Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 78

Search results for: genotypes

78 Polymorphism of HMW-GS in Collection of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: M. Chňapek, M. Tomka, R. Peroutková, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

Processes of plant breeding, testing and licensing of new varieties, patent protection in seed production, relations in trade and protection of copyright are dependent on identification, differentiation and characterization of plant genotypes. Therefore, we focused our research on utilization of wheat storage proteins as genetic markers suitable not only for differentiation of individual genotypes, but also for identification and characterization of their considerable properties. We analyzed a collection of 102 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 41 genotypes of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.), and 35 genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), in this study. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat and durum wheat were homogenous and single line, but spelt wheat genotypes were heterogenous. We observed variability of HMW-GS composition according to environmental factors and level of breeding and predict technological quality on the basis of Glu-score calculation.

Keywords: Genotype identification, HMW-GS, wheat quality.

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77 Carotenoids and Colour Before and After Storage of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Potato Genotypes in Latvia

Authors: Irisa Murniece, Zanda Kruma, Ilze Skrabule

Abstract:

Potatoes are a good source of carotenoids, which are lipophilic compounds synthesized in plastids from isoprenoids. The aim of this research was to determine the content of carotenoids in relationship with the colour of organically and conventionally cultivated potato genotypes before and after period of storage. In cooperation with the State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute (Latvia), six potato genotypes were studied: 'Agrie dzeltenie', 'Prelma', 'Imanta', 'S-03135-10', 'S-99108-8' and 'S-01063-5'. All the genotypes were cultivated under three different conditions: organically and conventionally (two conditions). The content of carotenoids was determined by using spectrophotometer and the colour – L*a*b* system. The results of current research show that after the period of storage, carotenoid amount has increased and in conventionally cultivated potatoes it varies from 228.514 to 552.434 μg 100 g-1 while in organically cultivated potato genotypes – from 45.485 to 662.699 μg 100 g-1 FW. Colour of potato flesh was changing during storage.

Keywords: carotenoids, colour, organic and conventional cultivation, potato genotypes, storage

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76 Assessment of Resistance of Wheat Genotypes (T. aestivum and T. durum) To Boron Toxicity

Authors: M. Rüştü Karaman, Mehmet Zengin, Ayhan Horuz

Abstract:

Research on the boron (B) toxicity problems had recently considerable relation, especially in the dry regions of the world. Development of resistant varieties to B toxicity is a high priority on these regions, where the soils have high levels of B. Thus, this study aimed to assessment the resistance of wheat genotypes to B toxicity using the agronomic and physiologic parameters. For this aim, a pot experiment, based on a completely randomized design with three replications, was conducted using the soil of calcareous usthochrepts. In the study, twenty different wheat genotypes of T. aestivum and T. Durum were used. Boron fertilizer at the levels of 0 (-B), 30 mg B kg-1 (+B) as H3BO3 was applied to the pots. After harvest, plant dry matter yield was recorded, and total B concentrations in tops of wheat plants were determined. The results have revealed the existence of a large genotypic variation among wheat genotypes to their physiologic and agronomic susceptibility to B toxicity.

Keywords: Boron, B toxicity, B uptake, wheat genotypes.

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75 RAPD Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean

Authors: M. Vivodík, Ž. Balážová, Z. Gálová

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 40 castor genotypes using 8 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 40 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded in 66 fragments, with an average of 8.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments ranged from 3 to 13, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1200 bp. Values of the polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.556 to 0.895 with an average of 0.784 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.621 to 0.896 with an average of 0.798. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared and analyzed genotypes were grouped into two main clusters and only two genotypes could not be distinguished. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production for industrial uses.

Keywords: Dendrogram, polymorphism, RAPD technique, Ricinus communis L.

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74 Evaluation of Potential Production of Maize Genotypes of Early Maturity in Rainfed Lowland

Authors: St. Subaedah, A. Takdir, Netty, D. Hidrawati

Abstract:

Maize development at the rainfed lowland after rice is often confronted with the occurrence of drought stress at the time of entering the generative phase, which will cause be hampered crop production. Consequently, in the utilization of the rainfed lowland areas optimally, an effort that can be done using the varieties of early maturity to minimize crop failures due to its short rainy season. The aim of this research was evaluating the potential yield of genotypes of candidates of maize early maturity in the rainfed lowland areas. The study was conducted during May to August 2016 at South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study used randomized block design to compare 12 treatments and consists of 8 genotypes namely CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4, CH5, CH6, CH7, CH8 and the use of four varieties, namely Bima 3, Bima 7, Lamuru and Gumarang. The results showed that genotype of CH2, CH3, CH5, CH 6, CH7 and CH8 harvesting has less than 90 days. There are two genotypes namely genotypes of CH7 and CH8 that have a fairly high production respectively of 7.16 tons / ha and 8.11 tons/ ha and significantly not different from the superior varieties Bima3.

