Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30750
Factors that Contribute to the Improvement of the Sense of Self-Efficacy of Special Educators in Inclusive Settings in Greece

Authors: Sotiria Tzivinikou, Dimitra Kagkara


Teacher’s sense of self-efficacy can affect significantly both teacher’s and student’s performance. More specific, self-efficacy is associated with the learning outcomes as well as student’s motivation and self-efficacy. For example, teachers with high sense of self-efficacy are more open to innovations and invest more effort in teaching. In addition to this, effective inclusive education is associated with higher levels of teacher’s self-efficacy. Pre-service teachers with high levels of self-efficacy could handle student’s behavior better and more effectively assist students with special educational needs. Teacher preparation programs are also important, because teacher’s efficacy beliefs are shaped early in learning, as a result the quality of teacher’s education programs can affect the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service teachers. Usually, a number of pre-service teachers do not consider themselves well prepared to work with students with special educational needs and do not have the appropriate sense of self-efficacy. This study aims to investigate the factors that contribute to the improvement of the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service special educators by using an academic practicum training program. The sample of this study is 159 pre-service special educators, who also participated in the academic practicum training program. For the purpose of this study were used quantitative methods for data collection and analysis. Teacher’s self-efficacy was assessed by the teachers themselves with the completion of a questionnaire which was based on the scale of Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale. Pre and post measurements of teacher’s self-efficacy were taken. The results of the survey are consistent with those of the international literature. The results indicate that a significant number of pre-service special educators do not hold the appropriate sense of self-efficacy regarding teaching students with special educational needs. Moreover, a quality academic training program constitutes a crucial factor for the improvement of the sense of self-efficacy of pre-service special educators, as additional for the provision of high quality inclusive education.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Self-efficacy, pre-service, training program

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 424


[1] Klassen, R., Tze, V., Betts, S., & Gordon, K. (2010). Teacher Efficacy Research 1998–2009: Signs of Progress or Unfulfilled Promise? Educational Psychology Review, 23(1), 21-43.
[2] Ross, J., & Bruce, C. (2007). Professional Development Effects on Teacher Efficacy: Results of Randomized Field Trial. The Journal of Educational Research, 101(1), 50-60.
[3] Cerit, Y. (2010). Teacher Efficacy Scale: The Study of Validity and Reliability and Preservice Classroom Teachers’ Self Efficacy Beliefs. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 6(1), 68-85.
[4] Lin, H.L., Gorrell, J. & Taylor, J. (2002). Influence of culture and education on U.S. and Taiwan pre-service teachers’ efficacy beliefs. The Journal of Educational Research, 96(1), 37–46.
[5] Woolfolk Hoy, A. E. (2005). What predicts student teacher self-efficacy. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 9(4), 123e127.
[6] Sharma, U., Loreman, T., & Forlin, C. (2011). Measuring teacher efficacy to implement inclusive practices. Journal Of Research In Special Educational Needs, 12(1), 12-21.
[7] Moulding, L., Stewart, P., & Dunmeyer, M. (2014). Pre-service teachers' sense of efficacy: Relationship to academic ability, student teaching placement characteristics, and mentor support. Teaching And Teacher Education, 41, 60-66.
[8] Al-Awidi, H., & Alghazo, I. (2012). The effect of student teaching experience on preservice elementary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs for technology integration in the UAE. Educational Technology Research & Development, 60(5), 923e941.
[9] Woolfolk Hoy, A. & Spero, R.B. (2005). Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21, 343–356.
[10] Tzivinikou, S., Papoutsaki, K. (2016). Studying teaching methods, strategies and best practices for young children with special educational needs. Early Child Development and Care, DOI:10.1080/03004430.2015.1071101.
[11] Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17 (7), 783 - 805.