Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1040

Search results for: and Language Acquisition.

1040 On the Relationship between Language Output and Second Language Acquisition

Authors: Haiyan Wang

Abstract:

Many researchers have been discussing the importance of language input in second language acquisition. The author holds that the bigger problem lies in how to activate language learners' language knowledge and raise their language output consciousness and competence. Analyzing the importance of language output based on theory and reality, this paper mainly explores the essence of language output and its revelation for second language acquisition in order to make second language learners really raise their communicative competence.

Keywords: Language output, second language acquisition, communicative competence.

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1039 A Computer Model of Language Acquisition – Syllable Learning – Based on Hebbian Cell Assemblies and Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Sepideh Fazeli, Fariba Bahrami

Abstract:

Investigating language acquisition is one of the most challenging problems in the area of studying language. Syllable learning as a level of language acquisition has a considerable significance since it plays an important role in language acquisition. Because of impossibility of studying language acquisition directly with children, especially in its developmental phases, computer models will be useful in examining language acquisition. In this paper a computer model of early language learning for syllable learning is proposed. It is guided by a conceptual model of syllable learning which is named Directions Into Velocities of Articulators model (DIVA). The computer model uses simple associational and reinforcement learning rules within neural network architecture which are inspired by neuroscience. Our simulation results verify the ability of the proposed computer model in producing phonemes during babbling and early speech. Also, it provides a framework for examining the neural basis of language learning and communication disorders.

Keywords: Brain modeling, computer models, language acquisition, reinforcement learning.

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1038 Factors of English Language Learning and Acquisition at Bisha College of Technology

Authors: Khalid Albishi

Abstract:

This paper participates in giving new vision and explains the learning and acquisition processes of English language by analyzing a certain context. Five important factors in English language acquisition and learning are discussed and suitable solutions are provided. The factors are compared with the learners' linguistic background at Bisha College of Technology BCT attempting to link the issues faced by students and the research done on similar situations. These factors are phonology, age of acquisition, motivation, psychology and courses of English. These factors are very important; because they interfere and affect specific learning processes at BCT context and general English learning situations.

Keywords: Acquisition, age, factors, language, learning.

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1037 Age and Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study from Maldives

Authors: Aaidha Hammad

Abstract:

The age a child to be exposed to a second language is a controversial issue in communities such as the Maldives where English is taught as a second language. It has been observed that different stakeholders have different viewpoints towards the issue. Some believe that the earlier children are exposed to a second language, the better they learn, while others disagree with the notion. Hence, this case study investigates whether children learn a second language better when they are exposed at an earlier age or not. The spoken and written data collected confirm that earlier exposure helps in mastering the sound pattern and speaking fluency with more native-like accent, while a later age is better for learning more abstract and concrete aspects such as grammar and syntactic rules.

Keywords: Age, development of language skills, fluency, second language acquisition.

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1036 The Investigation of the Possible Connections between Acculturation and the Acquisition of a Second Language on Libyan Teenage Students

Authors: Hamza M. A. Muftah

Abstract:

The study investigates the possible connections between acculturation and the acquisition of a second language on Libyan teenage students in Australia. Specifically, the study examined how various socio-psychological variables influenced English oral proficiency (oral communicative competence and native-like pronunciation) of the participants. In addition, it looked at whether or not SLA affects acculturation towards the target language group. This is achieved by analysing data obtained from semi-structured interviews and oral proficiency interviews. The present study found a definite link between the students’ acculturation process and their oral communicative competence but not native-like pronunciation. The results also provided evidence that SLL process has an impact on integration into the host society as well as the acquisition of a second language culture. Yet, it did not draw a clear conclusion with respect to how such a process affects these aspects.

Keywords: Acculturation, Native-like pronunciation, Oral communicative competence, Second language acquisition, Second language learners.

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1035 English Classroom for SLA of Students and Small and Medium Entrepreneurs in Thailand

Authors: S. Yordchim, G. Anugkakul, T. Gibbs

Abstract:

The English competence of Thai people was examined in the context of knowledge of English in everyday life for Small and Medium Entrepreneurs (SMEs), and also integrated with Second language acquisition (SLA) students’ classroom. Second language acquisition was applied to the results of the questionnaires and interview forms. Levels of the need on English used for SME entrepreneurs in Thailand, satisfaction on joining the street classroom project were shown to be significantly high for some certain language functions and satisfaction. Finding suggests that the language functions on etiquette for professional use is essential and useful because lesson learned can be used in the real situation for their career. Implications for the climate of the street classroom are discussed.

