Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3712

Search results for: Software modeling.

3712 Augmenting Use Case View for Modeling

Authors: Pradip Peter Dey, Bhaskar Raj Sinha, Mohammad Amin, Hassan Badkoobehi

Abstract:

Mathematical, graphical and intuitive models are often constructed in the development process of computational systems. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is one of the most popular modeling languages used by practicing software engineers. This paper critically examines UML models and suggests an augmented use case view with the addition of new constructs for modeling software. It also shows how a use case diagram can be enhanced. The improved modeling constructs are presented with examples for clarifying important design and implementation issues.

Keywords: Software architecture, software design, Unified Modeling Language (UML), user interface.

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3711 A Novel Method for Behavior Modeling in Uncertain Information Systems

Authors: Ali Haroonabadi, Mohammad Teshnehlab

Abstract:

None of the processing models in the software development has explained the software systems performance evaluation and modeling; likewise, there exist uncertainty in the information systems because of the natural essence of requirements, and this may cause other challenges in the processing of software development. By definition an extended version of UML (Fuzzy- UML), the functional requirements of the software defined uncertainly would be supported. In this study, the behavioral description of uncertain information systems by the aid of fuzzy-state diagram is crucial; moreover, the introduction of behavioral diagrams role in F-UML is investigated in software performance modeling process. To get the aim, a fuzzy sub-profile is used.

Keywords: Fuzzy System, Software Development Model, Software Performance Evaluation, UML

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3710 Cosastudio: A Software Architecture Modeling Tool

Authors: Adel Smeda, Adel Alti, Mourad Oussalah, Abdallah Boukerram

Abstract:

A key aspect of the design of any software system is its architecture. An architecture description provides a formal model of the architecture in terms of components and connectors and how they are composed together. COSA (Component-Object based Software Structures), is based on object-oriented modeling and component-based modeling. The model improves the reusability by increasing extensibility, evolvability, and compositionality of the software systems. This paper presents the COSA modelling tool which help architects the possibility to verify the structural coherence of a given system and to validate its semantics with COSA approach.

Keywords: Software Architecture, Architecture Description Languages, UML, Components, Connectors.

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3709 Design Based Performance Prediction of Component Based Software Products

Authors: K. S. Jasmine, R. Vasantha

Abstract:

Component-Based software engineering provides an opportunity for better quality and increased productivity in software development by using reusable software components [10]. One of the most critical aspects of the quality of a software system is its performance. The systematic application of software performance engineering techniques throughout the development process can help to identify design alternatives that preserve desirable qualities such as extensibility and reusability while meeting performance objectives [1]. In the present scenario, software engineering methodologies strongly focus on the functionality of the system, while applying a “fix- it-later" approach to software performance aspects [3]. As a result, lengthy fine-tunings, expensive extra hard ware, or even redesigns are necessary for the system to meet the performance requirements. In this paper, we propose design based, implementation independent, performance prediction approach to reduce the overhead associated in the later phases while developing a performance guaranteed software product with the help of Unified Modeling Language (UML).

Keywords: Software Reuse, Component-based development, Unified Modeling Language, Software performance, Software components, Performance engineering, Software engineering.

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3708 Methodologies, Systems Development Life Cycle and Modeling Languages in Agile Software Development

Authors: I. D. Arroyo

Abstract:

This article seeks to integrate different concepts from contemporary software engineering with an agile development approach. We seek to clarify some definitions and uses, we make a difference between the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and the methodologies, we differentiate the types of frameworks such as methodological, philosophical and behavioral, standards and documentation. We define relationships based on the documentation of the development process through formal and ad hoc models, and we define the usefulness of using DevOps and Agile Modeling as integrative methodologies of principles and best practices.

Keywords: Methodologies, SDLC, modeling languages, agile modeling, DevOps, UML, agile software development.

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3707 GODYS-PC: a Software Package for Modeling,Simulating and Analyzing Dynamic Systems

Authors: Jacek Kuraś, Jacek Lembas, Marek Skomorowski

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce GODYS-PC software package for modeling, simulating and analyzing dynamic systems. To illustrate the use of GODYS-PC we present a few examples which concern modeling and simulating of engineering systems. In order to compare GODYS-PC with widely used in academia and industry Simulink®, the same examples are provided both in GODYS-PC and Simulink®.