Keywords: Evaluation, maize, early maturity, yield potential.

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73 Genetic Characterization of Barley Genotypes via Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat

Authors: Mustafa Yorgancılar, Emine Atalay, Necdet Akgün, Ali Topal

Abstract:

In this study, polymerase chain reaction based Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) from DNA fingerprinting techniques were used to investigate the genetic relationships among barley crossbreed genotypes in Turkey. It is important that selection based on the genetic base in breeding programs via ISSR, in terms of breeding time. 14 ISSR primers generated a total of 97 bands, of which 81 (83.35%) were polymorphic. The highest total resolution power (RP) value was obtained from the F2 (0.53) and M16 (0.51) primers. According to the ISSR result, the genetic similarity index changed between 0.64–095; Lane 3 with Line 6 genotypes were the closest, while Line 36 were the most distant ones. The ISSR markers were found to be promising for assessing genetic diversity in barley crossbreed genotypes.

Keywords: Barley, crossbreed, genetic similarity, ISSR.

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72 Study of Water Relations, Chlorophyll and their Correlations with Grain Yield in Wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes

Authors: Mokhtar Ghobadi, Saeed Khosravi, Danial Kahrizi, Firooz Shirvani

Abstract:

The objective of this experiment was to study of water relations and chlorophyll in different wheat genotypes and their correlations with grain and biological yields. 21 genotypes of bread wheat were compared in a field experiment as randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The results showed that relative water deficit, relative water loss, excised leaf water retention, cell membrane stability, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, grain yield and biological yield were different significantly among wheat genotypes, but SPAD-chlorophyll index, relative water content and chlorophyll florescence were not. Significant correlations were not observed among above mentioned water relations and chlorophyll characteristics with grain yield, but there was a positive and significant correlation between biological yield and grain yield.

Keywords: Wheat, water relations, chlorophyll, yield

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71 Physiological and Biochemical Responses to Drought Stress of Chickpea Genotypes

Authors: E. Ceyhan, A. Kahraman, M. Önder, M.K. Ateş, S. Karadaş, R. Topak, M.A. Avcı

Abstract:

The experimental design was 4 x 5 factorial with three replications in fully controlled research greenhouse in Department of Soil Sciences and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Selcuk in the year of 2009. Determination of tolerant chickpea genotypes to drought was made in the research. Additionally, sophisticated effects of drought on plant growth and development, biochemical and physical properties or physical defense mechanisms were presented. According to the results, the primary genotypes were Ilgın YP (0.0063 g/gh) for leaf water capacity, 22235 70.44(%) for relative water content, 22159 (82.47%) for real water content, 22159 (5.03 mg/l) for chlorophyll a+b, Ilgın YP (125.89 nmol H2O2.dak-1/ mg protein-1) for peroxidase, Yunak YP (769.67 unit/ mg protein-1) for superoxide dismutase, Seydişehir YP (16.74 μg.TA-1) for proline, Gökçe (80.01 nmol H2O2.dak-1/ mg protein-1) for catalase. Consequently, all the genotypes increased their enzyme activity depending on the increasing of drought stress consider with the effects of drought stress on leaf enzyme activity. Chickpea genotypes are increasing enzyme activity against to drought stress.

Keywords: Chickpea, drought, enzyme, tolerance to drought

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70 Effects of Drought on Yield and Some Yield Components of Chickpea

Authors: E. Ceyhan, M. Önder, A. Kahraman, R. Topak, M.K. Ateş, S. Karadas, M.A. Avcı

Abstract:

This research was conducted to determine responses of chickpeas to drought in different periods (early period, late period, no-irrigation, two times irrigation as control). The trial was made in “Randomized Complete Block Design" with three replications on 2010 and 2011 years in Konya-Turkey. Genotypes were consisted from 7 lines of ICARDA, 2 certified lines and 1 local population. The results showed that; as means of years and genotypes, early period stress showed highest (207.47 kg da-1) seed yield and it was followed by control (202.33 kg da-1), late period (144.64 kg da-1) and normal (106.93 kg da-1) stress applications. The genotypes were affected too much by drought and, the lowest seed was taken from non-irrigated plots. As the means of years and stress applications, the highest (196.01 kg da-1) yield was taken from genotype 22255. The reason of yield variation could be derived from different responses of genotypes to drought.