Keywords: English classroom, second language acquisition, Small and Medium Entrepreneurs, Thai students.

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1034 Evaluating the Role of Multisensory Elements in Foreign Language Acquisition

Authors: Sari Myréen

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of multisensory elements in enhancing and facilitating foreign language acquisition among adult students in a language classroom. The use of multisensory elements enables the creation of a student-centered classroom, where the focus is on individual learner’s language learning process, perceptions and motivation. Multisensory language learning is a pedagogical approach where the language learner uses all the senses more effectively than in a traditional in-class environment. Language learning is facilitated due to multisensory stimuli which increase the number of cognitive connections in the learner and take into consideration different types of learners. A living lab called Multisensory Space creates a relaxed and receptive state in the learners through various multisensory stimuli, and thus promotes their natural foreign language acquisition. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in two questionnaire inquiries among the Finnish students of a higher education institute at the end of their basic French courses in December 2014 and 2016. The inquiries discussed the effects of multisensory elements on the students’ motivation to study French as well as their learning outcomes. The results show that the French classes in the Multisensory Space provide the students with an encouraging and pleasant learning environment, which has a positive impact on their motivation to study the foreign language as well as their language learning outcomes.

Keywords: Foreign language acquisition, foreign language learning, higher education, multisensory learning, pedagogical approach, transcultural learning.

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1033 Teacher Talk and Language Output

Authors: Haiyan Wang

Abstract:

As an important input and teaching media in foreign language teaching classes, teacher talk (TT) has a great effect on language output. This paper explores the problems related to teacher talk (TT) and language output in practical ELT (English Language Teaching) classroom and presents some suggestions for solving the problems which affect learner' effective language output.

Keywords: Second language acquisition, teacher talk, language output.

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1032 The Effects of the Inference Process in Reading Texts in Arabic

Authors: May George

Abstract:

Inference plays an important role in the learning process and it can lead to a rapid acquisition of a second language. When learning a non-native language i.e., a critical language like Arabic, the students depend on the teacher’s support most of the time to learn new concepts. The students focus on memorizing the new vocabulary and stress on learning all the grammatical rules. Hence, the students became mechanical and cannot produce the language easily. As a result, they are unable to predicate the meaning of words in the context by relying heavily on the teacher, in that they cannot link their prior knowledge or even identify the meaning of the words without the support of the teacher. This study explores how the teacher guides students learning during the inference process and what are the processes of learning that can direct student’s inference.

Keywords: Inference, Reading, Arabic, and Language Acquisition.

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1031 The Predictability and Abstractness of Language: A Study in Understanding and Usage of the English Language through Probabilistic Modeling and Frequency

Authors: Revanth Sai Kosaraju, Michael Ramscar, Melody Dye

Abstract:

Accounts of language acquisition differ significantly in their treatment of the role of prediction in language learning. In particular, nativist accounts posit that probabilistic learning about words and word sequences has little to do with how children come to use language. The accuracy of this claim was examined by testing whether distributional probabilities and frequency contributed to how well 3-4 year olds repeat simple word chunks. Corresponding chunks were the same length, expressed similar content, and were all grammatically acceptable, yet the results of the study showed marked differences in performance when overall distributional frequency varied. It was found that a distributional model of language predicted the empirical findings better than a number of other models, replicating earlier findings and showing that children attend to distributional probabilities in an adult corpus. This suggested that language is more prediction-and-error based, rather than on abstract rules which nativist camps suggest.

Keywords: Abstractness, child psychology, language acquisition, prediction and error.

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1030 A Rapid Code Acquisition Scheme in OOC-Based CDMA Systems

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We propose a code acquisition scheme called improved multiple-shift (IMS) for optical code division multiple access systems, where the optical orthogonal code is used instead of the pseudo noise code. Although the IMS algorithm has a similar process to that of the conventional MS algorithm, it has a better code acquisition performance than the conventional MS algorithm. We analyze the code acquisition performance of the IMS algorithm and compare the code acquisition performances of the MS and the IMS algorithms in single-user and multi-user environments.

Keywords: Code acquisition, optical CDMA, optical orthogonal code, serial algorithm.

