Search results for: Hardeep Singh
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 400

Search results for: Hardeep Singh

400 A Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy, Neuro-Fuzzy and Fuzzy-GA Based Approaches for Software Reusability Evaluation

Authors: Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Dalwinder Singh Salaria, Hardeep Singh

Abstract:

Software Reusability is primary attribute of software quality. There are metrics for identifying the quality of reusable components but the function that makes use of these metrics to find reusability of software components is still not clear. These metrics if identified in the design phase or even in the coding phase can help us to reduce the rework by improving quality of reuse of the component and hence improve the productivity due to probabilistic increase in the reuse level. In this paper, we have devised the framework of metrics that uses McCabe-s Cyclometric Complexity Measure for Complexity measurement, Regularity Metric, Halstead Software Science Indicator for Volume indication, Reuse Frequency metric and Coupling Metric values of the software component as input attributes and calculated reusability of the software component. Here, comparative analysis of the fuzzy, Neuro-fuzzy and Fuzzy-GA approaches is performed to evaluate the reusability of software components and Fuzzy-GA results outperform the other used approaches. The developed reusability model has produced high precision results as expected by the human experts.

Keywords: Software Reusability, Software Metrics, Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm, Fuzzy Logic.

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399 Towards a Suitable and Systematic Approach for Component Based Software Development

Authors: Kuljit Kaur, Parminder Kaur, Jaspreet Bedi, Hardeep Singh

Abstract:

Software crisis refers to the situation in which the developers are not able to complete the projects within time and budget constraints and moreover these overscheduled and over budget projects are of low quality as well. Several methodologies have been adopted form time to time to overcome this situation and now in the focus is component based software engineering. In this approach, emphasis is on reuse of already existing software artifacts. But the results can not be achieved just by preaching the principles; they need to be practiced as well. This paper highlights some of the very basic elements of this approach, which has to be in place to get the desired goals of high quality, low cost with shorter time-to-market software products.

Keywords: Component Model, Software Components, SoftwareRepository, Process Models.

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398 Impact of Faults in Different Software Systems: A Survey

Authors: Neeraj Mohan, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Hardeep Singh

Abstract:

Software maintenance is extremely important activity in software development life cycle. It involves a lot of human efforts, cost and time. Software maintenance may be further subdivided into different activities such as fault prediction, fault detection, fault prevention, fault correction etc. This topic has gained substantial attention due to sophisticated and complex applications, commercial hardware, clustered architecture and artificial intelligence. In this paper we surveyed the work done in the field of software maintenance. Software fault prediction has been studied in context of fault prone modules, self healing systems, developer information, maintenance models etc. Still a lot of things like modeling and weightage of impact of different kind of faults in the various types of software systems need to be explored in the field of fault severity.

Keywords: Fault prediction, Software Maintenance, Automated Fault Prediction, and Failure Mode Analysis

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397 Analytical Study of Component Based Software Engineering

Authors: Iqbaldeep Kaur, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Hardeep Singh, Vandana Saini

Abstract:

This paper is a survey of current component-based software technologies and the description of promotion and inhibition factors in CBSE. The features that software components inherit are also discussed. Quality Assurance issues in componentbased software are also catered to. The feat research on the quality model of component based system starts with the study of what the components are, CBSE, its development life cycle and the pro & cons of CBSE. Various attributes are studied and compared keeping in view the study of various existing models for general systems and CBS. When illustrating the quality of a software component an apt set of quality attributes for the description of the system (or components) should be selected. Finally, the research issues that can be extended are tabularized.

Keywords: Component, COTS, Component based development, Component-based Software Engineering.

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396 A Taguchi Approach to Investigate Impact of Factors for Reusability of Software Components

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Pavel Blecharz, Hardeep Singh

Abstract:

Quantitative Investigation of impact of the factors' contribution towards measuring the reusability of software components could be helpful in evaluating the quality of developed or developing reusable software components and in identification of reusable component from existing legacy systems; that can save cost of developing the software from scratch. But the issue of the relative significance of contributing factors has remained relatively unexplored. In this paper, we have use the Taguchi's approach in analyzing the significance of different structural attributes or factors in deciding the reusability level of a particular component. The results obtained shows that the complexity is the most important factor in deciding the better Reusability of a function oriented Software. In case of Object Oriented Software, Coupling and Complexity collectively play significant role in high reusability.

Keywords: Taguchi Approach, Reusability, SoftwareComponents, Structural Attributes.

