Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 320

Search results for: geometric mean

320 Determining Optimal Demand Rate and Production Decisions: A Geometric Programming Approach

Authors: Farnaz G. Nezami, Mir B. Aryanezhad, Seyed J. Sadjadi

Abstract:

In this paper a nonlinear model is presented to demonstrate the relation between production and marketing departments. By introducing some functions such as pricing cost and market share loss functions it will be tried to show some aspects of market modelling which has not been regarded before. The proposed model will be a constrained signomial geometric programming model. For model solving, after variables- modifications an iterative technique based on the concept of geometric mean will be introduced to solve the resulting non-standard posynomial model which can be applied to a wide variety of models in non-standard posynomial geometric programming form. At the end a numerical analysis will be presented to accredit the validity of the mentioned model.

Keywords: Geometric programming, marketing, nonlinear optimization, production.

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319 Kinematic Parameter-Independent Modeling and Measuring of Three-Axis Machine Tools

Authors: Yung-Yuan Hsu

Abstract:

The primary objective of this paper was to construct a “kinematic parameter-independent modeling of three-axis machine tools for geometric error measurement" technique. Improving the accuracy of the geometric error for three-axis machine tools is one of the machine tools- core techniques. This paper first applied the traditional method of HTM to deduce the geometric error model for three-axis machine tools. This geometric error model was related to the three-axis kinematic parameters where the overall errors was relative to the machine reference coordinate system. Given that the measurement of the linear axis in this model should be on the ideal motion axis, there were practical difficulties. Through a measurement method consolidating translational errors and rotational errors in the geometric error model, we simplified the three-axis geometric error model to a kinematic parameter-independent model. Finally, based on the new measurement method corresponding to this error model, we established a truly practical and more accurate error measuring technique for three-axis machine tools.

Keywords: Three-axis machine tool, Geometric error, HTM, Error measuring

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318 Geometric Simplification Method of Building Energy Model Based on Building Performance Simulation

Authors: Yan Lyu, Yiqun Pan, Zhizhong Huang

Abstract:

In the design stage of a new building, the energy model of this building is often required for the analysis of the performance on energy efficiency. In practice, a certain degree of geometric simplification should be done in the establishment of building energy models, since the detailed geometric features of a real building are hard to be described perfectly in most energy simulation engine, such as ESP-r, eQuest or EnergyPlus. Actually, the detailed description is not necessary when the result with extremely high accuracy is not demanded. Therefore, this paper analyzed the relationship between the error of the simulation result from building energy models and the geometric simplification of the models. Finally, the following two parameters are selected as the indices to characterize the geometric feature of in building energy simulation: the southward projected area and total side surface area of the building. Based on the parameterization method, the simplification from an arbitrary column building to a typical shape (a cuboid) building can be made for energy modeling. The result in this study indicates that no more than 7% prediction error of annual cooling/heating load will be caused by the geometric simplification for those buildings with the ratio of southward projection length to total perimeter of the bottom of 0.25~0.35, which means this method is applicable for building performance simulation.

Keywords: building energy model, simulation, geometric simplification, design, regression

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317 Geometric Modeling of Illumination on the TFT-LCD Panel using Bezier Surface

Authors: Kyong-min Lee, Moon Soo Chang, PooGyeon Park

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a geometric modeling of illumination on the patterned image containing etching transistor. This image is captured by a commercial camera during the inspection of a TFT-LCD panel. Inspection of defect is an important process in the production of LCD panel, but the regional difference in brightness, which has a negative effect on the inspection, is due to the uneven illumination environment. In order to solve this problem, we present a geometric modeling of illumination consisting of an interpolation using the least squares method and 3D modeling using bezier surface. Our computational time, by using the sampling method, is shorter than the previous methods. Moreover, it can be further used to correct brightness in every patterned image.

Keywords: Bezier, defect, geometric modeling, illumination, inspection, LCD, panel.