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1029 Knowledge Acquisition, Absorptive Capacity, and Innovation Capability: An Empirical Study of Taiwan's Knowledge-Intensive Industries

Authors: Shu-Hsien. Liao, Chi-Chuan. Wu, Da-Chian. Hu, Guang An. Tsuei

Abstract:

This study investigates the roles of knowledge acquisition, absorptive capacity, and innovation capability in finance and manufacturing industries. With 362 valid questionnaires from manufactures and financial industries in Taiwan, we examine the relationships between absorptive capacity, knowledge acquisition and innovation capability using a structural equation model. The results indicate that absorptive capacity is the mediator between knowledge acquisition and innovation capability, and that knowledge acquisition has a positive effect on absorptive capacity.

Keywords: Absorptive capacity, knowledge acquisition, innovation capability.

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1028 Frame and Burst Acquisition in TDMA Satellite Communication Networks with Transponder Hopping

Authors: Vitalice K. Oduol, C. Ardil

Abstract:

The paper presents frame and burst acquisition in a satellite communication network based on time division multiple access (TDMA) in which the transmissions may be carried on different transponders. A unique word pattern is used for the acquisition process. The search for the frame is aided by soft-decision of QPSK modulated signals in an additive white Gaussian channel. Results show that when the false alarm rate is low the probability of detection is also low, and the acquisition time is long. Conversely when the false alarm rate is high, the probability of detection is also high and the acquisition time is short. Thus the system operators can trade high false alarm rates for high detection probabilities and shorter acquisition times.

Keywords: burst acquisition, burst time plan, frame acquisition, satellite access, satellite TDMA, unique word detection

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1027 The Analysis of Teacher Talk in "Learner-centered" Teaching Mode

Authors: Haiyan Wang

Abstract:

Being main teaching media and major source of comprehensive target language input, teacher talk plays an important role in learners' second-language acquisition. Under the trend of "learner-centered" teaching mode, some researchers think that the best teacher talk means less. But the author holds that, in Chinese second language classroom, it is not advisable to lay too much stress on the formal students' participation, which requires the teacher to say as little as possible and the student to say as much as possible. The emphasis should be put on how to raise teacher talk's quality.

Keywords: Comprehensive language input, "learner-centered" teaching mode, teacher talk, teacher talk's quality.

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1026 Information System Integration after Merger and Acquisition in the Banking Industry

Authors: Shang-Ping Lin, Shi-Hwa Lo, Ho-Li Yang

Abstract:

Company mergers and acquisitions reached their peak in the twenty-first century. Mergers and acquisitions have become one of the competitive strategies for external growth. In general, it is believed that mergers and acquisitions can create synergies. However, they require complete information technology system and service integration, especially in the banking industry. Much of the research has focused on performance evaluation, shareholder equity allocation, or even the increase of company market value after the merger and acquisition, whereas few scholars have focused on information system integration post merger and acquisition. This study indicates the role of information systems after a merger and acquisition, explaining the benefits of information system integration using a merger and acquisition case in the banking industry as an example. In addition, we discuss factors that affect the performance of information system integration, and utilize system dynamics to interpret the relationship among factors that affect information system integration performance in the banking industry after a merger and acquisition.

Keywords: Merger and Acquisition, Information SystemIntegration, System Dynamics

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1025 The Automated Selective Acquisition System

Authors: Atisthan Wuttimanop, Suchada Rianmora

Abstract:

To support design process for launching the product on time, reverse engineering (RE) process has been introduced for quickly generating 3D CAD model from its physical object. The accuracy of the 3D CAD model depends upon the data acquisition technique selected, contact or non-contact methods. In order to reduce times used for acquiring surface and eliminating noises, the automated selective acquisition system has been developed and presented in this research as the alternative channel for non-contact acquisition technique where the data is selectively and locally scanned contour by contour without performing data reduction process. The results present as the organized contour points which are directly used to generate 3D virtual model. The comparison between the proposed technique and another non-contact scanning technique has been presented and discussed.

Keywords: Automated selective acquisition system, Non-contact acquisition, Reverse engineering, 3D scanners.

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1024 A Fast Code Acquisition Scheme for O-CDMA Systems

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Jaewoo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes a fast code acquisition scheme for optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems. Unlike the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme employs multiple thresholds providing a shorter mean acquisition time (MAT) performance. The simulation results show that the MAT of the proposed scheme is shorter than that of the conventional scheme.

