Search results for: Color information
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4252

Search results for: Color information

4252 A Way of Converting Color Images to Gray Scale Ones for the Color-Blind -Applying to the Part of the Tokyo Subway Map-

Authors: Katsuhiro Narikiyo, Shota Hashikawa

Abstract:

This paper proposes a way of removing noises and reducing the number of colors contained in a JPEG image. Main purpose of this project is to convert color images to monochrome images for the color-blind. We treat the crispy color images like the Tokyo subway map. Each color in the image has an important information. But for the color blinds, similar colors cannot be distinguished. If we can convert those colors to different gray values, they can distinguish them. Therefore we try to convert color images to monochrome images.

Keywords: Color-blind, JPEG, Monochrome image, Denoise.

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4251 A Way of Converting Color Images to Gray Scale Ones for the Color Blinds -Reducing the Colors for Tokyo Subway Map-

Authors: Katsuhiro Narikiyo, Naoto Kobayakawa

Abstract:

We proposes a way of removing noises and reducing the number of colors contained in a JPEG image. Main purpose of this project is to convert color images to monochrome images for the color blinds. We treat the crispy color images like the Tokyo subway map. Each color in the image has an important information. But for the color blinds, similar colors cannot be distinguished. If we can convert those colors to different gray values, they can distinguish them.

Keywords: Image processing, Color blind, JPEG

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4250 A Study of Color Transformation on Website Images for the Color Blind

Authors: Siew-Li Ching, Maziani Sabudin

Abstract:

In this paper, we study on color transformation method on website images for the color blind. The most common category of color blindness is red-green color blindness which is viewed as beige color. By transforming the colors of the images, the color blind can improve their color visibility. They can have a better view when browsing through the websites. To transform colors on the website images, we study on two algorithms which are the conversion techniques from RGB color space to HSV color space and self-organizing color transformation. The comparative study focuses on criteria based on the ease of use, quality, accuracy and efficiency. The outcome of the study leads to enhancement of website images to meet the color blinds- vision requirements in perceiving image detailed.

Keywords: Color blind, color transformation, HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value), RGB (Red, Green, Blue).

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4249 A Neural Approach for Color-Textured Images Segmentation

Authors: Khalid Salhi, El Miloud Jaara, Mohammed Talibi Alaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a neural approach for unsupervised natural color-texture image segmentation, which is based on both Kohonen maps and mathematical morphology, using a combination of the texture and the image color information of the image, namely, the fractal features based on fractal dimension are selected to present the information texture, and the color features presented in RGB color space. These features are then used to train the network Kohonen, which will be represented by the underlying probability density function, the segmentation of this map is made by morphological watershed transformation. The performance of our color-texture segmentation approach is compared first, to color-based methods or texture-based methods only, and then to k-means method.

Keywords: Segmentation, color-texture, neural networks, fractal, watershed.

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4248 Color Shift of Printing with Hybrid Halftone Images for Overlay Misalignment

Authors: Xu Guoliang, Tan Qingping

Abstract:

Color printing proceeds with multiple halftone separations overlay. Because of separation overlay misalignment in printing, the percentage of different primary color combination may vary and it will result in color shift. In traditional printing procedure with AM halftone, every separation has different screening angle to make the superposition pattern in a random style, which will reduce the color shift. To evaluate the color shift of printing with hybrid halftoning, we simulate printing procedure with halftone images overlay and calculate the color difference between expected color and color in different overlay misalignment configurations. The color difference for hybrid halftone and AM halftone is very close. So the color shift for hybrid halftone is acceptable with current color printing procedure.

Keywords: color printing, AM halftone, Hybrid halftone, misalignment, color shift, Neugebauer Color Equation

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4247 Extracting Road Signs using the Color Information

Authors: Wen-Yen Wu, Tsung-Cheng Hsieh, Ching-Sung Lai

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method to extract the road signs. Firstly, the grabbed image is converted into the HSV color space to detect the road signs. Secondly, the morphological operations are used to reduce noise. Finally, extract the road sign using the geometric property. The feature extraction of road sign is done by using the color information. The proposed method has been tested for the real situations. From the experimental results, it is seen that the proposed method can extract the road sign features effectively.

Keywords: Color information, image processing, road sign.

