Search results for: Special means.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2093

Search results for: Special means.

2093 Hermite–Hadamard Type Integral Inequalities Involving k–Riemann–Liouville Fractional Integrals and Their Applications

Authors: Artion Kashuri, Rozana Liko

Abstract:

In this paper, some generalization integral inequalities of Hermite–Hadamard type for functions whose derivatives are s–convex in modulus are given by using k–fractional integrals. Some applications to special means are obtained as well. Some known versions are recovered as special cases from our results. We note that our inequalities can be viewed as new refinements of the previous results. Finally, our results have a deep connection with various fractional integral operators and interested readers can find new interesting results using our idea and technique as well.

Keywords: Hermite–Hadamard’s inequalities, k–Riemann–Liouville fractional integral, H¨older’s inequality, Special means.

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2092 Diagnosing the Cause and its Timing of Changes in Multivariate Process Mean Vector from Quality Control Charts using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Farzaneh Ahmadzadeh

Abstract:

Quality control charts are very effective in detecting out of control signals but when a control chart signals an out of control condition of the process mean, searching for a special cause in the vicinity of the signal time would not always lead to prompt identification of the source(s) of the out of control condition as the change point in the process parameter(s) is usually different from the signal time. It is very important to manufacturer to determine at what point and which parameters in the past caused the signal. Early warning of process change would expedite the search for the special causes and enhance quality at lower cost. In this paper the quality variables under investigation are assumed to follow a multivariate normal distribution with known means and variance-covariance matrix and the process means after one step change remain at the new level until the special cause is being identified and removed, also it is supposed that only one variable could be changed at the same time. This research applies artificial neural network (ANN) to identify the time the change occurred and the parameter which caused the change or shift. The performance of the approach was assessed through a computer simulation experiment. The results show that neural network performs effectively and equally well for the whole shift magnitude which has been considered.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, change point estimation, monte carlo simulation, multivariate exponentially weighted movingaverage

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2091 Students with Special Educational Needs Camouflaging and Teacher Training of University Teaching Staff: Practical Reflection

Authors: Ana Mercedes Vernia Carrasco

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to reflect through the theoretical framework on the access to the university for the formation of a degree in a teacher of primary education. The University Access Tests in Spain evaluate a series of skills and competencies in writing, which leave aside the sample of another set of skills and tools that this type of test cannot evaluate. In the last years, a very much diversified student body has arrived in the classrooms of the universities. Nowadays, talking about special education means attending to the changes that are being experienced in this area. At present, the educational model focuses on the reinforcement by the educational institutions so that they form the students according to their personal characteristics and that it is not the students that must adapt to the system. A bibliographic review plus some years of experience in training for the future teacher allows us to make an initial assessment about the lack of rigor in the tests of access to the university. In conclusion, we can say that, although we are not a specialist in the type of Special Educational Needs that can manifest the students, therefore, we understand that teacher today needs training and support to develop their teaching with the best quality possible. These teacher and student needs also imply more institutional support.

Keywords: Teacher training, special educational needs, music education.

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2090 Computer-Based Assessment of Pre-assigned Individual Education Plans in Special Education

Authors: Yasar Guneri Sahin, Mehmet Cudi Okur

Abstract:

Assessment of IEP (Individual Education Plan) is an important stage in the area of special education. This paper deals with this problem by introducing computer software which process the data gathered from application of IEP. The software is intended to be used by special education institution in Turkey and allows assessment of school and family trainings. The software has a user friendly interface and its design includes graphical developer tools.

Keywords: Disabled individual, software for education, assessment of education, special education.

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2089 Contributions to Differential Geometry of Pseudo Null Curves in Semi-Euclidean Space

Authors: Melih Turgut, Süha Yılmaz

Abstract:

In this paper, first, a characterization of spherical Pseudo null curves in Semi-Euclidean space is given. Then, to investigate position vector of a pseudo null curve, a system of differential equation whose solution gives the components of the position vector of a pseudo null curve on the Frenet axis is established by means of Frenet equations. Additionally, in view of some special solutions of mentioned system, characterizations of some special pseudo null curves are presented.

