Search results for: Cognitive Complexity
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1121

Search results for: Cognitive Complexity

1121 A Survey on Metric of Software Cognitive Complexity for OO design

Authors: A.Aloysius, L. Arockiam

Abstract:

In modern era, the biggest challenge facing the software industry is the upcoming of new technologies. So, the software engineers are gearing up themselves to meet and manage change in large software system. Also they find it difficult to deal with software cognitive complexities. In the last few years many metrics were proposed to measure the cognitive complexity of software. This paper aims at a comprehensive survey of the metric of software cognitive complexity. Some classic and efficient software cognitive complexity metrics, such as Class Complexity (CC), Weighted Class Complexity (WCC), Extended Weighted Class Complexity (EWCC), Class Complexity due to Inheritance (CCI) and Average Complexity of a program due to Inheritance (ACI), are discussed and analyzed. The comparison and the relationship of these metrics of software complexity are also presented.

Keywords: Software Metrics, Software Complexity, Cognitive Informatics, Cognitive Complexity, Software measurement

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1120 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A Comprehension Augmented Complexity Metric

Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius

Abstract:

Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of objectoriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.

Keywords: Cognitive complexity metric, cognitive weighted polymorphism factor, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics.

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1119 Object-Oriented Cognitive-Spatial Complexity Measures

Authors: Varun Gupta, Jitender Kumar Chhabra

Abstract:

Software maintenance and mainly software comprehension pose the largest costs in the software lifecycle. In order to assess the cost of software comprehension, various complexity measures have been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes new cognitive-spatial complexity measures, which combine the impact of spatial as well as architectural aspect of the software to compute the software complexity. The spatial aspect of the software complexity is taken into account using the lexical distances (in number of lines of code) between different program elements and the architectural aspect of the software complexity is taken into consideration using the cognitive weights of control structures present in control flow of the program. The proposed measures are evaluated using standard axiomatic frameworks and then, the proposed measures are compared with the corresponding existing cognitive complexity measures as well as the spatial complexity measures for object-oriented software. This study establishes that the proposed measures are better indicators of the cognitive effort required for software comprehension than the other existing complexity measures for object-oriented software.

Keywords: cognitive complexity, software comprehension, software metrics, spatial complexity, Object-oriented software

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1118 Attribute Weighted Class Complexity: A New Metric for Measuring Cognitive Complexity of OO Systems

Authors: Dr. L. Arockiam, A. Aloysius

Abstract:

In general, class complexity is measured based on any one of these factors such as Line of Codes (LOC), Functional points (FP), Number of Methods (NOM), Number of Attributes (NOA) and so on. There are several new techniques, methods and metrics with the different factors that are to be developed by the researchers for calculating the complexity of the class in Object Oriented (OO) software. Earlier, Arockiam et.al has proposed a new complexity measure namely Extended Weighted Class Complexity (EWCC) which is an extension of Weighted Class Complexity which is proposed by Mishra et.al. EWCC is the sum of cognitive weights of attributes and methods of the class and that of the classes derived. In EWCC, a cognitive weight of each attribute is considered to be 1. The main problem in EWCC metric is that, every attribute holds the same value but in general, cognitive load in understanding the different types of attributes cannot be the same. So here, we are proposing a new metric namely Attribute Weighted Class Complexity (AWCC). In AWCC, the cognitive weights have to be assigned for the attributes which are derived from the effort needed to understand their data types. The proposed metric has been proved to be a better measure of complexity of class with attributes through the case studies and experiments

Keywords: Software Complexity, Attribute Weighted Class Complexity, Weighted Class Complexity, Data Type

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1117 Underlying Cognitive Complexity Measure Computation with Combinatorial Rules

Authors: Benjapol Auprasert, Yachai Limpiyakorn

Abstract:

Measuring the complexity of software has been an insoluble problem in software engineering. Complexity measures can be used to predict critical information about testability, reliability, and maintainability of software systems from automatic analysis of the source code. During the past few years, many complexity measures have been invented based on the emerging Cognitive Informatics discipline. These software complexity measures, including cognitive functional size, lend themselves to the approach of the total cognitive weights of basic control structures such as loops and branches. This paper shows that the current existing calculation method can generate different results that are algebraically equivalence. However, analysis of the combinatorial meanings of this calculation method shows significant flaw of the measure, which also explains why it does not satisfy Weyuker's properties. Based on the findings, improvement directions, such as measures fusion, and cumulative variable counting scheme are suggested to enhance the effectiveness of cognitive complexity measures.

Keywords: Cognitive Complexity Measure, Cognitive Weight of Basic Control Structure, Counting Rules, Cumulative Variable Counting Scheme.

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1116 A Cognitive Measurement of Complexity and Comprehension for Object-Oriented Code

Authors: Amit Kumar Jakhar, Kumar Rajnish

Abstract:

Inherited complexity is one of the difficult tasks in software engineering field. Further, it is said that there is no physical laws or standard guidelines suit for designing different types of software. Hence, to make the software engineering as a matured engineering discipline like others, it is necessary that it has its own theoretical frameworks and laws. Software designing and development is a human effort which takes a lot of time and considers various parameters for successful completion of the software. The cognitive informatics plays an important role for understanding the essential characteristics of the software. The aim of this work is to consider the fundamental characteristics of the source code of Object-Oriented software i.e. complexity and understandability. The complexity of the programs is analyzed with the help of extracted important attributes of the source code, which is further utilized to evaluate the understandability factor. The aforementioned characteristics are analyzed on the basis of 16 C++ programs by distributing them to forty MCA students. They all tried to understand the source code of the given program and mean time is taken as the actual time needed to understand the program. For validation of this work, Briand’s framework is used and the presented metric is also evaluated comparatively with existing metric which proves its robustness.

Keywords: Software metrics, object-oriented, complexity, cognitive weight, understandability, basic control structures.

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1115 Measuring Cognitive Load - A Solution to Ease Learning of Programming

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Learning programming is difficult for many learners. Some researches have found that the main difficulty relates to cognitive load. Cognitive overload happens in programming due to the nature of the subject which is intrinisicly over-bearing on the working memory. It happens due to the complexity of the subject itself. The problem is made worse by the poor instructional design methodology used in the teaching and learning process. Various efforts have been proposed to reduce the cognitive load, e.g. visualization softwares, part-program method etc. Use of many computer based systems have also been tried to tackle the problem. However, little success has been made to alleviate the problem. More has to be done to overcome this hurdle. This research attempts at understanding how cognitive load can be managed so as to reduce the problem of overloading. We propose a mechanism to measure the cognitive load during pre instruction, post instruction and in instructional stages of learning. This mechanism is used to help the instruction. As the load changes the instruction is made to adapt itself to ensure cognitive viability. This mechanism could be incorporated as a sub domain in the student model of various computer based instructional systems to facilitate the learning of programming.

Keywords: Cognitive load, Working memory, Cognitive Loadmeasurement.

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1114 Control-flow Complexity Measurement of Processes and Weyuker's Properties

Authors: Jorge Cardoso

Abstract:

Process measurement is the task of empirically and objectively assigning numbers to the properties of business processes in such a way as to describe them. Desirable attributes to study and measure include complexity, cost, maintainability, and reliability. In our work we will focus on investigating process complexity. We define process complexity as the degree to which a business process is difficult to analyze, understand or explain. One way to analyze a process- complexity is to use a process control-flow complexity measure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the control-flow complexity measure in terms of Weyuker-s properties. Weyuker-s properties must be satisfied by any complexity measure to qualify as a good and comprehensive one.

Keywords: Business process measurement, workflow, complexity.