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4246 Developing the Color Temperature Histogram Method for Improving the Content-Based Image Retrieval

Authors: P. Phokharatkul, S. Chaisriya, S. Somkuarnpanit, S. Phaiboon, C. Kimpan

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new method for image searches and image indexing in databases with a color temperature histogram. The color temperature histogram can be used for performance improvement of content–based image retrieval by using a combination of color temperature and histogram. The color temperature histogram can be represented by a range of 46 colors. That is more than the color histogram and the dominant color temperature. Moreover, with our method the colors that have the same color temperature can be separated while the dominant color temperature can not. The results showed that the color temperature histogram retrieved an accurate image more often than the dominant color temperature method or color histogram method. This also took less time so the color temperature can be used for indexing and searching for images.

Keywords: Color temperature histogram, color temperature, animage retrieval and content-based image retrieval.

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4245 Learning Human-Like Color Categorization through Interaction

Authors: Rinaldo Christian Tanumara, Ming Xie, Chi Kit Au

Abstract:

Human perceives color in categories, which may be identified using color name such as red, blue, etc. The categorization is unique for each human being. However despite the individual differences, the categorization is shared among members in society. This allows communication among them, especially when using color name. Sociable robot, to live coexist with human and become part of human society, must also have the shared color categorization, which can be achieved through learning. Many works have been done to enable computer, as brain of robot, to learn color categorization. Most of them rely on modeling of human color perception and mathematical complexities. Differently, in this work, the computer learns color categorization through interaction with humans. This work aims at developing the innate ability of the computer to learn the human-like color categorization. It focuses on the representation of color categorization and how it is built and developed without much mathematical complexity.

Keywords: Color categorization, color learning, machinelearning, color naming.

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4244 Image Processing Using Color and Object Information for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Jin-Hee Park, Yong-Gyu Lee, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Wireless capsule endoscopy provides real-time images in the digestive tract. Capsule images are usually low resolution and are diverse images due to travel through various regions of human body. Color information has been a primary reference in predicting abnormalities such as bleeding. Often color is not sufficient for this purpose. In this study, we took morphological shapes into account as additional, but important criterion. First, we processed gastric images in order to indentify various objects in the image. Then, we analyzed color information in the object. In this way, we could remove unnecessary information and increase the accuracy. Compared to our previous investigations, we could handle images of various degrees of brightness and improve our diagnostic algorithm.

Keywords: Capsule Endoscopy, HSV model, Image processing, Object Identification, Color Separation.

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4243 Improved Posterized Color Images based on Color Quantization and Contrast Enhancement

Authors: Oh-Yeol Kwon, Sung-Il Chien

Abstract:

A conventional image posterization method occasionally fails to preserve the shape and color of objects due to the uneffective color reduction. This paper proposes a new image posterizartion method by using modified color quantization for preserving the shape and color of objects and color contrast enhancement for improving lightness contrast and saturation. Experiment results show that our proposed method can provide visually more satisfactory posterization result than that of the conventional method.

Keywords: Color contrast enhancement, color quantization, color segmentation, image posterization

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4242 Fabric Printing Design, an Inspired from the Five-Color Porcelain (Benjarong)

Authors: Suwit Sadsunk

Abstract:

The study is about the designed and decorative fabric printing that derived from the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong). The researcher examined the pattern and creativity of the decorative design of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) by the artists in order to apply for contemporary arts so that young generation will acknowledge the importance of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong). The research methodology is both quantitative and qualitative. The researcher conducted an in-depth interview with the operator of five-color porcelain (Benjarong) at Ampawa, Samutsongkram. The information from the interview can be useful and implemented for designing the fabric patterns. The researcher found that there were many formats and designs of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) from the past to the present. Its unique design can be applied for the fabric patterns and ready-to-wear clothes properly. After advertising and showing the work of the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) publicly, there were more young people interested in the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong) than expected which exceeded the objective with positive attitudes towards the Five-color porcelain (Benjarong).

Keywords: Decorative fabric printing, Five-color porcelain (Benjarong).

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4241 Making Computer Learn Color

Authors: Rinaldo Christian Tanumara, Ming Xie

Abstract:

Color categorization is shared among members in a society. This allows communication of color, especially when using natural language such as English. Hence sociable robot, to live coexist with human in human society, must also have the shared color categorization. To achieve this, many works have been done relying on modeling of human color perception and mathematical complexities. In contrast, in this work, the computer as brain of the robot learns color categorization through interaction with humans without much mathematical complexities.

Keywords: Color categorization, color learning, machinelearning.