Keywords: Modeling, simulating and analyzing dynamicsystems.

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3706 Financial Analysis Analogies for Software Risk

Authors: Masood Uzzafer

Abstract:

A dynamic software risk assessment model is presented. Analogies between dynamic financial analysis and software risk assessment models are established and based on these analogies it suggested that dynamic risk model for software projects is the way to move forward for the risk assessment of software project. It is shown how software risk assessment change during different phases of a software project and hence requires a dynamic risk assessment model to capture these variations. Further evolution of dynamic financial analysis models is discussed and mapped to the evolution of software risk assessment models.

Keywords: Software Risk Assessment, Software ProjectManagement, Software Cost, Dynamic Modeling.

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3705 Load Modeling for Power Flow and Transient Stability Computer Studies at BAKHTAR Network

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

A method has been developed for preparing load models for power flow and stability. The load modeling (LOADMOD) computer software transforms data on load class mix, composition, and characteristics into the from required for commonly–used power flow and transient stability simulation programs. Typical default data have been developed for load composition and characteristics. This paper defines LOADMOD software and describes the dynamic and static load modeling techniques used in this software and results of initial testing for BAKHTAR power system.

Keywords: Load Modelling, Static, Power Flow.

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3704 Modeling Biology Inspired Reactive Agents Using X-machines

Authors: George Eleftherakis, Petros Kefalas, Anna Sotiriadou, Evangelos Kehris

Abstract:

Recent advances in both the testing and verification of software based on formal specifications of the system to be built have reached a point where the ideas can be applied in a powerful way in the design of agent-based systems. The software engineering research has highlighted a number of important issues: the importance of the type of modeling technique used; the careful design of the model to enable powerful testing techniques to be used; the automated verification of the behavioural properties of the system; the need to provide a mechanism for translating the formal models into executable software in a simple and transparent way. This paper introduces the use of the X-machine formalism as a tool for modeling biology inspired agents proposing the use of the techniques built around X-machine models for the construction of effective, and reliable agent-based software systems.

Keywords: Biology inspired agent, formal methods, x-machines.

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3703 A Generic e-Tutor for Graphical Problems

Authors: B.W. Field

Abstract:

For a variety of safety and economic reasons, engineering undergraduates in Australia have experienced diminishing access to the real hardware that is typically the embodiment of their theoretical studies. This trend will delay the development of practical competence, decrease the ability to model and design, and suppress motivation. The author has attempted to address this concern by creating a software tool that contains both photographic images of real machinery, and sets of graphical modeling 'tools'. Academics from a range of disciplines can use the software to set tutorial tasks, and incorporate feedback comments for a range of student responses. An evaluation of the software demonstrated that students who had solved modeling problems with the aid of the electronic tutor performed significantly better in formal examinations with similar problems. The 2-D graphical diagnostic routines in the Tutor have the potential to be used in a wider range of problem-solving tasks.

Keywords: CAL, graphics, modeling, structural distillation, tutoring.

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3702 A Robust Software for Advanced Analysis of Space Steel Frames

Authors: Viet-Hung Truong, Seung-Eock Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust software package for practical advanced analysis of space steel framed structures. The pre- and post-processors of the presented software package are coded in the C++ programming language while the solver is written by using the FORTRAN programming language. A user-friendly graphical interface of the presented software is developed to facilitate the modeling process and result interpretation of the problem. The solver employs the stability functions for capturing the second-order effects to minimize modeling and computational time. Both the plastic-hinge and fiber-hinge beam-column elements are available in the presented software. The generalized displacement control method is adopted to solve the nonlinear equilibrium equations.

Keywords: Advanced analysis, beam-column, fiber-hinge, plastic hinge, steel frame.

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3701 Impact of Faults in Different Software Systems: A Survey

Authors: Neeraj Mohan, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Hardeep Singh

Abstract:

Software maintenance is extremely important activity in software development life cycle. It involves a lot of human efforts, cost and time. Software maintenance may be further subdivided into different activities such as fault prediction, fault detection, fault prevention, fault correction etc. This topic has gained substantial attention due to sophisticated and complex applications, commercial hardware, clustered architecture and artificial intelligence. In this paper we surveyed the work done in the field of software maintenance. Software fault prediction has been studied in context of fault prone modules, self healing systems, developer information, maintenance models etc. Still a lot of things like modeling and weightage of impact of different kind of faults in the various types of software systems need to be explored in the field of fault severity.