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1113 Static and Dynamic Complexity Analysis of Software Metrics

Authors: Kamaljit Kaur, Kirti Minhas, Neha Mehan, Namita Kakkar

Abstract:

Software complexity metrics are used to predict critical information about reliability and maintainability of software systems. Object oriented software development requires a different approach to software complexity metrics. Object Oriented Software Metrics can be broadly classified into static and dynamic metrics. Static Metrics give information at the code level whereas dynamic metrics provide information on the actual runtime. In this paper we will discuss the various complexity metrics, and the comparison between static and dynamic complexity.

Keywords: Static Complexity, Dynamic Complexity, Halstead Metric, Mc Cabe's Metric.

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1112 Project Complexity Indices based on Topology Features

Authors: Amer A. Boushaala

Abstract:

The heuristic decision rules used for project scheduling will vary depending upon the project-s size, complexity, duration, personnel, and owner requirements. The concept of project complexity has received little detailed attention. The need to differentiate between easy and hard problem instances and the interest in isolating the fundamental factors that determine the computing effort required by these procedures inspired a number of researchers to develop various complexity measures. In this study, the most common measures of project complexity are presented. A new measure of project complexity is developed. The main privilege of the proposed measure is that, it considers size, shape and logic characteristics, time characteristics, resource demands and availability characteristics as well as number of critical activities and critical paths. The degree of sensitivity of the proposed measure for complexity of project networks has been tested and evaluated against the other measures of complexity of the considered fifty project networks under consideration in the current study. The developed measure showed more sensitivity to the changes in the network data and gives accurate quantified results when comparing the complexities of networks.

Keywords: Activity networks, Complexity index, Networkcomplexity measure, Network topology, Project Network.

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1111 A Complexity Measure for Java Bean based Software Components

Authors: Sandeep Khimta, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Amanpreet Singh Brar

Abstract:

The traditional software product and process metrics are neither suitable nor sufficient in measuring the complexity of software components, which ultimately is necessary for quality and productivity improvement within organizations adopting CBSE. Researchers have proposed a wide range of complexity metrics for software systems. However, these metrics are not sufficient for components and component-based system and are restricted to the module-oriented systems and object-oriented systems. In this proposed study it is proposed to find the complexity of the JavaBean Software Components as a reflection of its quality and the component can be adopted accordingly to make it more reusable. The proposed metric involves only the design issues of the component and does not consider the packaging and the deployment complexity. In this way, the software components could be kept in certain limit which in turn help in enhancing the quality and productivity.

Keywords: JavaBean Components, Complexity, Metrics, Validation.

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1110 An Approach to Capture, Evaluate and Handle Complexity of Engineering Change Occurrences in New Product Development

Authors: Mohammad Rostami Mehr, Seyed Arya Mir Rashed, Arndt Lueder, Magdalena Mißler-Behr

Abstract:

This paper represents the conception that complex problems do not necessary need similar complex solutions in order to cope with the complexity. Furthermore, a simple solution based on established methods can provide a sufficient way dealing with the complexity. To verify this conception, the presented paper focuses on the field of change management as a part of new product development process in automotive sector. In the field of complexity management, dealing with increasing complexity is essential, while, only non-flexible rigid processes that are not designed to handle complexity are available. The basic methodology of this paper can be divided in four main sections: 1) analyzing the complexity of the change management, 2) literature review in order to identify potential solutions and methods, 3) capturing and implementing expertise of experts from change management filed of an automobile manufacturing company and 4) systematical comparison of the identified methods from literature and connecting these with defined requirements of the complexity of the change management in order to develop a solution. As a practical outcome, this paper provides a method to capture the complexity of engineering changes (EC) and includes it within the EC evaluation process, following case-related process guidance to cope with the complexity. Furthermore, this approach supports the conception that dealing with complexity is possible while utilizing rather simple and established methods by combining them in to a powerful tool.