Keywords: Semi-Euclidean Space, Pseudo Null Curves, Position Vectors.

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2088 The Induced Generalized Hybrid Averaging Operator and its Application in Financial Decision Making

Authors: José M. Merigó, Montserrat Casanovas

Abstract:

We present the induced generalized hybrid averaging (IGHA) operator. It is a new aggregation operator that generalizes the hybrid averaging (HA) by using generalized means and order inducing variables. With this formulation, we get a wide range of mean operators such as the induced HA (IHA), the induced hybrid quadratic averaging (IHQA), the HA, etc. The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator and the weighted average (WA) are included as special cases of the HA operator. Therefore, with this generalization we can obtain a wide range of aggregation operators such as the induced generalized OWA (IGOWA), the generalized OWA (GOWA), etc. We further generalize the IGHA operator by using quasi-arithmetic means. Then, we get the Quasi-IHA operator. Finally, we also develop an illustrative example of the new approach in a financial decision making problem. The main advantage of the IGHA is that it gives a more complete view of the decision problem to the decision maker because it considers a wide range of situations depending on the operator used.

Keywords: Decision making, Aggregation operators, OWA operator, Generalized means, Selection of investments.

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2087 Efficacy of Selected Mobility Exercises and Participation in Special Games on Psychomotor Abilities, Functional Abilities and Game Performance among Intellectually Disabled Children of Under 14 Age

Authors: J. Samuel Jesudoss

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to find out the efficacy of selected mobility exercises and participation in special games on psychomotor abilities, functional abilities and skill performance among intellectually disabled children of age group under 14. Thirty male students who were studying in Balar Kalvi Nilayam and YMCA College Special School, Chennai, acted as subjects for the study. They were only mild and moderate in intellectual disability. These students did not undergo any special training or coaching programme apart from their regular routine physical activity classes as a part of the curriculum in the school. They were attached at random, based on age in which 30 belonged to under 14 age group, which was divided into three equal group of ten for each experimental treatment. 10 students (Treatment group I) underwent calisthenics and special games participation, 10 students (Treatment group II) underwent aquatics and special games participation, 10 students (Treatment group III) underwent yoga and special games participation. The subjects were tested on selected criterion variables prior (pre test) and after twelve weeks of training (post test). The pre and post test data collected from three groups on functional abilities(self care, learning, capacity for independent living), psychomotor variables(static balance, eye hand coordination, simple reaction time test) and skill performance (bocce skill, badminton skill, table tennis skill) were statistically examined for significant difference, by applying the analysis ANACOVA. Whenever an 'F' ratio for adjusted test was found to be significant for adjusted post test means, Scheffe-s test was followed as a post-hoc test to determine which of the paired mean differences was significant. The result of the study showed that among under 14 age groups there was a significant improvement on selected criterion variables such as, Balance, Coordination, self-care and learning and also in Bocce, Badminton & Table Tennis skill performance, due to mobility exercises and participation in special games. However there were no significant differences among the groups.

Keywords: Functional ability, intellectually disabled, Mobility exercises, Psychomotor ability.

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2086 Mining News Sites to Create Special Domain News Collections

Authors: David B. Bracewell, Fuji Ren, Shingo Kuroiwa

Abstract:

We present a method to create special domain collections from news sites. The method only requires a single sample article as a seed. No prior corpus statistics are needed and the method is applicable to multiple languages. We examine various similarity measures and the creation of document collections for English and Japanese. The main contributions are as follows. First, the algorithm can build special domain collections from as little as one sample document. Second, unlike other algorithms it does not require a second “general" corpus to compute statistics. Third, in our testing the algorithm outperformed others in creating collections made up of highly relevant articles.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, News, Special DomainCollections,