Keywords: Optical CDMA, acquisition, MAT, multiple-shift

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1023 Comparing the Willingness to Communicate in a Foreign Language of Bilinguals and Monolinguals

Authors: S. Tarighat, F. Shateri

Abstract:

This study explored the relationship between L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC) of bilinguals and monolinguals in a foreign language using a snowball sampling method to collect questionnaire data from 200 bilinguals and monolinguals studying a foreign language (FL). The results indicated a higher willingness to communicate in a foreign language (WTC-FL) performed by bilinguals compared to that of the monolinguals with a weak significance. Yet a stronger significance was found in the relationship between the age of onset of bilingualism and WTC-FL. The researcher proposed that L2 WTC is indirectly influenced by knowledge of other languages, which can boost L2 confidence and reduce L2 anxiety and consequently lead to higher L2 WTC when learning a different L2. The study also found the age of onset of bilingualism to be a predictor of L2 WTC when learning a FL. The results emphasize the importance of bilingualism and early bilingualism in particular.

Keywords: Bilingualism, foreign language learning, L2 acquisition, willingness to communicate.

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1022 Design of a Low Cost Motion Data Acquisition Setup for Mechatronic Systems

Authors: Barış Can Yalçın

Abstract:

Motion sensors have been commonly used as a valuable component in mechatronic systems, however, many mechatronic designs and applications that need motion sensors cost enormous amount of money, especially high-tech systems. Design of a software for communication protocol between data acquisition card and motion sensor is another issue that has to be solved. This study presents how to design a low cost motion data acquisition setup consisting of MPU 6050 motion sensor (gyro and accelerometer in 3 axes) and Arduino Mega2560 microcontroller. Design parameters are calibration of the sensor, identification and communication between sensor and data acquisition card, interpretation of data collected by the sensor.

Keywords: Calibration of sensors, data acquisition.

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1021 Influence and Dissemination of Solecism among Moroccan High School and University Students

Authors: Rachid Ed-Dali, Khalid Elasri

Abstract:

Mass media seem to provide a rich content for language acquisition. Exposure to television, the Internet, the mobile phone and other technological gadgets and devices helps enrich the student’s lexicon positively as well as negatively. The difficulties encountered by students while learning and acquiring second languages in addition to their eagerness to comprehend the content of a particular program prompt them to diversify their methods so as to achieve their targets. The present study highlights the significance of certain media channels and their involvement in language acquisition with the employment of the Natural Approach to further grasp whether students, especially secondary and high school students, learn and acquire errors through watching subtitled television programs. The chief objective is investigating the deductive and inductive relevance of certain programs beside the involvement of peripheral learning while acquiring mistakes.

Keywords: Errors, mistakes, natural Approach, peripheral learning, solecism.

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1020 Enhancing Children’s English Vocabulary Acquisition through Digital Storytelling at Happy Kids Kindergarten, Palembang, Indonesia

Authors: Gaya Tridinanti

Abstract:

Enhanching English vocabulary in early childhood is the main problem often faced by teachers. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the enhancement of children’s English vocabulary acquisition by using digital storytelling. This type of research was an action research. It consisted of a series of four activities done in repeated cycles: planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The subject of the study consisted of 30 students of B group (5-6 years old) attending Happy Kids Kindergarten Palembang, Indonesia. This research was conducted in three cycles. The methods used for data collection were observation and documentation. Descriptive qualitative and quantitative methods were also used to analyse the data. The research showed that the digital storytelling learning activities could enhance the children’s English vocabulary acquisition. It is based on the data in which the enhancement in pre-cycle was 37% and 51% in Cycle I. In Cycle II it was 71% and in Cycle III it was 89.3%. The results showed an enhancement of about 14% from the pre-cycle to Cycle I, 20% from Cycle I to Cycle II, and enhancement of about 18.3% from Cycle II to Cycle III. The conclusion of this study suggests that digital storytelling learning method could enhance the English vocabulary acquisition of B group children at the Happy Kids Kindergarten Palembang. Therefore, digital storytelling can be considered as an alternative to improve English language learning in the classroom.

Keywords: Acquisition, enhancing, digital storytelling, English vocabulary.

