different time series databases for some dynamical system.

Keywords: Time series, fluctuation in statistical characteristics, optimal learning.

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1273 An Evolutionary Statistical Learning Theory

Authors: Sung-Hae Jun, Kyung-Whan Oh

Abstract:

Statistical learning theory was developed by Vapnik. It is a learning theory based on Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension. It also has been used in learning models as good analytical tools. In general, a learning theory has had several problems. Some of them are local optima and over-fitting problems. As well, statistical learning theory has same problems because the kernel type, kernel parameters, and regularization constant C are determined subjectively by the art of researchers. So, we propose an evolutionary statistical learning theory to settle the problems of original statistical learning theory. Combining evolutionary computing into statistical learning theory, our theory is constructed. We verify improved performances of an evolutionary statistical learning theory using data sets from KDD cup.

Keywords: Evolutionary computing, Local optima, Over-fitting, Statistical learning theory

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1272 Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in the Prediction of Economic Crisis Periods in USA

Authors: Eleftherios Giovanis

Abstract:

In this paper discrete choice models, Logit and Probit are examined in order to predict the economic recession or expansion periods in USA. Additionally we propose an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system with triangular membership function. We examine the in-sample period 1947-2005 and we test the models in the out-of sample period 2006-2009. The forecasting results indicate that the Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model outperforms significant the Logit and Probit models in the out-of sample period. This indicates that neuro-fuzzy model provides a better and more reliable signal on whether or not a financial crisis will take place.

Keywords: ANFIS, discrete choice models, financial crisis, USeconomy

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1271 A Preliminary Study on the Suitability of Data Driven Approach for Continuous Water Level Modeling

Authors: Muhammad Aqil, Ichiro Kita, Moses Macalinao

Abstract:

Reliable water level forecasts are particularly important for warning against dangerous flood and inundation. The current study aims at investigating the suitability of the adaptive network based fuzzy inference system for continuous water level modeling. A hybrid learning algorithm, which combines the least square method and the back propagation algorithm, is used to identify the parameters of the network. For this study, water levels data are available for a hydrological year of 2002 with a sampling interval of 1-hour. The number of antecedent water level that should be included in the input variables is determined by two statistical methods, i.e. autocorrelation function and partial autocorrelation function between the variables. Forecasting was done for 1-hour until 12-hour ahead in order to compare the models generalization at higher horizons. The results demonstrate that the adaptive networkbased fuzzy inference system model can be applied successfully and provide high accuracy and reliability for river water level estimation. In general, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system provides accurate and reliable water level prediction for 1-hour ahead where the MAPE=1.15% and correlation=0.98 was achieved. Up to 12-hour ahead prediction, the model still shows relatively good performance where the error of prediction resulted was less than 9.65%. The information gathered from the preliminary results provide a useful guidance or reference for flood early warning system design in which the magnitude and the timing of a potential extreme flood are indicated.

Keywords: Neural Network, Fuzzy, River, Forecasting

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1270 A Study of Panel Logit Model and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in the Prediction of Financial Distress Periods

Authors: Ε. Giovanis

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present two different approaches of financial distress pre-warning models appropriate for risk supervisors, investors and policy makers. We examine a sample of the financial institutions and electronic companies of Taiwan Security Exchange (TSE) market from 2002 through 2008. We present a binary logistic regression with paned data analysis. With the pooled binary logistic regression we build a model including more variables in the regression than with random effects, while the in-sample and out-sample forecasting performance is higher in random effects estimation than in pooled regression. On the other hand we estimate an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) with Gaussian and Generalized Bell (Gbell) functions and we find that ANFIS outperforms significant Logit regressions in both in-sample and out-of-sample periods, indicating that ANFIS is a more appropriate tool for financial risk managers and for the economic policy makers in central banks and national statistical services.

Keywords: ANFIS, Binary logistic regression, Financialdistress, Panel data

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1269 On the Parameter Optimization of Fuzzy Inference Systems

Authors: Erika Martinez Ramirez, Rene V. Mayorga

Abstract:

Nowadays, more engineering systems are using some kind of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for the development of their processes. Some well-known AI techniques include artificial neural nets, fuzzy inference systems, and neuro-fuzzy inference systems among others. Furthermore, many decision-making applications base their intelligent processes on Fuzzy Logic; due to the Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) capability to deal with problems that are based on user knowledge and experience. Also, knowing that users have a wide variety of distinctiveness, and generally, provide uncertain data, this information can be used and properly processed by a FIS. To properly consider uncertainty and inexact system input values, FIS normally use Membership Functions (MF) that represent a degree of user satisfaction on certain conditions and/or constraints. In order to define the parameters of the MFs, the knowledge from experts in the field is very important. This knowledge defines the MF shape to process the user inputs and through fuzzy reasoning and inference mechanisms, the FIS can provide an “appropriate" output. However an important issue immediately arises: How can it be assured that the obtained output is the optimum solution? How can it be guaranteed that each MF has an optimum shape? A viable solution to these questions is through the MFs parameter optimization. In this Paper a novel parameter optimization process is presented. The process for FIS parameter optimization consists of the five simple steps that can be easily realized off-line. Here the proposed process of FIS parameter optimization it is demonstrated by its implementation on an Intelligent Interface section dealing with the on-line customization / personalization of internet portals applied to E-commerce.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy InferenceSystems, Nonlinear Optimization.