Keywords: Chickpea, drought, seed yield.

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69 Morphological Parameters and Selection of Turkish Edible Seed Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) Germplasm

Authors: Onder Turkmen, Musa Seymen, Sali Fidan, Mustafa Paksoy

Abstract:

There is a requirement for registered edible seed pumpkin suitable for eating in Turkey. A total of 81 genotypes collected from the researchers in 2005 originated from Eskisehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Tekirdag, Sakarya, Kayseri and Kirsehir provinces were utilized. The used genetic materials were brought to S5 generation by the research groups among 2006 and 2010 years. In this research, S5 stage reached in the genotype given some of the morphological features, and selection of promising genotypes generated scale were made. Results showed that the A-1 (420), A-7 (410), A-8 (420), A-32 (420), B-17 (410), B-24 (410), B-25 (420), B-33 (400), C-24 (420), C-25 (410), C-26 (410) and C-30 (420) genotypes are expected to be promising varieties.

Keywords: Candidate cultivar, edible seed pumpkin, morphologic parameters, selection.

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68 Evaluation of Two Earliness Cotton Genotypes in Three Ecological Regions

Authors: Gholamhossein Hosseini

Abstract:

Two earliness cotton genotypes I and II, which had been developed by hybridization and backcross methods between sindise-80 as an early maturing gene parent and two other lines i.e. Red leaf and Bulgare-557 as a second parent, are subjected to different environmental conditions. The early maturing genotypes with coded names of I and II were compared with four native cotton cultivars in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications in three ecological regions of Iran from 2016-2017. Two early maturing genotypes along with four native cultivars viz. Varamin, Oltan, Sahel and Arya were planted in Agricultural Research Station of Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar for evaluation. Earliness data were collected for six treatments during two years in the three regions except missing data for the second year of Kashmar. Therefore, missed data were estimated and imputed. For testing the homogeneity of error variances, each experiment at a given location or year is analyzed separately using Hartley and Bartlett’s Chi-square tests and both tests confirmed homogeneity of variance. Combined analysis of variance showed that genotypes I and II were superior in Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar regions. Earliness means and their interaction effects were compared with Duncan’s multiple range tests. Finally combined analysis of variance showed that genotypes I and II were superior in Varamin, Moghan and Kashmar regions. Earliness means and their interaction effects are compared with Duncan’s multiple range tests.

Keywords: Cotton, combined, analysis, earliness.

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67 RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Polymorphism in the Collection of Rye Cultivars

Authors: L. Petrovičová, Ž. Balážová, Z. Gálová, M. Wójcik-Jagła, M. Rapacz

Abstract:

In the present study, RAPD-PCR was used to assess genetic diversity of the rye including landrances and new rye cultivars coming from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN). Five arbitrary random primers were used to determine RAPD polymorphism in the set of 38 rye genotypes. These primers amplified altogether 43 different DNA fragments with an average number of 8.6 fragments per genotypes. The number of fragments ranged from 7 (RLZ 8, RLZ 9 and RLZ 10) to 12 (RLZ 6). DI and PIC values of all RAPD markers were higher than 0.8 that generally means high level of polymorphism detected between rye genotypes. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. The cultivars were grouped into two main clusters. In this experiment, RAPD proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars.

Keywords: Genetic diversity, polymorphism, RAPD markers, Secalecereale L.

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66 Biplot Analysis for Evaluation of Tolerance in Some Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes to Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV)

Authors: S. Ghasemi, M. M. Kamelmanesh, A. Namayandeh, R. Biabanikhankahdani

Abstract:

The common bean is the most important grain legume for direct human consumption in the world and BCMV is one of the world's most serious bean diseases that can reduce yield and quality of harvested product. To determine the best tolerance index to BCMV and recognize tolerant genotypes, 2 experiments were conducted in field conditions. Twenty five common bean genotypes were sown in 2 separate RCB design with 3 replications under contamination and non-contamination conditions. On the basis of the results of indices correlations GMP, MP and HARM were determined as the most suitable tolerance indices. The results of principle components analysis indicated 2 first components totally explained 98.52% of variations among data. The first and second components were named potential yield and stress susceptible respectively. Based on the results of BCMV tolerance indices assessment and biplot analysis WA8563-4, WA8563-2 and Cardinal were the genotypes that exhibited potential seed yield under contamination and noncontamination conditions.