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4240 Towards Integrating Statistical Color Features for Human Skin Detection

Authors: Mohd Zamri Osman, Mohd Aizaini Maarof, Mohd Foad Rohani

Abstract:

Human skin detection recognized as the primary step in most of the applications such as face detection, illicit image filtering, hand recognition and video surveillance. The performance of any skin detection applications greatly relies on the two components: feature extraction and classification method. Skin color is the most vital information used for skin detection purpose. However, color feature alone sometimes could not handle images with having same color distribution with skin color. A color feature of pixel-based does not eliminate the skin-like color due to the intensity of skin and skin-like color fall under the same distribution. Hence, the statistical color analysis will be exploited such mean and standard deviation as an additional feature to increase the reliability of skin detector. In this paper, we studied the effectiveness of statistical color feature for human skin detection. Furthermore, the paper analyzed the integrated color and texture using eight classifiers with three color spaces of RGB, YCbCr, and HSV. The experimental results show that the integrating statistical feature using Random Forest classifier achieved a significant performance with an F1-score 0.969.

Keywords: Color space, neural network, random forest, skin detection, statistical feature.

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4239 Hybrid Color-Texture Space for Image Classification

Authors: Hassan El Maia, Ahmed Hammouch, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

This work presents an approach for the construction of a hybrid color-texture space by using mutual information. Feature extraction is done by the Laws filter with SVM (Support Vectors Machine) as a classifier. The classification is applied on the VisTex database and a SPOT HRV (XS) image representing two forest areas in the region of Rabat in Morocco. The result of classification obtained in the hybrid space is compared with the one obtained in the RGB color space.

Keywords: Color, texture, laws filter, mutual information, SVM, hybrid space.

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4238 Visual Thing Recognition with Binary Scale-Invariant Feature Transform and Support Vector Machine Classifiers Using Color Information

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Wei-Hau Du, Pau-Choo Chang, Jar-Ferr Yang, Pi-Hsia Hung

Abstract:

The demands of smart visual thing recognition in various devices have been increased rapidly for daily smart production, living and learning systems in recent years. This paper proposed a visual thing recognition system, which combines binary scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), bag of words model (BoW), and support vector machine (SVM) by using color information. Since the traditional SIFT features and SVM classifiers only use the gray information, color information is still an important feature for visual thing recognition. With color-based SIFT features and SVM, we can discard unreliable matching pairs and increase the robustness of matching tasks. The experimental results show that the proposed object recognition system with color-assistant SIFT SVM classifier achieves higher recognition rate than that with the traditional gray SIFT and SVM classification in various situations.

Keywords: Color moments, visual thing recognition system, SIFT, color SIFT.

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4237 Design and Development of 5-DOF Color Sorting Manipulator for Industrial Applications

Authors: Atef. A. Ata, Sohair F. Rezeka, Ahmed El-Shenawy, Mohammed Diab

Abstract:

Image processing in today’s world grabs massive attentions as it leads to possibilities of broaden application in many fields of high technology. The real challenge is how to improve existing sorting system applications which consists of two integrated stations of processing and handling with a new image processing feature. Existing color sorting techniques use a set of inductive, capacitive, and optical sensors to differentiate object color. This research presents a mechatronic color sorting system solution with the application of image processing. A 5-DOF robot arm is designed and developed with pick and place operation to act as the main part of the color sorting system. Image processing procedure senses the circular objects in an image captured in real time by a webcam fixed at the end-effector then extracts color and position information out of it. This information is passed as a sequence of sorting commands to the manipulator that has pick-and-place mechanism. Performance analysis proves that this color based object sorting system works accurately under ideal condition in term of adequate illumination, circular objects shape and color. The circular objects tested for sorting are red, green and blue. For non-ideal condition, such as unspecified color the accuracy reduces to 80%.

Keywords: Robotics manipulator, 5-DOF manipulator, image processing, Color sorting, Pick-and-place.

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4236 Color and Layout-based Identification of Documents Captured from Handheld Devices

Authors: Ardhendu Behera, Denis Lalanne, Rolf Ingold

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method, combining color and layout features, for identifying documents captured from low-resolution handheld devices. On one hand, the document image color density surface is estimated and represented with an equivalent ellipse and on the other hand, the document shallow layout structure is computed and hierarchically represented. Our identification method first uses the color information in the documents in order to focus the search space on documents having a similar color distribution, and finally selects the document having the most similar layout structure in the remaining of the search space.

Keywords: Document color modeling, document visualsignature, kernel density estimation, document identification.