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1268 Adaptive Digital Watermarking Integrating Fuzzy Inference HVS Perceptual Model

Authors: Sherin M. Youssef, Ahmed Abouelfarag, Noha M. Ghatwary

Abstract:

An adaptive Fuzzy Inference Perceptual model has been proposed for watermarking of digital images. The model depends on the human visual characteristics of image sub-regions in the frequency multi-resolution wavelet domain. In the proposed model, a multi-variable fuzzy based architecture has been designed to produce a perceptual membership degree for both candidate embedding sub-regions and strength watermark embedding factor. Different sizes of benchmark images with different sizes of watermarks have been applied on the model. Several experimental attacks have been applied such as JPEG compression, noises and rotation, to ensure the robustness of the scheme. In addition, the model has been compared with different watermarking schemes. The proposed model showed its robustness to attacks and at the same time achieved a high level of imperceptibility.

Keywords: Watermarking, The human visual system (HVS), Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT).

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1267 Modeling Language for Machine Learning

Authors: Tsuyoshi Okita, Tatsuya Niwa

Abstract:

For a given specific problem an efficient algorithm has been the matter of study. However, an alternative approach orthogonal to this approach comes out, which is called a reduction. In general for a given specific problem this reduction approach studies how to convert an original problem into subproblems. This paper proposes a formal modeling language to support this reduction approach. We show three examples from the wide area of learning problems. The benefit is a fast prototyping of algorithms for a given new problem.

Keywords: Formal language, statistical inference problem, reduction.

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1266 A Model for Estimation of Efforts in Development of Software Systems

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Manisha Prashar, Pourush Bassi, Atul Bisht

Abstract:

Software effort estimation is the process of predicting the most realistic use of effort required to develop or maintain software based on incomplete, uncertain and/or noisy input. Effort estimates may be used as input to project plans, iteration plans, budgets. There are various models like Halstead, Walston-Felix, Bailey-Basili, Doty and GA Based models which have already used to estimate the software effort for projects. In this study Statistical Models, Fuzzy-GA and Neuro-Fuzzy (NF) Inference Systems are experimented to estimate the software effort for projects. The performances of the developed models were tested on NASA software project datasets and results are compared with the Halstead, Walston-Felix, Bailey-Basili, Doty and Genetic Algorithm Based models mentioned in the literature. The result shows that the NF Model has the lowest MMRE and RMSE values. The NF Model shows the best results as compared with the Fuzzy-GA based hybrid Inference System and other existing Models that are being used for the Effort Prediction with lowest MMRE and RMSE values.

Keywords: Neuro-Fuzzy Model, Halstead Model, Walston-Felix Model, Bailey-Basili Model, Doty Model, GA Based Model, Genetic Algorithm.

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1265 N-Grams: A Tool for Repairing Word Order Errors in Ill-formed Texts

Authors: Theologos Athanaselis, Stelios Bakamidis, Ioannis Dologlou, Konstantinos Mamouras

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for repairing word order errors in English text by reordering words in a sentence and choosing the version that maximizes the number of trigram hits according to a language model. A possible way for reordering the words is to use all the permutations. The problem is that for a sentence with length N words the number of all permutations is N!. The novelty of this method concerns the use of an efficient confusion matrix technique for reordering the words. The confusion matrix technique has been designed in order to reduce the search space among permuted sentences. The limitation of search space is succeeded using the statistical inference of N-grams. The results of this technique are very interesting and prove that the number of permuted sentences can be reduced by 98,16%. For experimental purposes a test set of TOEFL sentences was used and the results show that more than 95% can be repaired using the proposed method.

Keywords: Permutations filtering, Statistical language model N-grams, Word order errors, TOEFL

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1264 A Study of Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System for Gross Domestic Product Growth Forecasting

Authors: Ε. Giovanis

Abstract:

In this paper we present a Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFIS) with inputs the lagged dependent variable for the prediction of Gross domestic Product growth rate in six countries. We compare the results with those of Autoregressive (AR) model. We conclude that the forecasting performance of neuro-fuzzy-system in the out-of-sample period is much more superior and can be a very useful alternative tool used by the national statistical services and the banking and finance industry.

Keywords: Autoregressive model, Forecasting, Gross DomesticProduct, Neuro-Fuzzy

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1263 Clustering Based Formulation for Short Term Load Forecasting

Authors: Ajay Shekhar Pandey, D. Singh, S. K. Sinha

Abstract:

A clustering based technique has been developed and implemented for Short Term Load Forecasting, in this article. Formulation has been done using Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) as an objective function. Data Matrix and cluster size are optimization variables. Model designed, uses two temperature variables. This is compared with six input Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) and Fuzzy Inference Neural Network (FINN) for the data of the same system, for same time period. The fuzzy inference system has the network structure and the training procedure of a neural network which initially creates a rule base from existing historical load data. It is observed that the proposed clustering based model is giving better forecasting accuracy as compared to the other two methods. Test results also indicate that the RBFNN can forecast future loads with accuracy comparable to that of proposed method, where as the training time required in the case of FINN is much less.

Keywords: Load forecasting, clustering, fuzzy inference.

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