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395 A Novel Algorithm for Parsing IFC Models

Authors: Raninder Kaur Dhillon, Mayur Jethwa, Hardeep Singh Rai

Abstract:

Information technology has made a pivotal progress across disparate disciplines, one of which is AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) industry. CAD is a form of computer-aided building modulation that architects, engineers and contractors use to create and view two- and three-dimensional models. The AEC industry also uses building information modeling (BIM), a newer computerized modeling system that can create four-dimensional models; this software can greatly increase productivity in the AEC industry. BIM models generate open source IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) files which aim for interoperability for exchanging information throughout the project lifecycle among various disciplines. The methods developed in previous studies require either an IFC schema or MVD and software applications, such as an IFC model server or a Building Information Modeling (BIM) authoring tool, to extract a partial or complete IFC instance model. This paper proposes an efficient algorithm for extracting a partial and total model from an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) instance model without an IFC schema or a complete IFC model view definition (MVD).

Keywords: BIM, CAD, IFC, MVD.

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394 Location Management in Cellular Networks

Authors: Bhavneet Sidhu, Hardeep Singh

Abstract:

Cellular networks provide voice and data services to the users with mobility. To deliver services to the mobile users, the cellular network is capable of tracking the locations of the users, and allowing user movement during the conversations. These capabilities are achieved by the location management. Location management in mobile communication systems is concerned with those network functions necessary to allow the users to be reached wherever they are in the network coverage area. In a cellular network, a service coverage area is divided into smaller areas of hexagonal shape, referred to as cells. The cellular concept was introduced to reuse the radio frequency. Continued expansion of cellular networks, coupled with an increasingly restricted mobile spectrum, has established the reduction of communication overhead as a highly important issue. Much of this traffic is used in determining the precise location of individual users when relaying calls, with the field of location management aiming to reduce this overhead through prediction of user location. This paper describes and compares various location management schemes in the cellular networks.

Keywords: Cellular Networks, Location Area, MobilityManagement, Paging.

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393 Automatic Reusability Appraisal of Software Components using Neuro-fuzzy Approach

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Hardeep Singh

Abstract:

Automatic reusability appraisal could be helpful in evaluating the quality of developed or developing reusable software components and in identification of reusable components from existing legacy systems; that can save cost of developing the software from scratch. But the issue of how to identify reusable components from existing systems has remained relatively unexplored. In this paper, we have mentioned two-tier approach by studying the structural attributes as well as usability or relevancy of the component to a particular domain. Latent semantic analysis is used for the feature vector representation of various software domains. It exploits the fact that FeatureVector codes can be seen as documents containing terms -the idenifiers present in the components- and so text modeling methods that capture co-occurrence information in low-dimensional spaces can be used. Further, we devised Neuro- Fuzzy hybrid Inference System, which takes structural metric values as input and calculates the reusability of the software component. Decision tree algorithm is used to decide initial set of fuzzy rules for the Neuro-fuzzy system. The results obtained are convincing enough to propose the system for economical identification and retrieval of reusable software components.

Keywords: Clustering, ID3, LSA, Neuro-fuzzy System, SVD

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392 A Reusability Evaluation Model for OO-Based Software Components

Authors: Parvinder S. Sandhu, Hardeep Singh

Abstract:

The requirement to improve software productivity has promoted the research on software metric technology. There are metrics for identifying the quality of reusable components but the function that makes use of these metrics to find reusability of software components is still not clear. These metrics if identified in the design phase or even in the coding phase can help us to reduce the rework by improving quality of reuse of the component and hence improve the productivity due to probabilistic increase in the reuse level. CK metric suit is most widely used metrics for the objectoriented (OO) software; we critically analyzed the CK metrics, tried to remove the inconsistencies and devised the framework of metrics to obtain the structural analysis of OO-based software components. Neural network can learn new relationships with new input data and can be used to refine fuzzy rules to create fuzzy adaptive system. Hence, Neuro-fuzzy inference engine can be used to evaluate the reusability of OO-based component using its structural attributes as inputs. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed in which the inputs can be given to Neuro-fuzzy system in form of tuned WMC, DIT, NOC, CBO , LCOM values of the OO software component and output can be obtained in terms of reusability. The developed reusability model has produced high precision results as expected by the human experts.

Keywords: CK-Metric, ID3, Neuro-fuzzy, Reusability.