Keywords: complexity management, new product development, engineering change management, flexibility

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1109 Complexity of Component-based Development of Embedded Systems

Authors: M. Zheng, V. S. Alagar

Abstract:

The paper discusses complexity of component-based development (CBD) of embedded systems. Although CBD has its merits, it must be augmented with methods to control the complexities that arise due to resource constraints, timeliness, and run-time deployment of components in embedded system development. Software component specification, system-level testing, and run-time reliability measurement are some ways to control the complexity.

Keywords: Components, embedded systems, complexity, softwaredevelopment, traffic controller system.

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1108 Definition of Cognitive Infocommunications and an Architectural Implementation of Cognitive Infocommunications Systems

Authors: Peter Baranyi, Gyorgy Persa, Adam Csapo

Abstract:

Cognitive Infocommunications (CogInfoCom) is a new research direction which has emerged as the synergic convergence of infocommunications and the cognitive sciences. In this paper, we provide the definition of CogInfoCom, and propose an architectural framework for the interaction-oriented design of CogInfoCom systems. We provide the outlines of an application example of the interaction-oriented architecture, and briefly discuss its main characteristics.

Keywords: Cognitive infocommunications, CogInfoCom, Cognitive Infocommunication Channels, CogInfoCom channels

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1107 A Complexity-Based Approach in Image Compression using Neural Networks

Authors: Hadi Veisi, Mansour Jamzad

Abstract:

In this paper we present an adaptive method for image compression that is based on complexity level of the image. The basic compressor/de-compressor structure of this method is a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network. In adaptive approach different Back-Propagation artificial neural networks are used as compressor and de-compressor and this is done by dividing the image into blocks, computing the complexity of each block and then selecting one network for each block according to its complexity value. Three complexity measure methods, called Entropy, Activity and Pattern-based are used to determine the level of complexity in image blocks and their ability in complexity estimation are evaluated and compared. In training and evaluation, each image block is assigned to a network based on its complexity value. Best-SNR is another alternative in selecting compressor network for image blocks in evolution phase which chooses one of the trained networks such that results best SNR in compressing the input image block. In our evaluations, best results are obtained when overlapping the blocks is allowed and choosing the networks in compressor is based on the Best-SNR. In this case, the results demonstrate superiority of this method comparing with previous similar works and JPEG standard coding.

Keywords: Adaptive image compression, Image complexity, Multi-layer perceptron neural network, JPEG Standard, PSNR.

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1106 Evaluation Pattern of Cognitive Processes in Language in Written Comprehension

Authors: Agnès Garletti

Abstract:

Our research aims at helping the tutor on line to evaluate the student-s cognitive processes. The student is a learner in French as a Second Language who studies an on-line socio-cognitive scenario in written communication. In our method, these cognitive processes are defined. For that, the language abilities and learning tasks are associated to cognitive operation. Moreover, the found cognitive processes are named with specific terms. The result was to create an instrumental pattern to question the learner about the cognitive processes used to build an item of written comprehension. Our research follows the principles of the third historical generation of studies on the cognitive activity of the text comprehension. The strength of our instrumental pattern stands in the precision and the logical articulation of the questions to the learner. However, the learner-s answers can still be subjective but the precision of the instrument restricts it.

Keywords: Cognitive processes, Evaluation pattern, French as asecond language, Socio-cognitive scenario, Written comprehension.

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1105 A Technique for Reachability Graph Generation for the Petri Net Models of Parallel Processes

Authors: Farooq Ahmad, Hejiao Huang, Xiaolong Wang

Abstract:

Reachability graph (RG) generation suffers from the problem of exponential space and time complexity. To alleviate the more critical problem of time complexity, this paper presents the new approach for RG generation for the Petri net (PN) models of parallel processes. Independent RGs for each parallel process in the PN structure are generated in parallel and cross-product of these RGs turns into the exhaustive state space from which the RG of given parallel system is determined. The complexity analysis of the presented algorithm illuminates significant decrease in the time complexity cost of RG generation. The proposed technique is applicable to parallel programs having multiple threads with the synchronization problem.