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2085 Perception of the Frequency and Importance of Peer Social Support by Students with Special Educational Needs in Inclusive Education

Authors: Lucia Hrebeňárová, Jarmila Žolnová, Veronika Palková

Abstract:

Inclusive education of students with special educational needs has been on the increase in the Slovak Republic, facing many challenges. Preparedness of teachers for inclusive education is one of the most frequent issues; teachers lack skills when it comes to the use of effective instruction depending on the individual needs of students, improvement of classroom management and social skills, and support of inclusion within the classroom. Social support is crucial for the school success of students within inclusive settings. The aim of the paper is to analyse perception of the frequency and importance of peer social support by students with special educational needs in inclusive education. The data collection tool used was the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASSS). The research sample consisted of 953 fourth grade students – 141 students with special educational needs educated in an inclusive setting and 812 students of the standard population. No significant differences were found between the students with special educational needs and the students without special educational needs in an inclusive setting when it comes to the perception of frequency and importance of social support of schoolmates and friends. However, the perception of frequency and importance of a friend’s social support was higher than the perception of frequency and importance of a classmate’s social support in both groups of students.

Keywords: Inclusive education, peer social support, peer, student with special educational needs.

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2084 The Use of Information Technologies in Special Education for Preparation of Individual Education Programs

Authors: Yasar Guneri Sahin, Mehmet Cudi Okur

Abstract:

In this presentation, we discuss the use of information technologies in the area of special education for teaching individuals with learning disabilities. Application software which was developed for this purpose is used to demonstrate the applicability of a database integrated information processing system to alleviate the burden of educators. The software allows the preparation of individualized education programs based on the predefined objectives, goals and behaviors.

Keywords: Special education, disabled individual, informationtechnology, individual education programs.

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2083 Emotional, Behavioural and Social Development: Modality of Hierarchy of Needs in Supporting Parents with Special Needs

Authors: Fadzilah Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Emotional development is developed between the parents and their child. Behavioural development is also developed between the parents and their child. Social Development is how parents can help their special needs child to adapt to society and to face challenges. In promoting a lifelong learning mindset, enhancing skill sets and readiness to face challenges, parents would be able to counter balance these challenges during their care giving process and better manage their expectations through understanding the hierarchy of needs modality towards a positive attitude, and in turn, improve their quality of life and participation in society. This paper aims to demonstrate how the hierarchy of needs can be applied in various situations of caregiving for parents with a special needs child.

Keywords: Hierarchy of needs, parents, special needs, care-giving.

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2082 Theoretical Exploration for the Impact of Accounting for Special Methods in Connectivity-Based Cohesion Measurement

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Class cohesion is a key object-oriented software quality attribute that is used to evaluate the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods. Researchers have proposed several class cohesion measures. However, the effect of considering the special methods (i.e., constructors, destructors, and access and delegation methods) in cohesion calculation is not thoroughly theoretically studied for most of them. In this paper, we address this issue for three popular connectivity-based class cohesion measures. For each of the considered measures we theoretically study the impact of including or excluding special methods on the values that are obtained by applying the measure. This study is based on analyzing the definitions and formulas that are proposed for the measures. The results show that including/excluding special methods has a considerable effect on the obtained cohesion values and that this effect varies from one measure to another. For each of the three connectivity-based measures, the proposed theoretical study recommended excluding the special methods in cohesion measurement.

Keywords: Object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class cohesion, special methods.

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2081 Rethinking the Analysis of Means-End Chain Data in Marketing Research

Authors: P. Puustinen, A. Kanto

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new procedure for analyzing means-end chain data in marketing research. Most commonly the collected data is summarized in the Hierarchical Value Map (HVM) illustrating the main attribute-consequence-value linkages. This paper argues that traditionally constructed HVM may give an erroneous impression of the results of a means-end study. To justify the arguments, an alternative procedure to (1) determine the dominant attribute-consequence-value linkages and (2) construct HVM in a precise manner is presented. The current approach makes a contribution to means-end analysis, allowing marketers to address a set of marketing problems, such as advertising strategy.