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391 Emerging Wireless Standards - WiFi, ZigBee and WiMAX

Authors: Bhavneet Sidhu, Hardeep Singh, Amit Chhabra

Abstract:

The world of wireless telecommunications is rapidly evolving. Technologies under research and development promise to deliver more services to more users in less time. This paper presents the emerging technologies helping wireless systems grow from where we are today into our visions of the future. This paper will cover the applications and characteristics of emerging wireless technologies: Wireless Local Area Networks (WiFi-802.11n), Wireless Personal Area Networks (ZigBee) and Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WiMAX). The purpose of this paper is to explain the impending 802.11n standard and how it will enable WLANs to support emerging media-rich applications. The paper will also detail how 802.11n compares with existing WLAN standards and offer strategies for users considering higher-bandwidth alternatives. The emerging IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) standard aims to provide low data rate wireless communications with high-precision ranging and localization, by employing UWB technologies for a low-power and low cost solution. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a standard for wireless data transmission covering a range similar to cellular phone towers. With high performance in both distance and throughput, WiMAX technology could be a boon to current Internet providers seeking to become the leader of next generation wireless Internet access. This paper also explores how these emerging technologies differ from one another.

Keywords: MIMO technology, WiFi, WiMAX, ZigBee.

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390 Network Based High Performance Computing

Authors: Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Gurvinder Singh, Arjan Singh

Abstract:

In the past few years there is a change in the view of high performance applications and parallel computing. Initially such applications were targeted towards dedicated parallel machines. Recently trend is changing towards building meta-applications composed of several modules that exploit heterogeneous platforms and employ hybrid forms of parallelism. The aim of this paper is to propose a model of virtual parallel computing. Virtual parallel computing system provides a flexible object oriented software framework that makes it easy for programmers to write various parallel applications.

Keywords: Applet, Efficiency, Java, LAN

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389 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang

Abstract:

Aluminium and its alloys have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are solution heat treatment, artificial ageing and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of As welded joints of the aluminium alloys and post weld heat treated joints of the aluminium alloys were examined.

Keywords: Aluminium Alloys, Post weld Heat Treatment, TIG welding.

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388 Decision Support System for Farm Management

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Parvinder Singh, Sumitter Bir Singh

Abstract:

The emergence of information technology has resulted in an ever-increasing demand to use computers for the efficient management and dissemination of information. Keeping in view the strong need of farmers to collect important and updated information for interactive, flexible and quick decision-making, a model of Decision Support System for Farm Management is developed. The paper discusses the use of Internet technology for the farmers to take decisions. A model is developed for the farmers to access online interactive and flexible information for their farm management. The workflow of the model is presented highlighting the information transfer between different modules.

Keywords: Decision Support System, dissemination.

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387 An Application of Differential Subordination to Analytic Functions

Authors: Sukhwinder Singh Billing, Sushma Gupta, Sukhjit Singh Dhaliwal

Abstract:

the present paper, using the technique of differential subordination, we obtain certain results for analytic functions defined by a multiplier transformation in the open unit disc E = { z : IzI < 1}. We claim that our results extend and generalize the existing results in this particular direction

Keywords: function, Differential subordination, Multiplier transformation.

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386 A Sandwich-type Theorem with Applications to Univalent Functions

Authors: Sukhwinder Singh Billing, Sushma Gupta, Sukhjit Singh Dhaliwal

Abstract:

In the present paper, we obtain a sandwich-type theorem. As applications of our main result, we discuss the univalence and starlikeness of analytic functions in terms of certain differential subordinations and differential inequalities.

Keywords: Univalent function, Starlike function, Differential subordination, Differential superordination.

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385 An Evaluation of TIG Welding Parametric Influence on Tensile Strength of 5083 Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Lakshman Singh, Rajeshwar Singh, Naveen Kumar Singh, Davinder Singh, Pargat Singh

Abstract:

Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding is a high quality welding process used to weld the thin metals and their alloy. 5083 Aluminium alloys play an important role in engineering and metallurgy field because of excellent corrosion properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength coupled with best combination of toughness and formability.

TIG welding technique is one of the precise and fastest processes used in aerospace, ship and marine industries. TIG welding process is used to analyze the data and evaluate the influence of input parameters on tensile strength of 5083 Al-alloy specimens with dimensions of 100mm long x 15mm wide x 5mm thick. Welding current (I), gas flow rate (G) and welding speed (S) are the input parameters which effect tensile strength of 5083 Al-alloy welded joints. As welding speed increased, tensile strength increases first till optimum value and after that both decreases by increasing welding speed further. Results of the study show that maximum tensile strength of 129 MPa of weld joint are obtained at welding current of 240 Amps, gas flow rate of 7 Lt/min and welding speed of 98 mm/min. These values are the optimum values of input parameters which help to produce efficient weld joint that have good mechanical properties as a tensile strength.