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, BCMV, principle components analysis, bi-plot analysis, tolerance.

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65 Evaluation of drought Tolerance Indices in Dryland Bread wheat Genotypes under Post-Anthesis drought Stress

Authors: Mokhtar Ghobadi , Mohammad-Eghbal Ghobadi, Danial Kahrizi, Alireza Zebarjadi, Mahdi Geravandi

Abstract:

Post-anthesis drought stress is the most important problem affecting wheat production in dryland fields, specially in Mediterranean regions. The main objective of this research was to evaluate drought tolerance indices in dryland wheat genotypes under post-anthesis drought stress. The research was including two different experiments. In each experiment, twenty dryland bread wheat genotypes were sown in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications. One of experiments belonged to rain-fed conditions (post-anthesis drought stress) and other experiment was under non-stress conditions (with supplemental irrigation). Different drought tolerance indices include Stress Tolerance (Tol), Mean Productivity (MP), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Harmonic Mean (HAM), Yield Index (YI) and Yield Stability Index (YSI) were evaluate based on grain yield under rain-fed (Ys) and supplemental irrigation (Yp) environments. G10 and G12 were the most tolerant genotypes based on TOL and SSI. But, based on MP, GMP, STI, HAM and YI indices, G1 and G2 were selected. STI, GMP and MP indices had high correlation with grain yield under rain-fed and supplementary irrigation conditions and were recognized as appropriate indices to identify genotypes with high grain yield and low sensitivity to drought stress environments.

Keywords: Dryland wheat, Supplemental irrigation, Tolerance indices

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64 Response of Chickpea Genotypes to Drought

Authors: K. E. McPHEE, A. Kahraman, M. Onder, E. Ceyhan, B. Tashtemirov

Abstract:

Water is the main component of biological processes. Water management is important to obtain higher productivity. In this study, some of the yield components were investigated together with different drought levels. Four chickpea genotypes (CDC Frontier, CDC Luna, Sawyer and Sierra) were grown in pots with 3 different irrigation levels (a dose of 17.5 ml, 35 ml and 70 ml for each pot per day) after three weeks from sowing. In the research, flowering, pod set, pod per plant, fertile pod, double seed/pod, stem diameter, plant weight, seed per plant, 1000 seed weight, seed diameter, vegetation length and weekly plant height were measured. Consequently, significant differences were observed on all the investigated characteristics owing to genotypes (except double seed/pod and stem diameter), water levels (except first pod, seed weight and height on 3rd week) and genotype x water level interaction (except first pod, double seed/pod, seed weight and height).

Keywords: Agronomical characteristics, Cicer arietinum, water levels.

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63 Restriction Specificity of Some Soybean Genotypes to Bradyrhizobium japonicum Serogrous

Authors: H.K. Abd El-Maksoud, H.H. Keyser

Abstract:

Competitive relationships among Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA serogroup 123, 122 and 138 were screened versus the standard commercial soybean variety Williams and two introductions P1 377578 "671" in a field trial. Displacement of strain 123 by an effective strain should improved N2 fixation. Root nodules were collected and strain occupancy percentage was determined using strain specific fluorescent antibodies technique. As anticipated the strain USDA 123 dominated 92% of nodules due to the high affinity between the host and the symbiont. This dominance was consistent and not changed materially either by inoculation practice or by introducing new strainan. The interrelationship between the genotype Williams and serogroup 122 & 138 was found very weak although the cell density of the strain in the rhizosphere area was equal. On the other hand, the nodule occupancy of genotypes 671 and 166 with rhizobia serogroup 123 was almost diminished to zero. . The data further exhibited that the genotypes P1 671 and P1 166 have high affinity to colonize with strains 122 and 138 whereas Williams was highly promiscuous to strain 123.

Keywords: B. japonicum serogroups, Competition, Host restriction, Soybean genotype.

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62 Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Ali. Marjani, M. Farsi, M. Rahimizadeh

Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important grain legume crops in the world. However, drought stress is a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of 8 chickpea genotypes (MCC* 696, 537, 80, 283, 392, 361, 252, 397) and drought stress (S1: non-stress, S2: stress at vegetative growth stage, S3: stress at early bloom, S4: stress at early pod visible) at different growth stages. Experiment was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Difference among the drought stress time was found to be significant for investigated traits except biological yield. Differences were observed for genotypes in flowering time, pod information time, physiological maturation time and yield. Plant height reduced due to drought stress in vegetative growth stage. Stem dry weight reduced due to drought stress in pod visibly. Flowering time, maturation time, pod number, number of seed per plant and yield cause of drought stress in flowering was also reduced. The correlation between yield and number of seed per plant and biological yield was positive. The MCC283 and MCC696 were the high-tolerance genotypes. These results demonstrated that drought stress delayed phonological growth in chickpea and that flowering stage is sensitive.