Keywords: Means-end chain analysis, Laddering, Hierarchical Value Map.

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2080 Approach Based on Fuzzy C-Means for Band Selection in Hyperspectral Images

Authors: Diego Saqui, José H. Saito, José R. Campos, Lúcio A. de C. Jorge

Abstract:

Hyperspectral images and remote sensing are important for many applications. A problem in the use of these images is the high volume of data to be processed, stored and transferred. Dimensionality reduction techniques can be used to reduce the volume of data. In this paper, an approach to band selection based on clustering algorithms is presented. This approach allows to reduce the volume of data. The proposed structure is based on Fuzzy C-Means (or K-Means) and NWHFC algorithms. New attributes in relation to other studies in the literature, such as kurtosis and low correlation, are also considered. A comparison of the results of the approach using the Fuzzy C-Means and K-Means with different attributes is performed. The use of both algorithms show similar good results but, particularly when used attributes variance and kurtosis in the clustering process, however applicable in hyperspectral images.

Keywords: Band selection, fuzzy C-means, K-means, hyperspectral image.

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2079 A Special Algorithm to Approximate the Square Root of Positive Integer

Authors: Hsian Ming Goo

Abstract:

The paper concerns a special approximate algorithm of the square root of the specific positive integer, which is built by the use of the property of positive integer solution of the Pell’s equation, together with using some elementary theorems of matrices, and then takes it to compare with general used the Newton’s method and give a practical numerical example and error analysis; it is unexpected to find its special property: the significant figure of the approximation value of the square root of positive integer will increase one digit by one. It is well useful in some occasions.

Keywords: Special approximate algorithm, square root, Pell’s equation, Newton’s method, error analysis.

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2078 The Riemann Barycenter Computation and Means of Several Matrices

Authors: Miklos Palfia

Abstract:

An iterative definition of any n variable mean function is given in this article, which iteratively uses the two-variable form of the corresponding two-variable mean function. This extension method omits recursivity which is an important improvement compared with certain recursive formulas given before by Ando-Li-Mathias, Petz- Temesi. Furthermore it is conjectured here that this iterative algorithm coincides with the solution of the Riemann centroid minimization problem. Certain simulations are given here to compare the convergence rate of the different algorithms given in the literature. These algorithms will be the gradient and the Newton mehod for the Riemann centroid computation.

Keywords: Means, matrix means, operator means, geometric mean, Riemannian center of mass.

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2077 A Parallel Implementation of k-Means in MATLAB

Authors: Dimitris Varsamis, Christos Talagkozis, Alkiviadis Tsimpiris, Paris Mastorocostas

Abstract:

The aim of this work is the parallel implementation of k-means in MATLAB, in order to reduce the execution time. Specifically, a new function in MATLAB for serial k-means algorithm is developed, which meets all the requirements for the conversion to a function in MATLAB with parallel computations. Additionally, two different variants for the definition of initial values are presented. In the sequel, the parallel approach is presented. Finally, the performance tests for the computation times respect to the numbers of features and classes are illustrated.

Keywords: K-means algorithm, clustering, parallel computations, MATLAB.

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2076 Efficient Moment Frame Structure

Authors: Mircea I. Pastrav, Cornelia Baera, Florea Dinu

Abstract:

A different concept for designing and detailing of reinforced concrete precast frame structures is analyzed in this paper. The new detailing of the joints derives from the special hybrid moment frame joints. The special reinforcements of this alternative detailing, named modified special hybrid joint, are bondless with respect to both column and beams. Full scale tests were performed on a plan model, which represents a part of 5 story structure, cropped in the middle of the beams and columns spans. Theoretical approach was developed, based on testing results on twice repaired model, subjected to lateral seismic type loading. Discussion regarding the modified special hybrid joint behavior and further on widening research needed concludes the presentation.