Keywords: Fault prediction, Software Maintenance, Automated Fault Prediction, and Failure Mode Analysis

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3700 Modeling of Reusability of Object Oriented Software System

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur, Amanpreet Singh

Abstract:

Automatic reusability appraisal is helpful in evaluating the quality of developed or developing reusable software components and in identification of reusable components from existing legacy systems; that can save cost of developing the software from scratch. But the issue of how to identify reusable components from existing systems has remained relatively unexplored. In this research work, structural attributes of software components are explored using software metrics and quality of the software is inferred by different Neural Network based approaches, taking the metric values as input. The calculated reusability value enables to identify a good quality code automatically. It is found that the reusability value determined is close to the manual analysis used to be performed by the programmers or repository managers. So, the developed system can be used to enhance the productivity and quality of software development.

Keywords: Neural Network, Software Reusability, Software Metric, Accuracy, MAE, RMSE.

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3699 Modeling of Water Erosion in the M'Goun Watershed Using OpenGIS Software

Authors: M. Khal, Ab. Algouti, A. Algouti

Abstract:

Water erosion is the major cause of the erosion that shapes the earth's surface. Modeling water erosion requires the use of software and GIS programs, commercial or closed source. The very high prices for commercial GIS licenses, motivates users and researchers to find open source software as relevant and applicable as the proprietary GIS. The objective of this study is the modeling of water erosion and the hydrogeological and morphophysical characterization of the Oued M'Goun watershed (southern flank of the Central High Atlas) developed by free programs of GIS. The very pertinent results are obtained by executing tasks and algorithms in a simple and easy way. Thus, the various geoscientific and geostatistical analyzes of a digital elevation model (SRTM 30 m resolution) and their combination with the treatments and interpretation of satellite imagery information allowed us to characterize the region studied and to map the area most vulnerable to water erosion.

Keywords: Central High-Atlas, hydrogeology, M’Goun watershed, OpenGIS, water erosion.

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3698 Agent-Based Modeling of Power Systems Infrastructure Cyber Security

Authors: Raman Paranjape

Abstract:

We present a new approach to evaluation of Cyber Security in Power Systems using the method of modeling the power systems Infrastructure using software agents. Interfaces between module and the home smart meter are recognized as the primary points of intrusion.

Keywords: Power Systems, Modeling and Simulation, Agent systems.

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3697 Modeling Metrics for Monitoring Software Project Performance Based On the GQM Model

Authors: Mariayee Doraisamy, Suhaimi Bin Ibrahim, Mohd Naz’ri Mahrin

Abstract:

There are several methods to monitor software projects and the objective for monitoring is to ensure that the software projects are developed and delivered successfully. A performance measurement is a method that is closely associated with monitoring and it can be scrutinized by looking at two important attributes which are efficiency and effectiveness both of which are factors that are important for the success of a software project. Consequently, a successful steering is achieved by monitoring and controlling a software project via the performance measurement criteria and metrics. Hence, this paper is aimed at identifying the performance measurement criteria and the metrics for monitoring the performance of a software project by using the Goal Question Metrics (GQM) approach. The GQM approach is utilized to ensure that the identified metrics are reliable and useful. These identified metrics are useful guidelines for project managers to monitor the performance of their software projects.

Keywords: Software project performance, Goal Question Metrics, Performance Measurement Criteria, Metrics.

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3696 JREM: An Approach for Formalising Models in the Requirements Phase with JSON and NoSQL Databases

Authors: Aitana Alonso-Nogueira, Helia Estévez-Fernández, Isaías García

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach to reduce some of its current flaws in the requirements phase inside the software development process. It takes the software requirements of an application, makes a conceptual modeling about it and formalizes it within JSON documents. This formal model is lodged in a NoSQL database which is document-oriented, that is, MongoDB, because of its advantages in flexibility and efficiency. In addition, this paper underlines the contributions of the detailed approach and shows some applications and benefits for the future work in the field of automatic code generation using model-driven engineering tools.