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316 Nonconforming Control Charts for Zero-Inflated Poisson Distribution

Authors: N. Katemee, T. Mayureesawan

Abstract:

This paper developed the c-Chart based on a Zero- Inflated Poisson (ZIP) processes that approximated by a geometric distribution with parameter p. The p estimated that fit for ZIP distribution used in calculated the mean, median, and variance of geometric distribution for constructed the c-Chart by three difference methods. For cg-Chart, developed c-Chart by used the mean and variance of the geometric distribution constructed control limits. For cmg-Chart, the mean used for constructed the control limits. The cme- Chart, developed control limits of c-Chart from median and variance values of geometric distribution. The performance of charts considered from the Average Run Length and Average Coverage Probability. We found that for an in-control process, the cg-Chart is superior for low level of mean at all level of proportion zero. For an out-of-control process, the cmg-Chart and cme-Chart are the best for mean = 2, 3 and 4 at all level of parameter.

Keywords: average coverage probability, average run length, geometric distribution, zero-inflated poisson distribution

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315 Nonlinear Time-History Analysis of 3-Dimensional Semi-rigid Steel Frames

Authors: Phu-Cuong Nguyen, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents nonlinear elastic dynamic analysis of 3-D semi-rigid steel frames including geometric and connection nonlinearities. The geometric nonlinearity is considered by using stability functions and updating geometric stiffness matrix. The nonlinear behavior of the steel beam-to-column connection is considered by using a zero-length independent connection element comprising of six translational and rotational springs. The nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations are solved by the Newmark numerical integration method. The nonlinear time-history analysis results are compared with those of previous studies and commercial SAP2000 software to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed procedure.

Keywords: Geometric nonlinearity, nonlinear time-historyanalysis, semi-rigid connection, stability functions.

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314 Geometric Operators in Decision Making with Minimization of Regret

Authors: José M. Merigó, Montserrat Casanovas

Abstract:

We study different types of aggregation operators and the decision making process with minimization of regret. We analyze the original work developed by Savage and the recent work developed by Yager that generalizes the MMR method creating a parameterized family of minimal regret methods by using the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator. We suggest a new method that uses different types of geometric operators such as the weighted geometric mean or the ordered weighted geometric operator (OWG) to generalize the MMR method obtaining a new parameterized family of minimal regret methods. The main result obtained in this method is that it allows to aggregate negative numbers in the OWG operator. Finally, we give an illustrative example.

Keywords: Decision making, Regret, Aggregation operators, OWA operator, OWG operator.

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313 Study on Geometric Design of Nay Pyi Taw-Mandalay Expressway and Possible Improvements; Sagarinn-Myinsain Portion

Authors: War War Myint

Abstract:

Geometric design is an important part of planning process design for physical highway to fill up basic function of roads, to give good traffic service. It is found that most of the road safety problems occur at the horizontal curves and complex-compound curves. In this paper, review on Sagarinn-Myinsain Portion of Nay Pyi Taw - Mandalay highway has been conducted in aspect of geometric design induced road safety condition. Horizontal alignment of geometric features and curve details are reviewed based on (AASHTO) standard and revised by Autodesk Land Desktop Software. Moreover, 85th Percentile Operation Speeds (V85) with driver confidence on horizontal curves is evaluated in order to obtain the range of highway safety factor (FS). The length of the selected highway portion is 13.65 miles and 8 lanes. The results of this study can be used to investigate the possible hazardous locations in advance and to revise how design radius and super elevation should be for better road safety performance for the selected portion. Moreover, the relationship between highway safety and highway geometry characteristics can also be known.

Keywords: Geometric design; horizontal alignment; superelevation; 85th percentile operation speed (V85), safety factor (FS).

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312 Sediment Transport Experiments: The Influence of the Furrow Geometry

Authors: S. Haddad, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

In this experimental work, we have shown that the geometric shape of the grooves (furrows) plays an important role in sediment dynamics. In addition, the rheological behaviour of solid discharge does not depend only on the velocity discharge but also on the geometric shape.

Keywords: Laboratory experiments, soil erosion, groove, furrow, sediment transport

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311 Geometric Operators in the Selection of Human Resources

Authors: José M. Merigó, Anna M. Gil-Lafuente

Abstract:

We study the possibility of using geometric operators in the selection of human resources. We develop three new methods that use the ordered weighted geometric (OWG) operator in different indexes used for the selection of human resources. The objective of these models is to manipulate the neutrality of the old methods so the decision maker is able to select human resources according to his particular attitude. In order to develop these models, first a short revision of the OWG operator is developed. Second, we briefly explain the general process for the selection of human resources. Then, we develop the three new indexes. They will use the OWG operator in the Hamming distance, in the adequacy coefficient and in the index of maximum and minimum level. Finally, an illustrative example about the new approach is given.

