Search results for: Power spectral density analysis.
11367 New Approach to Spectral Analysis of High Bit Rate PCM Signals
Authors: J. P. Dubois
Abstract:Pulse code modulation is a widespread technique in digital communication with significant impact on existing modern and proposed future communication technologies. Its widespread utilization is due to its simplicity and attractive spectral characteristics. In this paper, we present a new approach to the spectral analysis of PCM signals using Riemann-Stieltjes integrals, which is very accurate for high bit rates. This approach can serve as a model for similar spectral analysis of other competing modulation schemes.
Keywords: Coding, discrete Fourier, power spectral density, pulse code modulation, Riemann-Stieltjes integrals.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1458
11366 Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Response Based on Power Spectral Density after Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition
Authors: A. Benyahia, M. Zergoug, M. Amir, M. Fodil
The main objective of this work is to enhance the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) response from the aluminum structure using signal processing. Cracks and metal loss in different structures cause changes in PEC response measurements. In this paper, time-frequency analysis is used to represent PEC response, which generates a large quantity of data and reduce the noise due to measurement. Power Spectral Density (PSD) after Wavelet Decomposition (PSD-WD) is proposed for defect detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the cracks in the surface can be extracted satisfactorily by the proposed methods. The validity of the proposed method is discussed.
Keywords: NDT, pulsed eddy current, continuous wavelet transform, Mexican hat wavelet mother, defect detection, power spectral density.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 598
11365 Efficient Spectral Analysis of Quasi Stationary Time Series
Authors: Khalid M. Aamir, Mohammad A. Maud
Power Spectral Density (PSD) of quasi-stationary processes can be efficiently estimated using the short time Fourier series (STFT). In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed that computes the PSD of quasi-stationary process efficiently using offline autoregressive model order estimation algorithm, recursive parameter estimation technique and modified sliding window discrete Fourier Transform algorithm. The main difference in this algorithm and STFT is that the sliding window (SW) and window for spectral estimation (WSA) are separately defined. WSA is updated and its PSD is computed only when change in statistics is detected in the SW. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is found to be lesser than that for standard STFT technique.
Keywords: Power Spectral Density (PSD), quasi-stationarytime series, short time Fourier Transform, Sliding window DFT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1851
11364 Characterization of Microroughness Parameters in Cu and Cu2O Nanoparticles Embedded in Carbon Film
Authors: S.Solaymani, T.Ghodselahi, N.B.Nezafat, H.Zahrabi, A.Gelali
Abstract:The morphological parameter of a thin film surface can be characterized by power spectral density (PSD) functions which provides a better description to the topography than the RMS roughness and imparts several useful information of the surface including fractal and superstructure contributions. Through the present study Nanoparticle copper/carbon composite films were prepared by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD method from acetylene gas and copper target. Surface morphology of thin films is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Carbon content of our films was obtained by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) and it varied from .4% to 78%. The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms. We investigate the effect of carbon on the roughness of thin films surface. Using such information, roughness contributions of the surface have been successfully extracted.
Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, Fast Fourier transform, Power spectral density, RBS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2344
11363 Characterization of 3D-MRP for Analyzing of Brain Balancing Index (BBI) Pattern
Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan
This paper discusses on power spectral density (PSD) characteristics which are extracted from three-dimensional (3D) electroencephalogram (EEG) models. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 150 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, the values of maximum PSD were extracted as features from the model. These features are analyzed using mean relative power (MRP) and different mean relative power (DMRP) technique to observe the pattern among different brain balancing indexes. The results showed that by implementing these techniques, the pattern of brain balancing indexes can be clearly observed. Some patterns are indicates between index 1 to index 5 for left frontal (LF) and right frontal (RF).
Keywords: Power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, mean relative power, different mean relative power.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1758
11362 Recursive Wiener-Khintchine Theorem
Authors: Khalid M. Aamir, Mohammad A. Maud
Power Spectral Density (PSD) computed by taking the Fourier transform of auto-correlation functions (Wiener-Khintchine Theorem) gives better result, in case of noisy data, as compared to the Periodogram approach. However, the computational complexity of Wiener-Khintchine approach is more than that of the Periodogram approach. For the computation of short time Fourier transform (STFT), this problem becomes even more prominent where computation of PSD is required after every shift in the window under analysis. In this paper, recursive version of the Wiener-Khintchine theorem has been derived by using the sliding DFT approach meant for computation of STFT. The computational complexity of the proposed recursive Wiener-Khintchine algorithm, for a window size of N, is O(N).