Keywords: Conceptual modeling, JSON, NoSQL databases, requirements engineering, software development.

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3695 UML Modeling for Instruction Pipeline Design

Authors: Vipin Saxena, Deepa Raj

Abstract:

Unified Modeling language (UML) is one of the important modeling languages used for the visual representation of the research problem. In the present paper, UML model is designed for the Instruction pipeline which is used for the evaluation of the instructions of software programs. The class and sequence diagrams are designed & performance is evaluated for instructions of a sample program through a case study.

Keywords: UML, Instruction Pipeline, Class Diagram &Sequence Diagram.

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3694 Dimensional Modeling of HIV Data Using Open Source

Authors: Charles D. Otine, Samuel B. Kucel, Lena Trojer

Abstract:

Selecting the data modeling technique for an information system is determined by the objective of the resultant data model. Dimensional modeling is the preferred modeling technique for data destined for data warehouses and data mining, presenting data models that ease analysis and queries which are in contrast with entity relationship modeling. The establishment of data warehouses as components of information system landscapes in many organizations has subsequently led to the development of dimensional modeling. This has been significantly more developed and reported for the commercial database management systems as compared to the open sources thereby making it less affordable for those in resource constrained settings. This paper presents dimensional modeling of HIV patient information using open source modeling tools. It aims to take advantage of the fact that the most affected regions by the HIV virus are also heavily resource constrained (sub-Saharan Africa) whereas having large quantities of HIV data. Two HIV data source systems were studied to identify appropriate dimensions and facts these were then modeled using two open source dimensional modeling tools. Use of open source would reduce the software costs for dimensional modeling and in turn make data warehousing and data mining more feasible even for those in resource constrained settings but with data available.

Keywords: About Database, Data Mining, Data warehouse, Dimensional Modeling, Open Source.

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3693 A Study on the Developing Method of the BIM (Building Information Modeling) Software Based On Cloud Computing Environment

Authors: Byung-Kon Kim

Abstract:

According as the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry projects have grown more complex and larger, the number of utilization of BIM for 3D design and simulation is increasing significantly. Therefore, typical applications of BIM such as clash detection and alternative measures based on 3-dimenstional planning are expanded to process management, cost and quantity management, structural analysis, check for regulation, and various domains for virtual design and construction. Presently, commercial BIM software is operated on single-user environment, so initial cost is so high and the investment may be wasted frequently. Cloud computing that is a next-generation internet technology enables simple internet devices (such as PC, Tablet, Smart phone etc) to use services and resources of BIM software. In this paper, we suggested developing method of the BIM software based on cloud computing environment in order to expand utilization of BIM and reduce cost of BIM software. First, for the benchmarking, we surveyed successful case of BIM and cloud computing. And we analyzed needs and opportunities of BIM and cloud computing in AEC Industry. Finally, we suggested main functions of BIM software based on cloud computing environment and developed a simple prototype of cloud computing BIM software for basic BIM model viewing.

Keywords: Construction IT, BIM(Building Information Modeling), Cloud Computing, BIM Service Based Cloud Computing, Viewer Based BIM Server, 3D Design.

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3692 3D Modeling Approach for Cultural Heritage Structures: The Case of Virgin of Loreto Chapel in Cusco, Peru

Authors: Rony Reátegui, Cesar Chácara, Benjamin Castañeda, Rafael Aguilar

Abstract:

Nowadays, Heritage Building Information Modeling (HBIM) is considered an efficient tool to represent and manage information of Cultural Heritage (CH). The basis of this tool relies on a 3D model generally obtained from a Cloud-to-BIM procedure. There are different methods to create an HBIM model that goes from manual modeling based on the point cloud to the automatic detection of shapes and the creation of objects. The selection of these methods depends on the desired Level of Development (LOD), Level of Information (LOI), Grade of Generation (GOG) as well as on the availability of commercial software. This paper presents the 3D modeling of a stone masonry chapel using Recap Pro, Revit and Dynamo interface following a three-step methodology. The first step consists of the manual modeling of simple structural (e.g., regular walls, columns, floors, wall openings, etc.) and architectural (e.g., cornices, moldings and other minor details) elements using the point cloud as reference. Then, Dynamo is used for generative modeling of complex structural elements such as vaults, infills and domes. Finally, semantic information (e.g., materials, typology, state of conservation, etc.) and pathologies are added within the HBIM model as text parameters and generic models’ families respectively. The application of this methodology allows the documentation of CH following a relatively simple to apply process that ensures adequate LOD, LOI and GOG levels. In addition, the easy implementation of the method as well as the fact of using only one BIM software with its respective plugin for the scan-to-BIM modeling process means that this methodology can be adopted by a larger number of users with intermediate knowledge and limited resources, since the BIM software used has a free student license.