Keywords: Chickpea, drought stress, growth stage, tolerance.

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61 Turfgrass Quality Changes from Season to Season on Perennial Ryegrass (lolium perenne l.) Genotypes Collected from Natural Flora

Authors: Mehmet Ali Avcı, Abdullah Özköse, Ahmet Tamkoç

Abstract:

Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants are cultivated for lawn constitution and as forage plants. Considerable number of perennial ryegrass genotypes are present in the flora of our country and they present substantial was performed based on a Project supported bu TUBITAK (Project numver : 106O159) and perannial ryegrass genotypes from 8 provinces were collected during 2006. Seeds of perennial ryegrass were collected from 48 different locations. Populations of turfgrass seeds in flowerpots to be 20 and 1 cm deep greenhouse were sown in three replications at 07.07.2007.Then the growth of turfgrass seedlings in the greenhouse in pots showed sufficiently separated from the plants were planted in each population. Plants planted in the garden of the observation scale of 1-9 was evaluated by the quality, 1 = the weakest / worst, 6 = acceptable and 9 = superior or considered as an ideal. Essentially only recognized in assessing the quality of the color of grass, but the color, density, uniformity, texture (texture), illness or environmental stresses are evaluated as a combination reaction. Turfgrass quality 15.11.2007, 19.03.2008, 27.05.2008, 27.11.2008, 07.03.2009 and 02.06.2009 have been 6 times to be in order. Observations made regarding the quality of grass; 3 years according to seasonal environments turf quality genotypes belonging to 14 different populations were found to be 7.5 and above are reserved for future use in breeding works.The number of genotypes belonging to 41 populations in terms of turfgrass quality was determined as 7.9 of 3 year average seasonal. Argıthan between Doğanhisar (Konya) is located 38.09 latitude and 31.40 longitude, altitude 1158 m in the set that population numbered 41.

Keywords: Genotype, Perennial ryegrass, Turfgrass quality

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60 Particle Swarm Optimization with Interval-valued Genotypes and Its Application to Neuroevolution

Authors: Hidehiko Okada

Abstract:

The author proposes an extension of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for solving interval-valued optimization problems and applies the extended PSO to evolutionary training of neural networks (NNs) with interval weights. In the proposed PSO, values in the genotypes are not real numbers but intervals. Experimental results show that interval-valued NNs trained by the proposed method could well approximate hidden target functions despite the fact that no training data was explicitly provided.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, particle swarm optimization, neural network, interval arithmetic.

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59 Growth and Stomatal Responses of Bread Wheat Genotypes in Tolerance to Salt Stress

Authors: Afrasyab Rahnama, Kazem Poustini, Reza Tavakkol-Afshari, Afshin Tavakoli

Abstract:

Plant growth is affected by the osmotic stress as well as toxicity of salt in leaves. In order to study of salt stress effects on stomatal conductance and growth rate and relationship between them as wells osmotic and Na+-specific effects on these traits, four bread wheat genotypes differing in salt tolerance were selected. Salinity was applied when the leaf 4 was fully expanded. Sodium (Na+) concentrations in flag leaf blade at 3 salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) were measured. Salt-tolerant genotypes showed higher stomatal conductance and growth rate compared to salt-sensitive ones. After 10 and 20 days exposure to salt, stomatal conductance and relative growth rate were reduced, but the reduction was greater in sensitive genotypes. Growth rate was reduced severely in the first period (1-10 days) of salt commencements and it was due to osmotic effect of salt not Na+ toxicity. In the second period (11-20 days) after salt treatment growth reduced only when salt accumulated to toxic concentrations in the leaves. A positive relationship between stomatal conductance and relative growth rate showed that stomatal conductance can be a reliable indicator of growth rate, and finally can be considered as a sensitive indicator of the osmotic stress. It seems 20 days after salinity, the major effect of salt, especially at low to moderate salinity levels on growth properties was due to the osmotic effect of salt, not to Na+-specific effects within the plant.

Keywords: Osmotic stress, relative growth rate, stomatal conductance, wheat.