Keywords: 5083 Aluminium alloy, Gas flow rate, TIG welding, Welding current, Welding speed and Tensile strength.

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384 Translator Design to Model Cpp Files

Authors: Er. Satwinder Singh, Dr. K.S. Kahlon, Rakesh Kumar, Er. Gurjeet Singh

Abstract:

The most reliable and accurate description of the actual behavior of a software system is its source code. However, not all questions about the system can be answered directly by resorting to this repository of information. What the reverse engineering methodology aims at is the extraction of abstract, goal-oriented “views" of the system, able to summarize relevant properties of the computation performed by the program. While concentrating on reverse engineering we had modeled the C++ files by designing the translator.

Keywords: Translator, Modeling, UML, DYNO, ISVis, TED.

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383 Coefficient of Parentage for Crop Hybridization

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Basant Raj Singh

Abstract:

Hybridization refers to the crossing breeding of two plants. Coefficient of Parentage (COP) is used by the plant breeders to determine the genetic diversity across various varieties so as to incorporate the useful characters of the two varieties to develop a new crop variety with particular useful characters. Genetic Diversity is the prerequisite for any cultivar development program. Genetic Diversity depends upon the pedigree information of the varieties based on particular levels. Pedigree refers to the parents of a particular variety at various levels. This paper discusses the searching and analyses of different possible pairs of varieties selected on the basis of morphological characters, Climatic conditions and Nutrients so as to obtain the most optimal pair that can produce the required crossbreed variety. An algorithm was developed to determine the coefficient of parentage (COP) between the selected wheat varieties. Dummy values were used wherever actual data was not available.

Keywords: Coefficient of Parentage, Morphological characters, Pedigree, Genetic Diversity.

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382 Certain Conditions for Strongly Starlike and Strongly Convex Functions

Authors: Sukhwinder Singh Billing, Sushma Gupta, Sukhjit Singh Dhaliwal

Abstract:

In the present paper, we investigate a differential subordination involving multiplier transformation related to a sector in the open unit disk E = {z : |z| < 1}. As special cases to our main result, certain sufficient conditions for strongly starlike and strongly convex functions are obtained.

Keywords: Analytic function, Multiplier transformation, Strongly starlike function, Strongly convex function.

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381 Protein Secondary Structure Prediction

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Reet Kamal Kaur

Abstract:

Protein structure determination and prediction has been a focal research subject in the field of bioinformatics due to the importance of protein structure in understanding the biological and chemical activities of organisms. The experimental methods used by biotechnologists to determine the structures of proteins demand sophisticated equipment and time. A host of computational methods are developed to predict the location of secondary structure elements in proteins for complementing or creating insights into experimental results. However, prediction accuracies of these methods rarely exceed 70%.

Keywords: Protein, Secondary Structure, Prediction, DNA, RNA.

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380 Production of Cellulases by Aspergillus Heteromorphus from Wheat Straw under Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Anita Singh, Namita Singh, Narsi R. Bishnoi

Abstract:

To investigate the production of cellulases from Aspergillus heteromorphus, submerged fermentation was performed using wheat straw as substrate. Optimization of saccharification conditions like pH, temperature and time were studied. Highest reducing sugar was released on 5th day at 5 pH, 30° C temperature. When A. heteromorphous was grown on wheat straw in submerged fermentation after 5 days incubation at 30 ° C, 3.2 IU/ml and 83 IU/ml, filter paper activity and CMCase activity respectively.

Keywords: Aspergillus heteromorphus, Wheat Straw, Submerged Fermentation, Production of Cellulases

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379 Faster FPGA Routing Solution using DNA Computing

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Manjinder Singh Kahlon

Abstract:

There are many classical algorithms for finding routing in FPGA. But Using DNA computing we can solve the routes efficiently and fast. The run time complexity of DNA algorithms is much less than other classical algorithms which are used for solving routing in FPGA. The research in DNA computing is in a primary level. High information density of DNA molecules and massive parallelism involved in the DNA reactions make DNA computing a powerful tool. It has been proved by many research accomplishments that any procedure that can be programmed in a silicon computer can be realized as a DNA computing procedure. In this paper we have proposed two tier approaches for the FPGA routing solution. First, geometric FPGA detailed routing task is solved by transforming it into a Boolean satisfiability equation with the property that any assignment of input variables that satisfies the equation specifies a valid routing. Satisfying assignment for particular route will result in a valid routing and absence of a satisfying assignment implies that the layout is un-routable. In second step, DNA search algorithm is applied on this Boolean equation for solving routing alternatives utilizing the properties of DNA computation. The simulated results are satisfactory and give the indication of applicability of DNA computing for solving the FPGA Routing problem.