Keywords: OWG operator, decision making, human resources, Hamming distance.

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310 Determination of Unsaturated Soil Permeability Based on Geometric Factor Development of Constant Discharge Model

Authors: A. Rifa’i, Y. Takeshita, M. Komatsu

Abstract:

After Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006, the main problem that occurred in the first yard of Prambanan Temple is ponding area that occurred after rainfall. Soil characterization needs to be determined by conducting several processes, especially permeability coefficient (k) in both saturated and unsaturated conditions to solve this problem. More accurate and efficient field testing procedure is required to obtain permeability data that present the field condition. One of the field permeability test equipment is Constant Discharge procedure to determine the permeability coefficient. Necessary adjustments of the Constant Discharge procedure are needed to be determined especially the value of geometric factor (F) to improve the corresponding value of permeability coefficient. The value of k will be correlated with the value of volumetric water content (θ) of an unsaturated condition until saturated condition. The principle procedure of Constant Discharge model provides a constant flow in permeameter tube that flows into the ground until the water level in the tube becomes constant. Constant water level in the tube is highly dependent on the tube dimension. Every tube dimension has a shape factor called the geometric factor that affects the result of the test. Geometric factor value is defined as the characteristic of shape and radius of the tube. This research has modified the geometric factor parameters by using empty material tube method so that the geometric factor will change. Saturation level is monitored by using soil moisture sensor. The field test results were compared with the results of laboratory tests to validate the results of the test. Field and laboratory test results of empty tube material method have an average difference of 3.33 x 10-4 cm/sec. The test results showed that modified geometric factor provides more accurate data. The improved methods of constant discharge procedure provide more relevant results.

Keywords: Constant discharge, geometric factor, permeability coefficient, unsaturated soils.

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309 Triangular Geometric Feature for Offline Signature Verification

Authors: Zuraidasahana Zulkarnain, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Nor Anita Fairos Ismail, Mohd Azhar M. Arsad

Abstract:

Handwritten signature is accepted widely as a biometric characteristic for personal authentication. The use of appropriate features plays an important role in determining accuracy of signature verification; therefore, this paper presents a feature based on the geometrical concept. To achieve the aim, triangle attributes are exploited to design a new feature since the triangle possesses orientation, angle and transformation that would improve accuracy. The proposed feature uses triangulation geometric set comprising of sides, angles and perimeter of a triangle which is derived from the center of gravity of a signature image. For classification purpose, Euclidean classifier along with Voting-based classifier is used to verify the tendency of forgery signature. This classification process is experimented using triangular geometric feature and selected global features. Based on an experiment that was validated using Grupo de Senales 960 (GPDS-960) signature database, the proposed triangular geometric feature achieves a lower Average Error Rates (AER) value with a percentage of 34% as compared to 43% of the selected global feature. As a conclusion, the proposed triangular geometric feature proves to be a more reliable feature for accurate signature verification.

Keywords: biometrics, euclidean classifier, feature extraction, offline signature verification, VOTING-based classifier

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308 Topological Sensitivity Analysis for Reconstruction of the Inverse Source Problem from Boundary Measurement

Authors: Maatoug Hassine, Mourad Hrizi

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a geometric inverse source problem for the heat equation with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary data. We will reconstruct the exact form of the unknown source term from additional boundary conditions. Our motivation is to detect the location, the size and the shape of source support. We present a one-shot algorithm based on the Kohn-Vogelius formulation and the topological gradient method. The geometric inverse source problem is formulated as a topology optimization one. A topological sensitivity analysis is derived from a source function. Then, we present a non-iterative numerical method for the geometric reconstruction of the source term with unknown support using a level curve of the topological gradient. Finally, we give several examples to show the viability of our presented method.

Keywords: Geometric inverse source problem, heat equation, topological sensitivity, topological optimization, Kohn-Vogelius formulation.