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58 Efficient Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Mature Embryo Culture of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes

Authors: Münüre Tanur Erkoyuncu, Mustafa Yorgancılar

Abstract:

Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. Immature embryos are the most widely used explant source for in vitro regeneration in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, immature embryos require the continuous growth of donor plants and the suitable stage for their culture is also certainly limited. On the other hand, mature embryos can be procured and stored easily; they can be studied throughout the year. In this study, an effective callus induction and plant regeneration were aimed to develop from mature embryos of different barley genotypes. The effect of medium (MS1 and MS2), auxin type (2,4-D, dicamba, picloram and 2,4,5-T) and concentrations (2, 4, 6 mg/l) on callus formation and effect of cytokinin type (TDZ, BAP) and concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mg/l) on green plant regeneration were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Callus and shoot formation was successful for all genotypes. By depending on genotype, MS1 is the best medium, 4 mg/l dicamba is the best growth regulator in the callus induction and MS1 is the best medium, 1 mg/l BAP is the best growth regulator in the shoot formation were determined.

Keywords: Barley, callus, embryo culture, mature embryo.

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57 Influence of Drought on Yield and Yield Components in White Bean

Authors: Gholamreza Habibi

Abstract:

In order to study seed yield and seed yield components in bean under reduced irrigation condition and assessment drought tolerance of genotypes, 15 lines of White beans were evaluated in two separate RCB design with 3 replications under stress and non stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among varieties in terms of traits under study, indicating the existence of genetic variation among varieties. The results indicate that drought stress reduced seed yield, number of seed per plant, biological yield and number of pod in White been. In non stress condition, yield was highly correlated with the biological yield, whereas in stress condition it was highly correlated with harvest index. Results of stepwise regression showed that, selection can we done based on, biological yield, harvest index, number of seed per pod, seed length, 100 seed weight. Result of path analysis showed that the highest direct effect, being positive, was related to biological yield in non stress and to harvest index in stress conditions. Factor analysis were accomplished in stress and nonstress condition a, there were 4 factors that explained more than 76 percent of total variations. We used several selection indices such as Stress Susceptibility Index ( SSI ), Geometric Mean Productivity ( GMP ), Mean Productivity ( MP ), Stress Tolerance Index ( STI ) and Tolerance Index ( TOL ) to study drought tolerance of genotypes, we found that the best Stress Index for selection tolerance genotypes were STI, GMP and MP were the greatest correlations between these Indices and seed yield under stress and non stress conditions. In classification of genotypes base on phenotypic characteristics, using cluster analysis ( UPGMA ), all allels classified in 5 separate groups in stress and non stress conditions.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, selection index, White bean

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56 Study of Environmental Effects on Sunflower Oil Percent based on Graphical Method

Authors: Khodadad Mostafavi, Alireza Nabipour, Mohammad Norouzi

Abstract:

Biplot can be used to evaluate cultivars for their oil percent potential and stability and to evaluate trial sites for their discriminating ability and representativeness. Multi-environmental trial (MET) data for oil percent of 10 open pollinating sunflower cultivars were analyzed to investigate the genotype-environment interactions. The genotypes were evaluated in four locations with different climatic conditions in Iran in 2010. In each location, a Randomized Complete Block design with four replications was used. According to both mean and stability, Zaria, Master and R453, had highest performances among all cultivars. The graphical analysis identified best cultivar for each environment. Cultivars Berezans and Record performed best in Khoy and Islamabad. Zaria and R453 were the best genotypes in Sari and Karaj followed by Master and Favorit. The GGE bi-plot indicated two mega-environments, group one contained Karaj, Khoy and Islamabad and the second group contained Sari. The best discriminating location was Karaj followed with Khoy, Islamabad and Sari. The best representative genotypes were Zaria, R453, Master and Favorit. Ranking of ten cultivars based their oil percent was as Zaria > R453 ≈ Master ≈ Favorit > Record ≈ Berezans > Sor > Lakumka > Bulg3 > Bulg5.