Keywords: Acceptance criteria, modified hybrid joint, repair, seismic loading type.

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2075 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar

Abstract:

In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: OMR, image processing, hough circle transform, interpolation, detection, Binary Thresholding.

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2074 Theoretical Analysis of the Effect of Accounting for Special Methods in Similarity-Based Cohesion Measurement

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Class cohesion is an important object-oriented software quality attributes, and it refers to the degree of relatedness of class attributes and methods. Several class cohesion measures are proposed in the literature, and the impact of considering the special methods (i.e., constructors, destructors, and access and delegation methods) in cohesion calculation is not thoroughly theoretically studied for most of them. In this paper, we address this issue for three popular similarity-based class cohesion measures. For each of the considered measures we theoretically study the impact of including or excluding special methods on the values that are obtained by applying the measure. This study is based on analyzing the definitions and formulas that are proposed for the measures. The results show that including/excluding special methods has a considerable effect on the obtained cohesion values and that this effect varies from one measure to another. The study shows the importance of considering the types of methods that have to be accounted for when proposing a similarity-based cohesion measure.

Keywords: Object-oriented class, software quality, class cohesion measure, class cohesion, special methods.

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2073 Volterra Filter for Color Image Segmentation

Authors: M. B. Meenavathi, K. Rajesh

Abstract:

Color image segmentation plays an important role in computer vision and image processing areas. In this paper, the features of Volterra filter are utilized for color image segmentation. The discrete Volterra filter exhibits both linear and nonlinear characteristics. The linear part smoothes the image features in uniform gray zones and is used for getting a gross representation of objects of interest. The nonlinear term compensates for the blurring due to the linear term and preserves the edges which are mainly used to distinguish the various objects. The truncated quadratic Volterra filters are mainly used for edge preserving along with Gaussian noise cancellation. In our approach, the segmentation is based on K-means clustering algorithm in HSI space. Both the hue and the intensity components are fully utilized. For hue clustering, the special cyclic property of the hue component is taken into consideration. The experimental results show that the proposed technique segments the color image while preserving significant features and removing noise effects.

Keywords: Color image segmentation, HSI space, K–means clustering, Volterra filter.

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2072 Improving RBF Networks Classification Performance by using K-Harmonic Means

Authors: Z. Zainuddin, W. K. Lye

Abstract:

In this paper, a clustering algorithm named KHarmonic means (KHM) was employed in the training of Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFNs). KHM organized the data in clusters and determined the centres of the basis function. The popular clustering algorithms, namely K-means (KM) and Fuzzy c-means (FCM), are highly dependent on the initial identification of elements that represent the cluster well. In KHM, the problem can be avoided. This leads to improvement in the classification performance when compared to other clustering algorithms. A comparison of the classification accuracy was performed between KM, FCM and KHM. The classification performance is based on the benchmark data sets: Iris Plant, Diabetes and Breast Cancer. RBFN training with the KHM algorithm shows better accuracy in classification problem.

Keywords: Neural networks, Radial basis functions, Clusteringmethod, K-harmonic means.

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2071 An Improved K-Means Algorithm for Gene Expression Data Clustering

Authors: Billel Kenidra, Mohamed Benmohammed

Abstract:

Data mining technique used in the field of clustering is a subject of active research and assists in biological pattern recognition and extraction of new knowledge from raw data. Clustering means the act of partitioning an unlabeled dataset into groups of similar objects. Each group, called a cluster, consists of objects that are similar between themselves and dissimilar to objects of other groups. Several clustering methods are based on partitional clustering. This category attempts to directly decompose the dataset into a set of disjoint clusters leading to an integer number of clusters that optimizes a given criterion function. The criterion function may emphasize a local or a global structure of the data, and its optimization is an iterative relocation procedure. The K-Means algorithm is one of the most widely used partitional clustering techniques. Since K-Means is extremely sensitive to the initial choice of centers and a poor choice of centers may lead to a local optimum that is quite inferior to the global optimum, we propose a strategy to initiate K-Means centers. The improved K-Means algorithm is compared with the original K-Means, and the results prove how the efficiency has been significantly improved.