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307 Topological Properties of an Exponential Random Geometric Graph Process

Authors: Yilun Shang

Abstract:

In this paper we consider a one-dimensional random geometric graph process with the inter-nodal gaps evolving according to an exponential AR(1) process. The transition probability matrix and stationary distribution are derived for the Markov chains concerning connectivity and the number of components. We analyze the algorithm for hitting time regarding disconnectivity. In addition to dynamical properties, we also study topological properties for static snapshots. We obtain the degree distributions as well as asymptotic precise bounds and strong law of large numbers for connectivity threshold distance and the largest nearest neighbor distance amongst others. Both exact results and limit theorems are provided in this paper.

Keywords: random geometric graph, autoregressive process, degree, connectivity, Markovian, wireless network.

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306 Vehicle Type Classification with Geometric and Appearance Attributes

Authors: Ghada S. Moussa

Abstract:

With the increase in population along with economic prosperity, an enormous increase in the number and types of vehicles on the roads occurred. This fact brings a growing need for efficiently yet effectively classifying vehicles into their corresponding categories, which play a crucial role in many areas of infrastructure planning and traffic management.

This paper presents two vehicle-type classification approaches; 1) geometric-based and 2) appearance-based. The two classification approaches are used for two tasks: multi-class and intra-class vehicle classifications. For the evaluation purpose of the proposed classification approaches’ performance and the identification of the most effective yet efficient one, 10-fold cross-validation technique is used with a large dataset. The proposed approaches are distinguishable from previous research on vehicle classification in which: i) they consider both geometric and appearance attributes of vehicles, and ii) they perform remarkably well in both multi-class and intra-class vehicle classification. Experimental results exhibit promising potentials implementations of the proposed vehicle classification approaches into real-world applications.

Keywords: Appearance attributes, Geometric attributes, Support vector machine, Vehicle classification.

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305 Subpixel Detection of Circular Objects Using Geometric Property

Authors: Wen-Yen Wu, Wen-Bin Yu

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method for detecting circular shapes with subpixel accuracy. First, the geometric properties of circles have been used to find the diameters as well as the circumference pixels. The center and radius are then estimated by the circumference pixels. Both synthetic and real images have been tested by the proposed method. The experimental results show that the new method is efficient.

Keywords: Subpixel, least squares estimation, circle detection, Hough transformation.

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304 Influence of Slenderness Ratio on the Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Portal Structures

Authors: Kahil Amar, Nekmouche Aghiles, Titouche Billal, Hamizi Mohand, Hannachi Naceur Eddine

Abstract:

The ductility is an important parameter in the nonlinear behavior of portal structures reinforced concrete. It may be explained by the ability of the structure to deform in the plastic range, or the geometric characteristics in the map may influence the overall ductility. Our study is based on the influence of geometric slenderness (Lx / Ly) on the overall ductility of these structures, a study is made on a structure has 05 floors with varying the column section of 900 cm², 1600 cm² and 1225 cm². A slight variation in global ductility is noticed as (Lx/Ly) varies; however, column sections can control satisfactorily the plastic behavior of buildings.

Keywords: Ductility, nonlinear behavior, pushover analysis, geometric slenderness, structural behavior.

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303 CFD Predictions of Dense Slurry Flow in Centrifugal Pump Casings

Authors: Krishnan V. Pagalthivarthi, Pankaj K. Gupta, Vipin Tyagi, M. R. Ravi

Abstract:

Dense slurry flow through centrifugal pump casing has been modeled using the Eulerian-Eulerian approach with Eulerian multiphase model in FLUENT 6.1®. First order upwinding is considered for the discretization of momentum, k and ε terms. SIMPLE algorithm has been applied for dealing with pressurevelocity coupling. A mixture property based k-ε turbulence model has been used for modeling turbulence. Results are validated first against mesh independence and experiments for a particular set of operational and geometric conditions. Parametric analysis is then performed to determine the effect on important physical quantities viz. solid velocities, solid concentration and solid stresses near the wall with various operational geometric conditions of the pump.

Keywords: Centrifugal pump casing, Dense slurry, Solidsconcentration, Wall shear stress, Pump geometric parameters.