Keywords: FPGA, Routing, DNA Computing.

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378 Exploration of Floristic Composition and Management of Gujar Tal in District Jaunpur

Authors: Mayank Singh, Mahendra P. Singh

Abstract:

Present paper enumerates highlights of seasonal variation in floristic composition and ecological strategies for the management of ‘Gujar Tal’ at Jaunpur in tropical semi-arid region of eastern U.P. (India). Total composition of macrophytes recorded was 47 from 26 families with maximum 6 plant species of Cyperaceae from April, 2012 to March, 2013 at certain periodic intervals. Maximum number of plants (39) was present during winter followed by (37) rainy and (27) summer seasons. The distribution pattern depicted that maximum number of plants (27) was of marshy and swampy habitats usually transitional between land and water.

Keywords: Floristic, life form, management, weeds.

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377 Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images

Authors: Gurinder Singh, Kulbir Singh

Abstract:

Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.

Keywords: Computer forensics, multimedia forensics, image ballistics, camera source identification, forgery detection.

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376 GA based Optimal Sizing and Placement of Distributed Generation for Loss Minimization

Authors: Deependra Singh, Devender Singh, K. S. Verma

Abstract:

This paper addresses a novel technique for placement of distributed generation (DG) in electric power systems. A GA based approach for sizing and placement of DG keeping in view of system power loss minimization in different loading conditions is explained. Minimal system power loss is obtained under voltage and line loading constraints. Proposed strategy is applied to power distribution systems and its effectiveness is verified through simulation results on 16, 37-bus and 75-bus test systems.

Keywords: Distributed generation (DG), Genetic algorithms (GA), optimal sizing and placement, Power loss.

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375 Factors Contributing Towards Technology Development in Small Firms

Authors: Davinder Singh, Jaimal Singh Khamba, Tarun Nanda

Abstract:

The importance of MSMEs in India became crucial in rural areas because it promoted economic growth. MSMEs play a significant role in the economic growth of the country owing to production, exports and employment. Technology development reflect a critical way in which organization respond to either technological or market challenges. The present survey examines the characteristics of technology development in MSMEs. The results show that Indian MSMEs do not co-operate with universities and R&D institutes. Government policies also affect the technology development activities. The awareness about the R&D infrastructure is very low as shown by the results in the study. There is a need to understand and assess the real needs of the MSMEs and accordingly devise approaches that ensure their sustainable growth.

Keywords: MSMEs, technology development, networks, financial management and R&D infrastructure.

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374 RBF- based Meshless Method for Free Vibration Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates

Authors: Jeeoot Singh, Sandeep Singh, K. K. Shukla

Abstract:

The governing differential equations of laminated plate utilizing trigonometric shear deformation theory are derived using energy approach. The governing differential equations discretized by different radial basis functions are used to predict the free vibration behavior of symmetric laminated composite plates. Effect of orthotropy and span to thickness ratio on frequency parameter of simply supported laminated plate is presented. Numerical results show the accuracy and good convergence of radial basis functions.

Keywords: Composite plates, Meshfree method, free vibration, Shear deformation, RBFs

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373 A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment

Authors: Sukhveer Singh, Sandeep Singh

Abstract:

A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.

Keywords: Transportation problem, efficient solution, ranking function, fuzzy transportation problem.

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372 A New Algorithm for Enhanced Robustness of Copyright Mark

Authors: Harsh Vikram Singh, S. P. Singh, Anand Mohan

Abstract:

This paper discusses a new heavy tailed distribution based data hiding into discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of image, which provides statistical security as well as robustness against steganalysis attacks. Unlike other data hiding algorithms, the proposed technique does not introduce much effect in the stegoimage-s DCT coefficient probability plots, thus making the presence of hidden data statistically undetectable. In addition the proposed method does not compromise on hiding capacity. When compared to the generic block DCT based data-hiding scheme, our method found more robust against a variety of image manipulating attacks such as filtering, blurring, JPEG compression etc.

Keywords: Information Security, Robust Steganography, Steganalysis, Pareto Probability Distribution function.

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371 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh

Abstract:

Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: Frequency deviation, OCT & SCT, SFRA, Transformer winding.

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