Keywords: Microarray data mining, biological pattern recognition, partitional clustering, k-means algorithm, centroid initialization.

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2070 Assisted Approach as a Tool for Increasing Attention When Using the iPad in a Special Elementary School: Action Research

Authors: Vojtěch Gybas, Libor Klubal, Kateřina Kostolányová

Abstract:

Nowadays, mobile touch technologies, such as tablets, are an integral part of teaching and learning in many special elementary schools. Many special education teachers tend to choose an iPad tablet with iOS. The reason is simple; the iPad has a function for pupils with special educational needs. If we decide to use tablets in teaching, in general, first we should try to stimulate the cognitive abilities of the pupil at the highest level, while holding the pupil’s attention on the task, when working with the device. This paper will describe how student attention can be increased by eliminating the working environment of selected applications, while using iPads with pupils in a special elementary school. Assisted function approach is highly effective at eliminating unwanted touching by a pupil when working on the desktop iPad, thus actively increasing the pupil´s attention while working on specific educational applications. During the various stages of the action, the research was conducted via data collection and interpretation. After a phase of gaining results and ideas for practice and actions, we carried out the check measurement, this time using the tool-assisted approach. In both cases, the pupils worked in the Math Board application and the resulting differences were evident.

Keywords: Special elementary school, mobile touch device, iPad, attention, math board.

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2069 Fast and Accuracy Control Chart Pattern Recognition using a New cluster-k-Nearest Neighbor

Authors: Samir Brahim Belhaouari

Abstract:

By taking advantage of both k-NN which is highly accurate and K-means cluster which is able to reduce the time of classification, we can introduce Cluster-k-Nearest Neighbor as "variable k"-NN dealing with the centroid or mean point of all subclasses generated by clustering algorithm. In general the algorithm of K-means cluster is not stable, in term of accuracy, for that reason we develop another algorithm for clustering our space which gives a higher accuracy than K-means cluster, less subclass number, stability and bounded time of classification with respect to the variable data size. We find between 96% and 99.7 % of accuracy in the lassification of 6 different types of Time series by using K-means cluster algorithm and we find 99.7% by using the new clustering algorithm.

Keywords: Pattern recognition, Time series, k-Nearest Neighbor, k-means cluster, Gaussian Mixture Model, Classification

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2068 Data Compression in Ultrasonic Network Communication via Sparse Signal Processing

Authors: Beata Zima, Octavio A. Márquez Reyes, Masoud Mohammadgholiha, Jochen Moll, Luca De Marchi

Abstract:

This document presents the approach of using compressed sensing in signal encoding and information transferring within a guided wave sensor network, comprised of specially designed frequency steerable acoustic transducers (FSATs). Wave propagation in a damaged plate was simulated using commercial FEM-based software COMSOL. Guided waves were excited by means of FSATs, characterized by the special shape of its electrodes, and modeled using PIC255 piezoelectric material. The special shape of the FSAT, allows for focusing wave energy in a certain direction, accordingly to the frequency components of its actuation signal, which makes a larger monitored area available. The process begins when a FSAT detects and records reflection from damage in the structure, this signal is then encoded and prepared for transmission, using a combined approach, based on Compressed Sensing Matching Pursuit and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). After codification of the signal is in binary, the information is transmitted between the nodes in the network. The message reaches the last node, where it is finally decoded and processed, to be used for damage detection and localization purposes. The main aim of the investigation is to determine the location of detected damage using reconstructed signals. The study demonstrates that the special steerable capabilities of FSATs, not only facilitate the detection of damage but also permit transmitting the damage information to a chosen area in a specific direction of the investigated structure.

Keywords: Data compression, ultrasonic communication, guided waves, FEM analysis.