Keywords: Parallel processes, Petri net, reachability graph, time complexity.

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1104 In Cognitive Radio the Analysis of Bit-Error- Rate (BER) by using PSO Algorithm

Authors: Shrikrishan Yadav, Akhilesh Saini, Krishna Chandra Roy

Abstract:

The electromagnetic spectrum is a natural resource and hence well-organized usage of the limited natural resources is the necessities for better communication. The present static frequency allocation schemes cannot accommodate demands of the rapidly increasing number of higher data rate services. Therefore, dynamic usage of the spectrum must be distinguished from the static usage to increase the availability of frequency spectrum. Cognitive radio is not a single piece of apparatus but it is a technology that can incorporate components spread across a network. It offers great promise for improving system efficiency, spectrum utilization, more effective applications, reduction in interference and reduced complexity of usage for users. Cognitive radio is aware of its environmental, internal state, and location, and autonomously adjusts its operations to achieve designed objectives. It first senses its spectral environment over a wide frequency band, and then adapts the parameters to maximize spectrum efficiency with high performance. This paper only focuses on the analysis of Bit-Error-Rate in cognitive radio by using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. It is theoretically as well as practically analyzed and interpreted in the sense of advantages and drawbacks and how BER affects the efficiency and performance of the communication system.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, Environmental Parameters, PSO, Radio spectrum, Transmission Parameters

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1103 The Effects of Consumer Inertia and Emotions on New Technology Acceptance

Authors: Chyi Jaw

Abstract:

Prior literature on innovation diffusion or acceptance has almost exclusively concentrated on consumers’ positive attitudes and behaviors for new products/services. Consumers’ negative attitudes or behaviors to innovations have received relatively little marketing attention, but it happens frequently in practice. This study discusses consumer psychological factors when they try to learn or use new technologies. According to recent research, technological innovation acceptance has been considered as a dynamic or mediated process. This research argues that consumers can experience inertia and emotions in the initial use of new technologies. However, given such consumer psychology, the argument can be made as to whether the inclusion of consumer inertia (routine seeking and cognitive rigidity) and emotions increases the predictive power of new technology acceptance model. As data from the empirical study find, the process is potentially consumer emotion changing (independent of performance benefits) because of technology complexity and consumer inertia, and impact innovative technology use significantly. Finally, the study presents the superior predictability of the hypothesized model, which let managers can better predict and influence the successful diffusion of complex technological innovations.

Keywords: Cognitive rigidity, consumer emotions, new technology acceptance, routine seeking, technology complexity.

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1102 Characteristics of Cognitive Functions among Polish Adolescence with Spelling Disorders

Authors: Izabela Pietras

Abstract:

The level of visual abilities, language, memory processes and intellectual functioning development affects the quality of a written text. The following analysis will present the results of diagnostic tests indicating the most common criterion for a group and stating whether a person has been diagnosed with having cognitive developmental level below the group-s average or not.The study-s aim is to determine whether there are specific patterns of cognitive deficits, which can be distinguished among the group of young people with spelling disorders.

Keywords: cognitive deficits, cognitive functions, spellingdisorders

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1101 Promoting Complex Systems Learning through the use of Computer Modeling

Authors: Kamel Hashem, David Mioduser

Abstract:

This paper describes part of a project about Learningby- Modeling (LbM). Studying complex systems is increasingly important in teaching and learning many science domains. Many features of complex systems make it difficult for students to develop deep understanding. Previous research indicates that involvement with modeling scientific phenomena and complex systems can play a powerful role in science learning. Some researchers argue with this view indicating that models and modeling do not contribute to understanding complexity concepts, since these increases the cognitive load on students. This study will investigate the effect of different modes of involvement in exploring scientific phenomena using computer simulation tools, on students- mental model from the perspective of structure, behavior and function. Quantitative and qualitative methods are used to report about 121 freshmen students that engaged in participatory simulations about complex phenomena, showing emergent, self-organized and decentralized patterns. Results show that LbM plays a major role in students' concept formation about complexity concepts.