Keywords: Cloud-to-BIM, cultural heritage, generative modeling, HBIM, parametric modeling, Revit.

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3691 Evaluation of Numerical Modeling of Jet Grouting Design Using in situ Loading Test

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Ehsan Azini

Abstract:

Jet grouting (JG) is one of the methods of improving and increasing the strength and bearing of soil in which the high pressure water or grout is injected through the nozzles into the soil. During this process, a part of the soil and grout particles comes out of the drill borehole, and the other part is mixed up with the grout in place, as a result of this process, a mass of modified soil is created. The purpose of this method is to change the soil into a mixture of soil and cement, commonly known as "soil-cement". In this paper, first, the principles of high pressure injection and then the effective parameters in the JG method are described. Then, the tests on the samples taken from the columns formed from the excavation around the soil-cement columns, as well as the static loading test on the created column, are discussed. In the other part of this paper, the soil behavior models for numerical modeling in PLAXIS software are mentioned. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of numerical modeling based on in-situ static loading tests. The results indicate an acceptable agreement between the results of the tests mentioned and the modeling results. Also, modeling with this software as an appropriate option for technical feasibility can be used to soil improvement using JG.

Keywords: Jet grouting column, Soil improvement, Numerical modeling, In-situ loading test.

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3690 Cardiovascular Modeling Software Tools in Medicine

Authors: J. Fernandez, R. Fernandez de Canete, J. Perea-Paizal, J. C. Ramos-Diaz

Abstract:

The high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases has provoked a raising interest in the development of mathematical models in order to evaluate the cardiovascular function both under physiological and pathological conditions. In this paper, a physical model of the cardiovascular system with intrinsic regulation is presented and implemented by using the object-oriented Modelica simulation software tools.  For this task, a multi-compartmental system previously validated with physiological data has been built, based on the interconnection of cardiovascular elements such as resistances, capacitances and pumping among others, by following an electrohydraulic analogy. The results obtained under both physiological and pathological scenarios provide an easy interpretative key to analyze the hemodynamic behavior of the patient. The described approach represents a valuable tool in the teaching of physiology for graduate medical and nursing students among others.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, Modelica simulation software, physical modeling, teaching tool.

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3689 Software Architectural Design Ontology

Authors: Muhammad Irfan Marwat, Sadaqat Jan, Syed Zafar Ali Shah

Abstract:

Software Architecture plays a key role in software development but absence of formal description of Software Architecture causes different impede in software development. To cope with these difficulties, ontology has been used as artifact. This paper proposes ontology for Software Architectural design based on IEEE model for architecture description and Kruchten 4+1 model for viewpoints classification. For categorization of style and views, ISO/IEC 42010 has been used. Corpus method has been used to evaluate ontology. The main aim of the proposed ontology is to classify and locate Software Architectural design information.

Keywords: Software Architecture Ontology, Semantic based Software Architecture, Software Architecture, Ontology, Software Engineering.

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3688 Modeling and Analysis of SVPWM Based Dynamic Voltage Restorer

Authors: Ahmed Helal, Sherif Zain Elabideen, Ahmed Lotfy

Abstract:

In this paper the modeling and analysis of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) based Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) using PSCAD/EMTDC software will be presented in details. The simulation includes full modeling of the SVPWM technique used to control the DVR inverter. A test power system composed of three phase voltage source, sag generator, DVR and three phase resistive load is used to demonstrate restoration capability of the DVR. The simulation results of the presented DVR proved excellent voltage sag mitigation to protect sensitive loads.