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302 A Content Based Image Watermarking Scheme Resilient to Geometric Attacks

Authors: Latha Parameswaran, K. Anbumani

Abstract:

Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area of concern. The paper aims to discuss a robust image watermarking scheme, which can withstand geometric attacks. The source image is initially moment normalized in order to make it withstand geometric attacks. The moment normalized image is wavelet transformed. The first level wavelet transformed image is segmented into blocks if size 8x8. The product of mean and standard and standard deviation of each block is computed. The second level wavelet transformed image is divided into 8x8 blocks. The product of block mean and the standard deviation are computed. The difference between products in the two levels forms the watermark. The watermark is inserted by modulating the coefficients of the mid frequencies. The modulated image is inverse wavelet transformed and inverse moment normalized to generate the watermarked image. The watermarked image is now ready for transmission. The proposed scheme can be used to validate identification cards and financial instruments. The performance of this scheme has been evaluated using a set of parameters. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this scheme.

Keywords: Image moments, wavelets, content-based watermarking, moment normalization, geometric attacks.

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301 A Design for Customer Preferences Model by Cluster Analysis of Geometric Features and Customer Preferences

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Ching-Yen Chen

Abstract:

In the design cycle, a main design task is to determine the external shape of the product. The external shape of a product is one of the key factors that can affect the customers’ preferences linking to the motivation to buy the product, especially in the case of a consumer electronic product such as a mobile phone. The relationship between the external shape and the customer preferences needs to be studied to enhance the customer’s purchase desire and action. In this research, a design for customer preferences model is developed for investigating the relationships between the external shape and the customer preferences of a product. In the first stage, the names of the geometric features are collected and evaluated from the data of the specified internet web pages using the developed text miner. The key geometric features can be determined if the number of occurrence on the web pages is relatively high. For each key geometric feature, the numerical values are explored using the text miner to collect the internet data from the web pages. In the second stage, a cluster analysis model is developed to evaluate the numerical values of the key geometric features to divide the external shapes into several groups. Several design suggestion cases can be proposed, for example, large model, mid-size model, and mini model, for designing a mobile phone. A customer preference index is developed by evaluating the numerical data of each of the key geometric features of the design suggestion cases. The design suggestion case with the top ranking of the customer preference index can be selected as the final design of the product. In this paper, an example product of a notebook computer is illustrated. It shows that the external shape of a product can be used to drive customer preferences. The presented design for customer preferences model is useful for determining a suitable external shape of the product to increase customer preferences.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, customer preferences, design evaluation, design for customer preferences, product design.

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300 Detection and Analysis of Deficiencies in Groundnut Plant using Geometric Moments

Authors: Sumeet S. Nisale, Chandan J. Bharambe, Vidya N.More

Abstract:

We propose our genuine research of geometric moments which detects the mineral inadequacy in the frail groundnut plant. This plant is prone to many deficiencies as a result of the variance in the soil nutrients. By analyzing the leaves of the plant, we detect the visual symptoms that are not recognizable to the naked eyes. We have collected about 160 samples of leaves from the nearby fields. The images have been taken by keeping every leaf into a black box to avoid the external interference. For the first time, it has been possible to provide the farmer with the stages of deficiencies. This paper has applied the algorithms successfully to many other plants like Lady-s finger, Green Bean, Lablab Bean, Chilli and Tomato. But we submit the results of the groundnut predominantly. The accuracy of our algorithm and method is almost 93%. This will again pioneer a kind of green revolution in the field of agriculture and will be a boon to that field.

Keywords: Component image, geometric moments, average intensity, average affected area, black box

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299 Some Applications of Gröbner bases

Authors: Hassan Noori, Abdolali Basiri, Sajjad Rahmany

Abstract:

In this paper we will introduce a brief introduction to theory of Gr¨obner bases and some applications of Gr¨obner bases to graph coloring problem, automatic geometric theorem proving and cryptography.

Keywords: Gr¨obner bases, Application of Gr¨obner bases, Automatic Geometric Theorem Proving, Graph Coloring, Cryptography.