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4235 Spectra Analysis in Sunset Color Demonstrations with a White-Color LED as a Light Source

Authors: Makoto Hasegawa, Seika Tokumitsu

Abstract:

Spectra of light beams emitted from white-color LED torches are different from those of conventional electric torches. In order to confirm if white-color LED torches can be used as light sources for popular sunset color demonstrations in spite of such differences, spectra of travelled light beams and scattered light beams with each of a white-color LED torch (composed of a blue LED and yellow-color fluorescent material) and a conventional electric torch as a light source were measured and compared with each other in a 50 cm-long water tank for sunset color demonstration experiments. Suspension liquid was prepared from acryl-emulsion and tap-water in the water tank, and light beams from the white-color LED torch or the conventional electric torch were allowed to travel in this suspension liquid. Sunset-like color was actually observed when the white-color LED torch was used as the light source in sunset color demonstrations. However, the observed colors when viewed with naked eye look slightly different from those obtainable with the conventional electric torch. At the same time, with the white-color LED, changes in colors in short to middle wavelength regions were recognized with careful observations. From those results, white-color LED torches are confirmed to be applicable as light sources in sunset color demonstrations, although certain attentions have to be paid. Further advanced classes will be successfully performed with white-color LED torches as light sources.

Keywords: Blue sky demonstration, sunset color demonstration, white LED torch.

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4234 Adaptive Skin Segmentation Using Color Distance Map

Authors: Mohammad Shoyaib, M. Abdullah-Al-Wadud, Oksam Chae

Abstract:

In this paper an effective approach for segmenting human skin regions in images taken at different environment is proposed. The proposed method uses a color distance map that is flexible enough to reliably detect the skin regions even if the illumination conditions of the image vary. Local image conditions is also focused, which help the technique to adaptively detect differently illuminated skin regions of an image. Moreover, usage of local information also helps the skin detection process to get rid of picking up much noisy pixels.

Keywords: Color Distance map, Reference skin color, Regiongrowing, Skin segmentation.

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4233 Combining Color and Layout Features for the Identification of Low-resolution Documents

Authors: Ardhendu Behera, Denis Lalanne, Rolf Ingold

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method, combining color and layout features, for identifying documents captured from lowresolution handheld devices. On one hand, the document image color density surface is estimated and represented with an equivalent ellipse and on the other hand, the document shallow layout structure is computed and hierarchically represented. The combined color and layout features are arranged in a symbolic file, which is unique for each document and is called the document-s visual signature. Our identification method first uses the color information in the signatures in order to focus the search space on documents having a similar color distribution, and finally selects the document having the most similar layout structure in the remaining search space. Finally, our experiment considers slide documents, which are often captured using handheld devices.

Keywords: Document color modeling, document visual signature, kernel density estimation, document identification.

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4232 Multilevel Activation Functions For True Color Image Segmentation Using a Self Supervised Parallel Self Organizing Neural Network (PSONN) Architecture: A Comparative Study

Authors: Siddhartha Bhattacharyya, Paramartha Dutta, Ujjwal Maulik, Prashanta Kumar Nandi

Abstract:

The paper describes a self supervised parallel self organizing neural network (PSONN) architecture for true color image segmentation. The proposed architecture is a parallel extension of the standard single self organizing neural network architecture (SONN) and comprises an input (source) layer of image information, three single self organizing neural network architectures for segmentation of the different primary color components in a color image scene and one final output (sink) layer for fusion of the segmented color component images. Responses to the different shades of color components are induced in each of the three single network architectures (meant for component level processing) by applying a multilevel version of the characteristic activation function, which maps the input color information into different shades of color components, thereby yielding a processed component color image segmented on the basis of the different shades of component colors. The number of target classes in the segmented image corresponds to the number of levels in the multilevel activation function. Since the multilevel version of the activation function exhibits several subnormal responses to the input color image scene information, the system errors of the three component network architectures are computed from some subnormal linear index of fuzziness of the component color image scenes at the individual level. Several multilevel activation functions are employed for segmentation of the input color image scene using the proposed network architecture. Results of the application of the multilevel activation functions to the PSONN architecture are reported on three real life true color images. The results are substantiated empirically with the correlation coefficients between the segmented images and the original images.

Keywords: Colour image segmentation, fuzzy set theory, multi-level activation functions, parallel self-organizing neural network.