Keywords: Complexity, Educational technology, Learning by modeling, Mental models

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1100 Complexity Leadership and Knowledge Management in Higher Education

Authors: Prabhakar Venugopal Gantasala

Abstract:

Complex environments triggered by globalization have necessitated new paradigms of leadership – Complexity Leadership that encompass multiple roles that leaders need to take upon. Success of Higher Education institutions depends on how well leaders can provide adaptive, administrative and enabling leadership. Complexity Leadership seems all the more relevant for institutions that are knowledge-driven and thrive on Knowledge creation, Knowledge storage and retrieval, Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge applications. Discussed in this paper are the elements of Globalization and the opportunities and challenges that are brought forth by globalization. The Complexity leadership paradigm in a knowledge-based economy and the need for such a paradigm shift for higher education institutions is presented. Further, the paper also discusses the support the leader requires in a knowledge-driven economy through knowledge management initiatives.

Keywords: Globalization, Complexity Leadership, Knowledge Management.

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1099 Production Line Layout Planning Based on Complexity Measurement

Authors: Guoliang Fan, Aiping Li, Nan Xie, Liyun Xu, Xuemei Liu

Abstract:

Mass customization production increases the difficulty of the production line layout planning. The material distribution process for variety of parts is very complex, which greatly increases the cost of material handling and logistics. In response to this problem, this paper presents an approach of production line layout planning based on complexity measurement. Firstly, by analyzing the influencing factors of equipment layout, the complexity model of production line is established by using information entropy theory. Then, the cost of the part logistics is derived considering different variety of parts. Furthermore, the function of optimization including two objectives of the lowest cost, and the least configuration complexity is built. Finally, the validity of the function is verified in a case study. The results show that the proposed approach may find the layout scheme with the lowest logistics cost and the least complexity. Optimized production line layout planning can effectively improve production efficiency and equipment utilization with lowest cost and complexity.

Keywords: Production line, layout planning, complexity measurement, optimization, mass customization.

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1098 Problem-based Learning Approach to Human Computer Interaction

Authors: Oon-Seng Tan

Abstract:

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has been an emerging field that draws in the experts from various fields to enhance the application of computer programs and the ease of computer users. HCI has much to do with learning and cognition and an emerging approach to learning and problem-solving is problembased learning (PBL). The processes of PBL involve important cognitive functions in the various stages. This paper will illustrate how closely related fields to HCI, PBL and cognitive psychology can benefit from informing each other through analysing various cognitive functions. Several cognitive functions from cognitive function disc (CFD) would be presented and discussed in relation to human-computer interface. This paper concludes with the implications of bridging the gaps amongst these disciplines.

Keywords: problem-based learning, human computerinteraction, cognitive psychology, Cognitive Function Disc (CFD)

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1097 Single Port Overlay Cognitive Radio Using Reconfigurable Filtennas

Authors: V. Nagaraju, Tapas Bapu. B. R, Beryl J. Victor

Abstract:

In this paper cognitive radio is presented and the spectrum overlay cognitive radio antenna system is detailed. A UWB antenna with frequency reconfigurable characteristics is proposed. The reconfigurability is achieved when the filter is integrated to the feeding line of the single port overlay cognitive radio. When activated, the filter can transform the UWB frequency response into a reconfigurable narrowband one, which is suitable for the communication operation of the CR system. Here single port overlay cognitive radio antenna is designed and simulated using Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).

Keywords: Band-pass filter, Cognitive radio, filtenna, frequency reconfigurable, ultra-wideband antenna.