Keywords: Stability, Bi-plot, Genotype- environment interaction, Sunflower

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55 Investigation of Genetic Variation for Agronomic Traits among the Recombinant Inbred Lines of Wheat from the Norstar × Zagross Cross under Water Stress Condition

Authors: Mohammad Reza Farzami Pour

Abstract:

Determination of genetic variation is useful for plant breeding and hence production of more efficient plant species under different conditions, like drought stress. In this study a sample of 28 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat developed from the cross of Norstar and Zagross varieties, together with their parents, were evaluated for two years (2010-2012) under normal and water stress conditions using split plot design with three replications. Main plots included two irrigation treatments of 70 and 140 mm evaporation from Class A pan and sub-plots consisted of 30 genotypes. The effect of genotypes and interaction of genotypes with years and water regimes were significant for all characters. Significant genotypic effect implies the existence of genetic variation among the lines under study. Heritability estimates were high for 1000 grain weight (0.87). Biomass and grain yield showed the lowest heritability values (0.42 and 0.50, respectively). Highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation (GCV and PCV) belonged to harvest index. Moderate genetic advance for most of the traits suggested the feasibility of selection among the RILs under investigation. Some RILs were higher yielding than either parent at both environments.

Keywords: Wheat, genetic gain, heritability, recombinant inbred lines.

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54 Flowering Response of a Red Pitaya Germplasm Collection to Lighting Addition

Authors: Dinh-Ha Tran, Chung-Ruey Yen, Yu-Kuang H. Chen

Abstract:

A collection of thirty cultivars/clones of a red pitaya was used to investigate flowering response to lighting supplementation in the winter season of 2013-2014 in southern Taiwan. The night-breaking treatment was conducted during the period of 10 Oct. 2013 to 5 Mar. 2014 with 4-continuous hours (22.00 – 02.00 hrs) of additional lighting daily using incandescent bulbs (100W). Among cultivars and clones tested, twenty-three genotypes, most belonging to the red-magenta flesh type, were found to have positively flowering response to the lighting treatment. The duration of night-breaking treatment for successful flowering initiation varied from 33- 48 days. The lighting-sensitive genotypes bore 1-2 flowering flushes. Floral and fruiting stages took 21-26 and 46-59 days, respectively. Among sixteen fruiting genotypes, the highest fruit set rates were found in Damao 9, D4, D13, Chaozou large, Chaozhou 5, Small Nick and F22. Five cultivars and clones (Orejona, D4, Chaozhou large, Chaozhou 5 and Small Nick) produced fruits with an average weight of more than 300 g per fruit which were higher than those of the fruits formed in the summer of 2013. Fruits produced during off-season containing total soluble solids (TSS) from 17.5 to 20.7oBrix, which were higher than those produced inseason.

Keywords: Flowering response, long-day plant, night-breaking treatment, off-season production, pitaya.

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53 Influence of κ-Casein Genotype on Milk Productivity of Latvia Local Dairy Breeds

Authors: S. Petrovska, D. Jonkus, D. Smiltiņa

Abstract:

κ-casein is one of milk proteins which are very important for milk processing. Genotypes of κ-casein affect milk yield, fat, and protein content. The main factors which affect local Latvian dairy breed milk yield and composition are analyzed in research. Data were collected from 88 Latvian brown and 82 Latvian blue cows in 2015. AA genotype was 0.557 in Latvian brown and 0.232 in Latvian blue breed. BB genotype was 0.034 in Latvian brown and 0.207 in Latvian blue breed. Highest milk yield was observed in Latvian brown (5131.2 ± 172.01 kg), significantly high fat content and fat yield also was in Latvian brown (p < 0.05). Significant differences between κ-casein genotypes were not found in Latvian brown, but highest milk yield (5057 ± 130.23 kg), protein content (3.42 ± 0.03%), and protein yield (171.9 ± 4.34 kg) were with AB genotype. Significantly high fat content was observed in Latvian blue breed with BB genotype (4.29 ± 0.17%) compared with AA genotypes (3.42 ± 0.19). Similar tendency was found in protein content – 3.27 ± 0.16% with BB genotype and 2.59 ± 0.16% with AA genotype (p < 0.05). Milk yield increases by increasing parity. We did not obtain major tendency of changes of milk fat and protein content according parity.

Keywords: κ-casein, polymorphism, dairy cows, milk productivity.

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52 Leaf Pigments Help Almond Explants Tolerating Osmotic Stress

Authors: Soheil Karimi, Abbas Yadollahi, Kazem Arzani, Ali Imani

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the response of almond genotypes to osmotic stress in vitro in order to screen drought tolerance. Explants subjected to polyethyleneglycol osmotic stress (0, 3.5, and 7.0% WV) on the MS medium. Concentrations of photosynthesis pigments, anthocyanins, and carothenoids were significantly reduced under osmotic stress. Under osmotic stress, leaf water content, cellular membrane stability and pigments concentrations were significantly higher in the leaves of drought tolerant genotypes. The results revealed that carotenoids and anthocyanins may act as photoprotectant compounds in almond leaves and involved in drought tolerance system of the plant.