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298 Processor Scheduling on Parallel Computers

Authors: Mohammad S. Laghari, Gulzar A. Khuwaja

Abstract:

Many problems in computer vision and image processing present potential for parallel implementations through one of the three major paradigms of geometric parallelism, algorithmic parallelism and processor farming. Static process scheduling techniques are used successfully to exploit geometric and algorithmic parallelism, while dynamic process scheduling is better suited to dealing with the independent processes inherent in the process farming paradigm. This paper considers the application of parallel or multi-computers to a class of problems exhibiting spatial data characteristic of the geometric paradigm. However, by using processor farming paradigm, a dynamic scheduling technique is developed to suit the MIMD structure of the multi-computers. A hybrid scheme of scheduling is also developed and compared with the other schemes. The specific problem chosen for the investigation is the Hough transform for line detection.

Keywords: Hough transforms, parallel computer, parallel paradigms, scheduling.

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297 Singular Value Decomposition Based Optimisation of Design Parameters of a Gearbox

Authors: Mehmet Bozca

Abstract:

Singular value decomposition based optimisation of geometric design parameters of a 5-speed gearbox is studied. During the optimisation, a four-degree-of freedom torsional vibration model of the pinion gear-wheel gear system is obtained and the minimum singular value of the transfer matrix is considered as the objective functions. The computational cost of the associated singular value problems is quite low for the objective function, because it is only necessary to compute the largest and smallest singular values (μmax and μmin) that can be achieved by using selective eigenvalue solvers; the other singular values are not needed. The design parameters are optimised under several constraints that include bending stress, contact stress and constant distance between gear centres. Thus, by optimising the geometric parameters of the gearbox such as, the module, number of teeth and face width it is possible to obtain a light-weight-gearbox structure. It is concluded that the all optimised geometric design parameters also satisfy all constraints.

Keywords: Singular value, optimisation, gearbox, torsional vibration.

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296 Automatic Generating CNC-Code for Milling Machine

Authors: Chalakorn Chitsaart, Suchada Rianmora, Mann Rattana-Areeyagon, Wutichai Namjaiprasert

Abstract:

G-code is the main factor in computer numerical control (CNC) machine for controlling the toolpaths and generating the profile of the object’s features. For obtaining high surface accuracy of the surface finish, non-stop operation is required for CNC machine. Recently, to design a new product, the strategy that concerns about a change that has low impact on business and does not consume lot of resources has been introduced. Cost and time for designing minor changes can be reduced since the traditional geometric details of the existing models are applied. In order to support this strategy as the alternative channel for machining operation, this research proposes the automatic generating codes for CNC milling operation. Using this technique can assist the manufacturer to easily change the size and the geometric shape of the product during the operation where the time spent for setting up or processing the machine are reduced. The algorithm implemented on MATLAB platform is developed by analyzing and evaluating the geometric information of the part. Codes are created rapidly to control the operations of the machine. Comparing to the codes obtained from CAM, this developed algorithm can shortly generate and simulate the cutting profile of the part.

Keywords: Geometric shapes, Milling operation, Minor changes, CNC Machine, G-code, and Cutting parameters.

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295 An Approach to Polynomial Curve Comparison in Geometric Object Database

Authors: Chanon Aphirukmatakun, Natasha Dejdumrong

Abstract:

In image processing and visualization, comparing two bitmapped images needs to be compared from their pixels by matching pixel-by-pixel. Consequently, it takes a lot of computational time while the comparison of two vector-based images is significantly faster. Sometimes these raster graphics images can be approximately converted into the vector-based images by various techniques. After conversion, the problem of comparing two raster graphics images can be reduced to the problem of comparing vector graphics images. Hence, the problem of comparing pixel-by-pixel can be reduced to the problem of polynomial comparisons. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), the vector graphics images are the composition of curves and surfaces. Curves are defined by a sequence of control points and their polynomials. In this paper, the control points will be considerably used to compare curves. The same curves after relocated or rotated are treated to be equivalent while two curves after different scaled are considered to be similar curves. This paper proposed an algorithm for comparing the polynomial curves by using the control points for equivalence and similarity. In addition, the geometric object-oriented database used to keep the curve information has also been defined in XML format for further used in curve comparisons.

Keywords: Bezier curve, Said-Ball curve, Wang-Ball curve, DP curve, CAGD, comparison, geometric object database.