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1096 Impact of Behavioral Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila AL-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir

Abstract:

Cognitive symptoms and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We have measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological Battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASD and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and Motor aspects. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future researches should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, ritual routine adherence, and the use of different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: Autism, Cognitive ability, Motor Behavior, and Neuropsychological battery.

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1095 Selective Intra Prediction Mode Decision for H.264/AVC Encoders

Authors: Jun Sung Park, Hyo Jung Song

Abstract:

H.264/AVC offers a considerably higher improvement in coding efficiency compared to other compression standards such as MPEG-2, but computational complexity is increased significantly. In this paper, we propose selective mode decision schemes for fast intra prediction mode selection. The objective is to reduce the computational complexity of the H.264/AVC encoder without significant rate-distortion performance degradation. In our proposed schemes, the intra prediction complexity is reduced by limiting the luma and chroma prediction modes using the directional information of the 16×16 prediction mode. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed schemes reduce the complexity by up to 78% maintaining the similar PSNR quality with about 1.46% bit rate increase in average.

Keywords: Video encoding, H.264, Intra prediction.

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1094 A New H.264-Based Rate Control Algorithm for Stereoscopic Video Coding

Authors: Yi Liao, Wencheng Yang, Gangyi Jiang

Abstract:

According to investigating impact of complexity of stereoscopic frame pairs on stereoscopic video coding and transmission, a new rate control algorithm is presented. The proposed rate control algorithm is performed on three levels: stereoscopic group of pictures (SGOP) level, stereoscopic frame (SFrame) level and frame level. A temporal-spatial frame complexity model is firstly established, in the bits allocation stage, the frame complexity, position significance and reference property between the left and right frames are taken into account. Meanwhile, the target buffer is set according to the frame complexity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently control the bitrates, and it outperforms the fixed quantization parameter method from the rate distortion perspective, and average PSNR gain between rate-distortion curves (BDPSNR) is 0.21dB.

Keywords: Stereoscopic video coding, rate control, stereoscopic group of pictures, complexity of stereoscopic frame pairs.

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1093 Urdu Nastaleeq Optical Character Recognition

Authors: Zaheer Ahmad, Jehanzeb Khan Orakzai, Inam Shamsher, Awais Adnan

Abstract:

This paper discusses the Urdu script characteristics, Urdu Nastaleeq and a simple but a novel and robust technique to recognize the printed Urdu script without a lexicon. Urdu being a family of Arabic script is cursive and complex script in its nature, the main complexity of Urdu compound/connected text is not its connections but the forms/shapes the characters change when it is placed at initial, middle or at the end of a word. The characters recognition technique presented here is using the inherited complexity of Urdu script to solve the problem. A word is scanned and analyzed for the level of its complexity, the point where the level of complexity changes is marked for a character, segmented and feeded to Neural Networks. A prototype of the system has been tested on Urdu text and currently achieves 93.4% accuracy on the average.

Keywords: Cursive Script, OCR, Urdu.

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1092 Performance Complexity Measurement of Tightening Equipment Based on Kolmogorov Entropy

Authors: Guoliang Fan, Aiping Li, Xuemei Liu, Liyun Xu

Abstract:

The performance of the tightening equipment will decline with the working process in manufacturing system. The main manifestations are the randomness and discretization degree increasing of the tightening performance. To evaluate the degradation tendency of the tightening performance accurately, a complexity measurement approach based on Kolmogorov entropy is presented. At first, the states of performance index are divided for calibrating the discrete degree. Then the complexity measurement model based on Kolmogorov entropy is built. The model describes the performance degradation tendency of tightening equipment quantitatively. At last, a study case is applied for verifying the efficiency and validity of the approach. The research achievement shows that the presented complexity measurement can effectively evaluate the degradation tendency of the tightening equipment. It can provide theoretical basis for preventive maintenance and life prediction of equipment.

Keywords: Complexity measurement, Kolmogorov entropy, manufacturing system, performance evaluation, tightening equipment.

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