Keywords: Almond, Anthocianins, Carotenoids, in vitro; Leaf Osmotic Stress, Leaf Pigments, Polyethylene Glycol.

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51 Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation

Authors: H.R. Balouchi

Abstract:

To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress. Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b (0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to 36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were studied under heat and water stress.

Keywords: Abiotic stress, Genetic variation, Fluorescence, Wheat genotypes.

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50 Evaluation of Buckwheat Genotypes to Different Planting Geometries and Fertility Levels in Northern Transition Zone of Karnataka

Authors: U. K. Hulihalli, Shantveerayya

Abstract:

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an annual crop belongs to family Poligonaceae. The cultivated buckwheat species are notable for their exceptional nutritive values. It is an important source of carbohydrates, fibre, macro, and microelements such as K, Ca, Mg, Na and Mn, Zn, Se, and Cu. It also contains rutin, flavonoids, riboflavin, pyridoxine and many amino acids which have beneficial effects on human health, including lowering both blood lipid and sugar levels. Rutin, quercetin and some other polyphenols are potent carcinogens against colon and other cancers. Buckwheat has significant nutritive value and plenty of uses. Cultivation of buckwheat in Sothern part of India is very meager. Hence, a study was planned with an objective to know the performance of buckwheat genotypes to different planting geometries and fertility levels. The field experiment was conducted at Main Agriculture Research Station, University of Agriculture Sciences, Dharwad, India, during 2017 Kharif. The experiment was laid-out in split-plot design with three replications having three planting geometries as main plots, two genotypes as sub plots and three fertility levels as sub-sub plot treatments. The soil of the experimental site was vertisol. The standard procedures are followed to record the observations. The planting geometry of 30*10 cm was recorded significantly higher seed yield (893 kg/ha⁻¹), stover yield (1507 kg ha⁻¹), clusters plant⁻¹ (7.4), seeds clusters⁻¹ (7.9) and 1000 seed weight (26.1 g) as compared to 40*10 cm and 20*10 cm planting geometries. Between the genotypes, significantly higher seed yield (943 kg ha⁻¹) and harvest index (45.1) was observed with genotype IC-79147 as compared to PRB-1 genotype (687 kg ha⁻¹ and 34.2, respectively). However, the genotype PRB-1 recorded significantly higher stover yield (1344 kg ha⁻¹) as compared to genotype IC-79147 (1173 kg ha⁻¹). The genotype IC-79147 was recorded significantly higher clusters plant⁻¹ (7.1), seeds clusters⁻¹ (7.9) and 1000 seed weight (24.5 g) as compared PRB-1 (5.4, 5.8 and 22.3 g, respectively). Among the fertility levels tried, the fertility level of 60:30 NP kg ha⁻¹ recorded significantly higher seed yield (845 kg ha-1) and stover yield (1359 kg ha⁻¹) as compared to 40:20 NP kg ha-1 (808 and 1259 kg ha⁻¹ respectively) and 20:10 NP kg ha-1 (793 and 1144 kg ha⁻¹ respectively). Within the treatment combinations, IC 79147 genotype having 30*10 cm planting geometry with 60:30 NP kg ha⁻¹ recorded significantly higher seed yield (1070 kg ha⁻¹), clusters plant⁻¹ (10.3), seeds clusters⁻¹ (9.9) and 1000 seed weight (27.3 g) compared to other treatment combinations.

Keywords: Buckwheat, fertility levels, genotypes, geometry, polyphenols, rutin.

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49 Effects of Sowing Time on Yield and Oil Content of Different Sunflower Genotypes in Years with Different Water Supply

Authors: A. Novák, K. Máriás

Abstract:

We examined the effects of the sowing time on the yield production and oil content of the sunflower hybrids in 2010 and 2012. The crop year and the sowing time had both a strong impact on the yield, on the oil- content and yield. By delaying the sowing time both the yield crop result and the oil yield increased. In 2010 in terms of crop yield and oil yield results PR64H42 was the best, in 2012 NK Neoma, in all three sowing times. The oil content of the hybrids was better in 2010. The highest oil content was recorded at early sowing time. We found out that the hybrid had a stronger impact in 2010 on both crop yield result and on oil content than in 2012. The sowing time played a bigger role regarding yield results in 2012. In addition the sowing time influenced oil content development highly.

Keywords: Genotypes, oil content, sowing time, sunflower, yield.

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