Keywords: Power Spectral Density (PSD), Wiener-KhintchineTheorem, Periodogram, Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT), TheSliding DFT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2337
11361 Discrete Estimation of Spectral Density for Alpha Stable Signals Observed with an Additive Error
Authors: R. Sabre, W. Horrigue, J. C. Simon
This paper is interested in two difficulties encountered in practice when observing a continuous time process. The first is that we cannot observe a process over a time interval; we only take discrete observations. The second is the process frequently observed with a constant additive error. It is important to give an estimator of the spectral density of such a process taking into account the additive observation error and the choice of the discrete observation times. In this work, we propose an estimator based on the spectral smoothing of the periodogram by the polynomial Jackson kernel reducing the additive error. In order to solve the aliasing phenomenon, this estimator is constructed from observations taken at well-chosen times so as to reduce the estimator to the field where the spectral density is not zero. We show that the proposed estimator is asymptotically unbiased and consistent. Thus we obtain an estimate solving the two difficulties concerning the choice of the instants of observations of a continuous time process and the observations affected by a constant error.
Keywords: Spectral density, stable processes, aliasing, periodogram.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 486
11360 IEEE 802.11 b and g WLAN Propagation Model using Power Density Measurements at ESPOL
Authors: E. E. Mantilla, C. R. Reyes, B. G. Ramos
Abstract:This paper describes the development of a WLAN propagation model, using Spectral Analyzer measurements. The signal is generated by two Access Points (APs) on the base floor at the administrative Communication School of ESPOL building. In general, users do not have a Q&S reference about a wireless network; however, this depends on the level signal as a function of frequency, distance and other path conditions between receiver and transmitter. Then, power density of the signal decrease as it propagates through space and data transfer rate is affected. This document evaluates and implements empirical mathematical formulation for the characterization of WLAN radio wave propagation on two aisles of the building base floor.
Keywords: frequency, Spectral Analyzer, transmitter, WLAN.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1875
11359 Noise Performance of Millimeter-wave Silicon Based Mixed Tunneling Avalanche Transit Time(MITATT) Diode
Authors: Aritra Acharyya, Moumita Mukherjee, J. P. Banerjee
Abstract:A generalized method for small-signal simulation of avalanche noise in Mixed Tunneling Avalanche Transit Time (MITATT) device is presented in this paper where the effect of series resistance is taken into account. The method is applied to a millimeter-wave Double Drift Region (DDR) MITATT device based on Silicon to obtain noise spectral density and noise measure as a function of frequency for different values of series resistance. It is found that noise measure of the device at the operating frequency (122 GHz) with input power density of 1010 Watt/m2 is about 35 dB for hypothetical parasitic series resistance of zero ohm (estimated junction temperature = 500 K). Results show that the noise measure increases as the value of parasitic resistance increases.
Keywords: Noise Analysis, Silicon MITATT, Admittancecharacteristics, Noise spectral density.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1482
11358 Stochastic Subspace Modelling of Turbulence
Authors: M. T. Sichani, B. J. Pedersen, S. R. K. Nielsen
Abstract:Turbulence of the incoming wind field is of paramount importance to the dynamic response of civil engineering structures. Hence reliable stochastic models of the turbulence should be available from which time series can be generated for dynamic response and structural safety analysis. In the paper an empirical cross spectral density function for the along-wind turbulence component over the wind field area is taken as the starting point. The spectrum is spatially discretized in terms of a Hermitian cross-spectral density matrix for the turbulence state vector which turns out not to be positive definite. Since the succeeding state space and ARMA modelling of the turbulence rely on the positive definiteness of the cross-spectral density matrix, the problem with the non-positive definiteness of such matrices is at first addressed and suitable treatments regarding it are proposed. From the adjusted positive definite cross-spectral density matrix a frequency response matrix is constructed which determines the turbulence vector as a linear filtration of Gaussian white noise. Finally, an accurate state space modelling method is proposed which allows selection of an appropriate model order, and estimation of a state space model for the vector turbulence process incorporating its phase spectrum in one stage, and its results are compared with a conventional ARMA modelling method.