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2067 Improved Wavelet Neural Networks for Early Cancer Diagnosis Using Clustering Algorithms

Authors: Zarita Zainuddin, Ong Pauline

Abstract:

Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) have emerged as a vital alternative to the vastly studied multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) since its first implementation. In this paper, we applied various clustering algorithms, namely, K-means (KM), Fuzzy C-means (FCM), symmetry-based K-means (SBKM), symmetry-based Fuzzy C-means (SBFCM) and modified point symmetry-based K-means (MPKM) clustering algorithms in choosing the translation parameter of a WNN. These modified WNNs are further applied to the heterogeneous cancer classification using benchmark microarray data and were compared against the conventional WNN with random initialization method. Experimental results showed that a WNN classifier with the MPKM algorithm is more precise than the conventional WNN as well as the WNNs with other clustering algorithms.

Keywords: Clustering, microarray, symmetry, wavelet neural networks.

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2066 Factors that Contribute to the Improvement of the Sense of Self-Efficacy of Special Educators in Inclusive Settings in Greece

Authors: Sotiria Tzivinikou, Dimitra Kagkara

Abstract:

Teacher’s sense of self-efficacy can affect significantly both teacher’s and student’s performance. More specific, self-efficacy is associated with the learning outcomes as well as student’s motivation and self-efficacy. For example, teachers with high sense of self-efficacy are more open to innovations and invest more effort in teaching. In addition to this, effective inclusive education is associated with higher levels of teacher’s self-efficacy. Pre-service teachers with high levels of self-efficacy could handle student’s behavior better and more effectively assist students with special educational needs. Teacher preparation programs are also important, because teacher’s efficacy beliefs are shaped early in learning, as a result the quality of teacher’s education programs can affect the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service teachers. Usually, a number of pre-service teachers do not consider themselves well prepared to work with students with special educational needs and do not have the appropriate sense of self-efficacy. This study aims to investigate the factors that contribute to the improvement of the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service special educators by using an academic practicum training program. The sample of this study is 159 pre-service special educators, who also participated in the academic practicum training program. For the purpose of this study were used quantitative methods for data collection and analysis. Teacher’s self-efficacy was assessed by the teachers themselves with the completion of a questionnaire which was based on the scale of Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale. Pre and post measurements of teacher’s self-efficacy were taken. The results of the survey are consistent with those of the international literature. The results indicate that a significant number of pre-service special educators do not hold the appropriate sense of self-efficacy regarding teaching students with special educational needs. Moreover, a quality academic training program constitutes a crucial factor for the improvement of the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service special educators, as additional for the provision of high quality inclusive education.

Keywords: Inclusive education, pre-service, self-efficacy, training program.

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2065 Embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta –Nystrom Method Order 5(4) for the Integration of Special Second Order ODEs

Authors: Fudziah Ismail

Abstract:

In this paper a new embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Nystrom fourth order in fifth order method for solving special second order initial value problems is derived. A standard set of test problems are tested upon and comparisons on the numerical results are made when the same set of test problems are reduced to first order systems and solved using the existing embedded diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method. The results suggests the superiority of the new method.

Keywords: Runge-Kutta Nystrom, Special second orderproblems.

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2064 Stability of a Special Class of Switched Positive Systems

Authors: Xiuyong Ding, Lan Shu, Xiu Liu

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the existence of a linear copositive Lyapunov function(LCLF) for a special class of switched positive linear systems(SPLSs) composed of continuousand discrete-time subsystems. Firstly, by using system matrices, we construct a special kind of matrices in appropriate manner. Secondly, our results reveal that the Hurwitz stability of these matrices is equivalent to the existence of a common LCLF for arbitrary finite sets composed of continuous- and discrete-time positive linear timeinvariant( LTI) systems. Finally, a simple example is provided to illustrate the implication of our results.

Keywords: Linear co-positive Lyapunov functions, positive systems, switched systems.

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