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294 Quantitative Indicator of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Risk Based on its Geometric Parameters

Authors: Guillermo Vilalta, Félix Nieto, Carlos Vaquero, José A. Vilalta

Abstract:

Abdominal aortic aneurysms rupture (AAAs) is one of the main causes of death in the world. This is a very complex phenomenon that usually occurs “without previous warning". Currently, criteria to assess the aneurysm rupture risk (peak diameter and growth rate) can not be considered as reliable indicators. In a first approach, the main geometric parameters of aneurysms have been linked into five biomechanical factors. These are combined to obtain a dimensionless rupture risk index, RI(t), which has been validated preliminarily with a clinical case and others from literature. This quantitative indicator is easy to understand, it allows estimating the aneurysms rupture risks and it is expected to be able to identify the one in aneurysm whose peak diameter is less than the threshold value. Based on initial results, a broader study has begun with twelve patients from the Clinic Hospital of Valladolid-Spain, which are submitted to periodic follow-up examinations.

Keywords: AAA, rupture risk prediction, biomechanical factors, AAA geometric characterization.

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293 Generating a Functional Grammar for Architectural Design from Structural Hierarchy in Combination of Square and Equal Triangle

Authors: Sanaz Ahmadzadeh Siyahrood, Arghavan Ebrahimi, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad

Abstract:

Islamic culture was accountable for a plethora of development in astronomy and science in the medieval term, and in geometry likewise. Geometric patterns are reputable in a considerable number of cultures, but in the Islamic culture the patterns have specific features that connect the Islamic faith to mathematics. In Islamic art, three fundamental shapes are generated from the circle shape: triangle, square and hexagon. Originating from their quiddity, each of these geometric shapes has its own specific structure. Even though the geometric patterns were generated from such simple forms as the circle and the square, they can be combined, duplicated, interlaced, and arranged in intricate combinations. So in order to explain geometrical interaction principles between square and equal triangle, in the first definition step, all types of their linear forces individually and in the second step, between them, would be illustrated. In this analysis, some angles will be created from intersection of their directions. All angles are categorized to some groups and the mathematical expressions among them are analyzed. Since the most geometric patterns in Islamic art and architecture are based on the repetition of a single motif, the evaluation results which are obtained from a small portion, is attributable to a large-scale domain while the development of infinitely repeating patterns can represent the unchanging laws. Geometric ornamentation in Islamic art offers the possibility of infinite growth and can accommodate the incorporation of other types of architectural layout as well, so the logic and mathematical relationships which have been obtained from this analysis are applicable in designing some architecture layers and developing the plan design.

Keywords: Angle, architecture, design, equal triangle, generating, grammar, square and structural hierarchy.

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292 Non–Geometric Sensitivities Using the Adjoint Method

Authors: Marcelo Hayashi, João Lima, Bruno Chieregatti, Ernani Volpe

Abstract:

The adjoint method has been used as a successful tool to obtain sensitivity gradients in aerodynamic design and optimisation for many years. This work presents an alternative approach to the continuous adjoint formulation that enables one to compute gradients of a given measure of merit with respect to control parameters other than those pertaining to geometry. The procedure is then applied to the steady 2–D compressible Euler and incompressible Navier–Stokes flow equations. Finally, the results are compared with sensitivities obtained by finite differences and theoretical values for validation.

Keywords: Adjoint method, optimisation, non–geometric sensitivities, boundary conditions.

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291 Generalized Method for Estimating Best-Fit Vertical Alignments for Profile Data

Authors: Said M. Easa, Shinya Kikuchi

Abstract:

When the profile information of an existing road is missing or not up-to-date and the parameters of the vertical alignment are needed for engineering analysis, the engineer has to recreate the geometric design features of the road alignment using collected profile data. The profile data may be collected using traditional surveying methods, global positioning systems, or digital imagery. This paper develops a method that estimates the parameters of the geometric features that best characterize the existing vertical alignments in terms of tangents and the expressions of the curve, that may be symmetrical, asymmetrical, reverse, and complex vertical curves. The method is implemented using an Excel-based optimization method that minimizes the differences between the observed profile and the profiles estimated from the equations of the vertical curve. The method uses a 'wireframe' representation of the profile that makes the proposed method applicable to all types of vertical curves. A secondary contribution of this paper is to introduce the properties of the equal-arc asymmetrical curve that has been recently developed in the highway geometric design field.

Keywords: Optimization, parameters, data, reverse, spreadsheet, vertical curves

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