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1019 Novelist Calls Out Poemist: A Psycholinguistic and Contrastive Analysis of the Errors in Turkish EFL Learners- Interlanguage

Authors: Mehmet Ozcan

Abstract:

This study is designed to investigate errors emerged in written texts produced by 30 Turkish EFL learners with an explanatory, and thus, qualitative perspective. Erroneous language elements were identified by the researcher first and then their grammaticality and intelligibility were checked by five native speakers of English. The analysis of the data showed that it is difficult to claim that an error stems from only one single factor since different features of an error are triggered by different factors. Our findings revealed two different types of errors: those which stem from the interference of L1 with L2 and those which are developmental ones. The former type contains more global errors whereas the errors in latter type are more intelligible.

Keywords: Contrastive analysis, Error analysis, Language acquisition, Language transfer, Turkish

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1018 Error Analysis of English Inflection among Thai University Students

Authors: Suwaree Yordchim, Toby J. Gibbs

Abstract:

The linguistic competence of Thai university students majoring in Business English was examined in the context of knowledge of English language inflection, and also various linguistic elements. Errors analysis was applied to the results of the testing. Levels of errors in inflection, tense and linguistic elements were shown to be significantly high for all noun, verb and adjective inflections. Findings suggest that students do not gain linguistic competence in their use of English language inflection, because of interlanguage interference. Implications for curriculum reform and treatment of errors in the classroom are discussed.

Keywords: Interlanguage, error analysis, inflection, second language acquisition, Thai students.

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1017 Unambiguous Signal Acquisition Based On Recombination of Sub-Correlations of BOC Signals

Authors: Hongdeuk Kim, Youngpo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

Due to side-peaks of autocorrelation function, the binary offset carrier (BOC) signal acquisition suffers from an ambiguity when one of the side-peaks is acquired. In this paper, we first analyze that the BOC autocorrelation is made up of the sum of subcorrelations, and then, remove the side-peaks causing the ambiguity by recombining the sub-correlations. The proposed scheme is shown to remove the side-peaks completely. From numerical results, it is confirmed that the proposed scheme outperforms the conventional schemes in terms of the receiver operating characteristic and mean acquisition time.

Keywords: Binary offset carrier (BOC), acquisition, ambiguity problem, side-peak.

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1016 Effect of Atmospheric Turbulence on AcquisitionTime of Ground to Deep Space Optical Communication System

Authors: Hemani Kaushal, V.K.Jain, Subrat Kar

Abstract:

The performance of ground to deep space optical communication systems is degraded by distortion of the beam as it propagates through the turbulent atmosphere. Turbulence causes fluctuations in the intensity of the received signal which ultimately affects the acquisition time required to acquire and locate the spaceborne target using narrow laser beam. In this paper, performance of free-space optical (FSO) communication system in atmospheric turbulence has been analyzed in terms of acquisition time for coherent and non-coherent modulation schemes. Numerical results presented in graphical and tabular forms show that the acquisition time increases with the increase in turbulence level. This is true for both schemes. The BPSK has lowest acquisition time among all schemes. In non-coherent schemes, M-PPM performs better than the other schemes. With the increase in M, acquisition time becomes lower, but at the cost of increase in system complexity.

Keywords: Atmospheric Turbulence, Acquisition Time, BinaryPhase Shift Keying (BPSK), Free-Space Optical (FSO)Communication System, M-ary Pulse Position Modulation (M-PPM), Coherent/Non-coherent Modulation Schemes.

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1015 Learning Mandarin Chinese as a Foreign Language in a Bilingual Context: Adult Learners’ Perceptions of the Use of L1 Maltese and L2 English in Mandarin Chinese Lessons in Malta

Authors: Christiana Gauci-Sciberras

Abstract:

The first language (L1) could be used in foreign language teaching and learning as a pedagogical tool to scaffold new knowledge in the target language (TL) upon linguistic knowledge that the learner already has. In a bilingual context, code-switching between the two languages usually occurs in classrooms. One of the reasons for code-switching is because both languages are used for scaffolding new knowledge. This research paper aims to find out why both the L1 (Maltese) and the L2 (English) are used in the classroom of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in the bilingual context of Malta. This research paper also aims to find out the learners’ perceptions of the use of a bilingual medium of instruction. Two research methods were used to collect qualitative data; semi-structured interviews with adult learners of Mandarin Chinese and lesson observations. These two research methods were used so that the data collected in the interviews would be triangulated with data collected in lesson observations. The L1 (Maltese) is the language of instruction mostly used. The teacher and the learners switch to the L2 (English) or to any other foreign language according to the need at a particular instance during the lesson.