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4231 Experimental Characterization of the Color Quality and Error Rate for an Red, Green, and Blue-Based Light Emission Diode-Fixture Used in Visible Light Communications

Authors: Juan F. Gutierrez, Jesus M. Quintero, Diego Sandoval

Abstract:

An important feature of Lighting Emitting Diodes (LED) technology is the fast on-off commutation. This fact allows data transmission using modulation formats such as On-Off Keying (OOK) and Color Shift Keying (CSK). Since, CSK based on three color bands uses red, green, and blue monochromatic LED (RGB-LED) to define a pattern of chromaticities; this type of CSK provides poor color quality on the illuminated area. In this work, we present the design and implementation of a VLC system using RGB-based CSK with 16, 8, and 4 color points, mixing with a steady baseline of a phosphor white-LED, to improve the color quality of the LED-Fixture. The experimental system was assessed in terms of the Symbol Error Rate (SER) and the Color Rendering Index (CRI). Good color quality performance of the LED-Fixture was obtained with an acceptable SER. We describe the laboratory setup used to characterize and calibrate an LED-Fixture.

Keywords: Color rendering index, symbol error rate, color shift keying, visible light communications.

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4230 Difference in the Color Preference by a Geographical Factor

Authors: Kazuko Sakamoto

Abstract:

Recently, the design is becoming important in product development. The technology which is a strong point of Japan is immediately caught up by the foreign countries, and the price competition begins. Therefore companies tend to plan differentiation of products by the design or a color. The purpose of my work was to consider the optimal color for using by product development. We needed to clarify the thing leading to color preference for this purpose. Two kinds of investigations were made. By the first investigation, we found out that a geographical factor difference existed in color preference. Then, investigation which regarded the difference as latitude was conducted. However, the result expected from the difference in latitude was not obtained. It seems that it is necessary to set up difference of latitude a little more greatly, or to reexamine by other geographical factors.

Keywords: Color preference, product color, difference of latitude, design marketing, international comparison.

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4229 Fragile Watermarking for Color Images Using Thresholding Technique

Authors: Kuo-Cheng Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose ablock-wise watermarking scheme for color image authentication to resist malicious tampering of digital media. The thresholding technique is incorporated into the scheme such that the tampered region of the color image can be recovered with high quality while the proofing result is obtained. The watermark for each block consists of its dual authentication data and the corresponding feature information. The feature information for recovery iscomputed bythe thresholding technique. In the proofing process, we propose a dual-option parity check method to proof the validity of image blocks. In the recovery process, the feature information of each block embedded into the color image is rebuilt for high quality recovery. The simulation results show that the proposed watermarking scheme can effectively proof the tempered region with high detection rate and can recover the tempered region with high quality.

Keywords: thresholding technique, tamper proofing, tamper recovery

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4228 Face Tracking using a Polling Strategy

Authors: Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava

Abstract:

The colors of the human skin represent a special category of colors, because they are distinctive from the colors of other natural objects. This category is found as a cluster in color spaces, and the skin color variations between people are mostly due to differences in the intensity. Besides, the face detection based on skin color detection is a faster method as compared to other techniques. In this work, we present a system to track faces by carrying out skin color detection in four different color spaces: HSI, YCbCr, YES and RGB. Once some skin color regions have been detected for each color space, we label each and get some characteristics such as size and position. We are supposing that a face is located in one the detected regions. Next, we compare and employ a polling strategy between labeled regions to determine the final region where the face effectively has been detected and located.

Keywords: Tracking, face detection, image processing, colorspaces.

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4227 Embedded Semi-Fragile Signature Based Scheme for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication with Recovery

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication by deploying Cryptography & Digital Watermarking. The color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space exclusively designed for watermarking. Followed by color space transformation, each channel is divided into 4×4 non-overlapping blocks with selection of central 2×2 sub-blocks. Depending upon the channel selected two to three LSBs of each central 2×2 sub-block are set to zero to hold the ownership, authentication and recovery information. The size & position of sub-block is important for correct localization, enhanced security & fast computation. As YS ÔèÑ T so it is suitable to embed the recovery information apart from the ownership and authentication information, therefore 4×4 block of T channel along with ownership information is then deployed by SHA160 to compute the content based hash that is unique and invulnerable to birthday attack or hash collision instead of using MD5 that may raise the condition i.e. H(m)=H(m'). For recovery, intensity mean of 4x4 block of each channel is computed and encoded upto eight bits. For watermark embedding, key based mapping of blocks is performed using 2DTorus Automorphism. Our scheme is oblivious, generates highly imperceptible images with correct localization of tampering within reasonable time and has the ability to recover the original work with probability of near one.