Keywords: Dynamic voltage restorer, power quality, simulationand modeling, voltage sag.

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3687 System-Level Energy Estimation for SoC based on the Dynamic Behavior of Embedded Software

Authors: Yoshifumi Sakamoto, Kouichi Ono, Takeo Nakada, Yousuke Kubo, Hiroto Yasuura

Abstract:

This paper describes a system-level SoC energy consumption estimation method based on a dynamic behavior of embedded software in the early stages of the SoC development. A major problem of SOC development is development rework caused by unreliable energy consumption estimation at the early stages. The energy consumption of an SoC used in embedded systems is strongly affected by the dynamic behavior of the software. At the early stages of SoC development, modeling with a high level of abstraction is required for both the dynamic behavior of the software, and the behavior of the SoC. We estimate the energy consumption by a UML model-based simulation. The proposed method is applied for an actual embedded system in an MFP. The energy consumption estimation of the SoC is more accurate than conventional methods and this proposed method is promising to reduce the chance of development rework in the SoC development. ∈

Keywords: SoC, Embedded Sytem, Energy Consumption, Dynamic behavior, UML, Modeling, Model-based simulation

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3686 Defect Prevention and Detection of DSP-software

Authors: Deng Shiwei

Abstract:

The users are now expecting higher level of DSP(Digital Signal Processing) software quality than ever before. Prevention and detection of defect are critical elements of software quality assurance. In this paper, principles and rules for prevention and detection of defect are suggested, which are not universal guidelines, but are useful for both novice and experienced DSP software developers.

Keywords: defect detection, defect prevention, DSP-software, software development, software testing.

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3685 A Survey on Metric of Software Cognitive Complexity for OO design

Authors: A.Aloysius, L. Arockiam

Abstract:

In modern era, the biggest challenge facing the software industry is the upcoming of new technologies. So, the software engineers are gearing up themselves to meet and manage change in large software system. Also they find it difficult to deal with software cognitive complexities. In the last few years many metrics were proposed to measure the cognitive complexity of software. This paper aims at a comprehensive survey of the metric of software cognitive complexity. Some classic and efficient software cognitive complexity metrics, such as Class Complexity (CC), Weighted Class Complexity (WCC), Extended Weighted Class Complexity (EWCC), Class Complexity due to Inheritance (CCI) and Average Complexity of a program due to Inheritance (ACI), are discussed and analyzed. The comparison and the relationship of these metrics of software complexity are also presented.

Keywords: Software Metrics, Software Complexity, Cognitive Informatics, Cognitive Complexity, Software measurement

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3684 Requirements Gathering for Improved Software Usability and the Potential for Usage-Centred Design

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell

Abstract:

Usability is an important software quality that is often neglected at the design stage. Although methods exist to incorporate elements of usability engineering, there is a need for more balanced usability focused methods that can enhance the experience of software usability for users. In this regard, the potential for Usage-Centred Design is explored with respect to requirements gathering and is shown to lead to high software usability besides other benefits. It achieves this through its focus on usage, defining essential use cases, by conducting task modeling, encouraging user collaboration, refining requirements, and so on. The requirements gathering process in UgCD is described in detail.

Keywords: Requirements gathering, Usability, Usage-Centred Design.

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3683 Software Engineering Mobile Learning Software Solution Using Task Based Learning Approach

Authors: Bekim Fetaji, Majlinda Fetaji

Abstract:

The development and use of mobile devices as well as its integration within education systems to deliver electronic contents and to support real-time communications was the focus of this research. In order to investigate the software engineering issues in using mobile devices a research on electronic content was initiated. The Developed MP3 mobile software solution was developed as a prototype for testing and developing a strategy for designing a usable m-learning environment. The mobile software solution was evaluated using mobile device using the link: http://projects.seeu.edu.mk/mlearn. The investigation also tested the correlation between the two mobile learning indicators: electronic content and attention, based on the Task Based learning instructional method. The mobile software solution ''M-Learn“ was developed as a prototype for testing the approach and developing a strategy for designing usable m-learning environment. The proposed methodology is about what learning modeling approach is more appropriate to use when developing mobile learning software.

Keywords: M-learning, mobile software development, mobiledevices, learning instructions, task based learning.

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