Keywords: Chinese, bilingual, pedagogical purpose of L1 and L2, CFL acquisition.

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1014 The Study of Formal and Semantic Errors of Lexis by Persian EFL Learners

Authors: Mohammad J. Rezai, Fereshteh Davarpanah

Abstract:

Producing a text in a language which is not one’s mother tongue can be a demanding task for language learners. Examining lexical errors committed by EFL learners is a challenging area of investigation which can shed light on the process of second language acquisition. Despite the considerable number of investigations into grammatical errors, few studies have tackled formal and semantic errors of lexis committed by EFL learners. The current study aimed at examining Persian learners’ formal and semantic errors of lexis in English. To this end, 60 students at three different proficiency levels were asked to write on 10 different topics in 10 separate sessions. Finally, 600 essays written by Persian EFL learners were collected, acting as the corpus of the study. An error taxonomy comprising formal and semantic errors was selected to analyze the corpus. The formal category covered misselection and misformation errors, while the semantic errors were classified into lexical, collocational and lexicogrammatical categories. Each category was further classified into subcategories depending on the identified errors. The results showed that there were 2583 errors in the corpus of 9600 words, among which, 2030 formal errors and 553 semantic errors were identified. The most frequent errors in the corpus included formal error commitment (78.6%), which were more prevalent at the advanced level (42.4%). The semantic errors (21.4%) were more frequent at the low intermediate level (40.5%). Among formal errors of lexis, the highest number of errors was devoted to misformation errors (98%), while misselection errors constituted 2% of the errors. Additionally, no significant differences were observed among the three semantic error subcategories, namely collocational, lexical choice and lexicogrammatical. The results of the study can shed light on the challenges faced by EFL learners in the second language acquisition process.

Keywords: Collocational errors, lexical errors, Persian EFL learners, semantic errors.

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1013 Models and Metamodels for Computer-Assisted Natural Language Grammar Learning

Authors: Evgeny Pyshkin, Maxim Mozgovoy, Vladislav Volkov

Abstract:

The paper follows a discourse on computer-assisted language learning. We examine problems of foreign language teaching and learning and introduce a metamodel that can be used to define learning models of language grammar structures in order to support teacher/student interaction. Special attention is paid to the concept of a virtual language lab. Our approach to language education assumes to encourage learners to experiment with a language and to learn by discovering patterns of grammatically correct structures created and managed by a language expert.

Keywords: Computer-assisted instruction, Language learning, Natural language grammar models, HCI.

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1012 Semi-Blind Two-Dimensional Code Acquisition in CDMA Communications

Authors: Rui Wu, Tapani Ristaniemi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for joint time-delay and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, here called two-dimensional code acquisition, in an asynchronous directsequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) array system. This algorithm depends on eigenvector-eigenvalue decomposition of sample correlation matrix, and requires to know desired user-s training sequence. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed both analytically and numerically in uncorrelated and coherent multipath environment. Numerical examples show that the algorithm is robust with unknown number of coherent signals.

Keywords: Two-Dimensional Code Acquisition, EV-t, DSCDMA

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1011 Developmental Differences in the Construction of Concepts by Children from 3 to 14-Year-Olds: Perception, Language and Instruction

Authors: Mehmet Ozcan

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate the relationship between language and children’s construction of the concept of objects, actions, and states. Participants of this study are 120 children whose ages range from 3 to 14 years. Ten children participated from each age group and 10 adults participated as normative group. Data were collected using 28 words which were identified and grouped according to the purpose of this study. Participants were asked the question “What is x?’ for each word in a reserved room. The audio recorded data were transcribed and coded. The data were analyzed primarily qualitatively but quantitatively as well to support qualitative findings. The findings reveal that younger children rely more on their perceptual experience and linguistic input while 7-year-olds and older ones rely more on instructional language in the construction of the concepts related to objects, actions and states. Adults differ from all age groups with their usage of metaphors to refer to objects. It has been noted that linguistic, perceptual and instructional experiences work in an interwoven way but each one seems to be dominant at certain ages.

Keywords: Cognition, concept construction, first language acquisition, language, thought.

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