Keywords: Hash Collision, LSB, MD5, PSNR, SHA160

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4226 Evolutionary Program Based Approach for Manipulator Grasping Color Objects

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram, Honey Raju

Abstract:

Image segmentation and color identification is an important process used in various emerging fields like intelligent robotics. A method is proposed for the manipulator to grasp and place the color object into correct location. The existing methods such as PSO, has problems like accelerating the convergence speed and converging to a local minimum leading to sub optimal performance. To improve the performance, we are using watershed algorithm and for color identification, we are using EPSO. EPSO method is used to reduce the probability of being stuck in the local minimum. The proposed method offers the particles a more powerful global exploration capability. EPSO methods can determine the particles stuck in the local minimum and can also enhance learning speed as the particle movement will be faster.

Keywords: Color information, EPSO, hue, saturation, value (HSV), image segmentation, particle swarm optimization (PSO). Active Contour, GMM.

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4225 Color Constancy using Superpixel

Authors: Xingsheng Yuan, Zhengzhi Wang

Abstract:

Color constancy algorithms are generally based on the simplified assumption about the spectral distribution or the reflection attributes of the scene surface. However, in reality, these assumptions are too restrictive. The methodology is proposed to extend existing algorithm to applying color constancy locally to image patches rather than globally to the entire images. In this paper, a method based on low-level image features using superpixels is proposed. Superpixel segmentation partition an image into regions that are approximately uniform in size and shape. Instead of using entire pixel set for estimating the illuminant, only superpixels with the most valuable information are used. Based on large scale experiments on real-world scenes, it can be derived that the estimation is more accurate using superpixels than when using the entire image.

Keywords: color constancy, illuminant estimation, superpixel

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4224 Application of LSB Based Steganographic Technique for 8-bit Color Images

Authors: Mamta Juneja, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Ekta Walia

Abstract:

Steganography is the process of hiding one file inside another such that others can neither identify the meaning of the embedded object, nor even recognize its existence. Current trends favor using digital image files as the cover file to hide another digital file that contains the secret message or information. One of the most common methods of implementation is Least Significant Bit Insertion, in which the least significant bit of every byte is altered to form the bit-string representing the embedded file. Altering the LSB will only cause minor changes in color, and thus is usually not noticeable to the human eye. While this technique works well for 24-bit color image files, steganography has not been as successful when using an 8-bit color image file, due to limitations in color variations and the use of a colormap. This paper presents the results of research investigating the combination of image compression and steganography. The technique developed starts with a 24-bit color bitmap file, then compresses the file by organizing and optimizing an 8-bit colormap. After the process of compression, a text message is hidden in the final, compressed image. Results indicate that the final technique has potential of being useful in the steganographic world.

Keywords: Compression, Colormap, Encryption, Steganographyand LSB Insertion.

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4223 Scholar Index for Research Performance Evaluation Using Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper aims to present an objective quantitative methodology on how to evaluate individual’s scholarly research output using multiple criteria decision analysis. A multiple criteria decision making analysis (MCDMA) methodological process is adopted to build a multiple criteria evaluation model. With the introduction of the scholar index, which gives significant information about a researcher's productivity and the scholarly impact of his or her publications in a single number (s is the number of publications with at least s citations); cumulative research citation index; the scholar index is included in the citation databases to cover the multidimensional complexity of scholarly research performance and to undertake objective evaluations with scholar index. The scholar index, one of publication activity indexes, is analyzed by considering it to be the most appropriate sciencemetric indicator which allows to smooth over many drawbacks of scholarly output assessment by mere calculation of the number of publications (quantity) and citations (quality). Hence, this study includes a set of indicators-based scholar index to be used for evaluating scholarly researchers. Google Scholar open science database was used to assess and discuss scholarly productivity and impact of researchers. Based on the experiment of computing the scholar index, and its derivative indexes for a set of researchers on open research database platform, quantitative methods of assessing scholarly research output were successfully considered to rank researchers. The proposed methodology considers the ranking, and the selection of data on which a scholarly research performance evaluation was based, the analysis of the data, and the presentation of the multiple criteria analysis results.

Keywords: Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis, MCDMA, Research Performance Evaluation, Scholar Index, h index, Science Citation Index, Science Efficiency, Cumulative Citation Index, Sciencemetrics

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