Keywords: Turbulence, wind turbine, complex coherence, state space modelling, ARMA modelling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1536
11357 Spectral Analysis of Radiation-Induced Natural Convection in Littoral Waters
Authors: Yadan Mao, Chengwang Lei, John C. Patterson
The mixing of pollutions and sediments in near shore regions of natural water bodies depends heavily on the characteristics such as the strength and frequency of flow instability. In the present paper, the instability of natural convection induced by absorption of solar radiation in littoral regions is considered. Spectral analysis is conducted on the quasi-steady state flow to reveal the power and frequency modes of the instability at various positions. Results indicate that the power of instability, the number of frequency modes, the prominence of higher frequency modes, and the highest frequency mode increase with the offshore distance and/or Rayleigh number. Harmonic modes are present at relatively low Rayleigh numbers. For a given offshore distance, the position with the strongest power of instability is located adjacent to the sloping bottom while the frequency modes are the same over the local depth. As the Rayleigh number increases, the unstable region extends toward the shore.
Keywords: Instability, Littoral waters, natural convection, Spectral analysisProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1251
11356 Aliasing Free and Additive Error in Spectra for Alpha Stable Signals
Authors: R. Sabre
This work focuses on the symmetric alpha stable process with continuous time frequently used in modeling the signal with indefinitely growing variance, often observed with an unknown additive error. The objective of this paper is to estimate this error from discrete observations of the signal. For that, we propose a method based on the smoothing of the observations via Jackson polynomial kernel and taking into account the width of the interval where the spectral density is non-zero. This technique allows avoiding the “Aliasing phenomenon” encountered when the estimation is made from the discrete observations of a process with continuous time. We have studied the convergence rate of the estimator and have shown that the convergence rate improves in the case where the spectral density is zero at the origin. Thus, we set up an estimator of the additive error that can be subtracted for approaching the original signal without error.
Keywords: Spectral density, stable processes, aliasing, p-adic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 436
11355 Improved Power Spectrum Estimation for RR-Interval Time Series
Authors: B. S. Saini, Dilbag Singh, Moin Uddin, Vinod Kumar
Abstract:The RR interval series is non-stationary and unevenly spaced in time. For estimating its power spectral density (PSD) using traditional techniques like FFT, require resampling at uniform intervals. The researchers have used different interpolation techniques as resampling methods. All these resampling methods introduce the low pass filtering effect in the power spectrum. The lomb transform is a means of obtaining PSD estimates directly from irregularly sampled RR interval series, thus avoiding resampling. In this work, the superiority of Lomb transform method has been established over FFT based approach, after applying linear and cubicspline interpolation as resampling methods, in terms of reproduction of exact frequency locations as well as the relative magnitudes of each spectral component.
Keywords: HRV, Lomb Transform, Resampling, RR-intervals.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3081
11354 Assessing the Ways of Improving the Power Saving Modes in the Ore-Grinding Technological Process
Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka
Monitoring the distribution of electric power consumption in the technological process of ore grinding is conducted. As a result, the impacts of the mill filling rate, the productivity of the ore supply, the volumetric density of the grinding balls, the specific density of the ground ore, and the relative speed of the mill rotation on the specific consumption of electric power have been studied. The power and technological factors affecting the reactive power generated by the synchronous motors, operating within the technological scheme are studied. A block diagram for evaluating the power consumption modes of the technological process is presented, which includes the analysis of the technological scheme, the determination of the place and volumetric density of the ore-grinding mill, the evaluation of the technological and power factors affecting the energy saving process, as well as the assessment of the electric power standards.
Keywords: Electric power standard, factor, ore grinding, power consumption, reactive power, technological.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 763
11353 Evaluation of GSM Radiation Power Density in Three Major Cities in Nigeria
Authors: B. O. Ayinmode, I. P. Farai
The levels of maximum power density of GSM signals in the cities of Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja were studied. Measurements were made with a calibrated hand held spectrum analyzer 200m away from 271 base stations, at 1.2m to the ground level. The maximum GSM 900 signal power density was 139.63μW/m2 in Lagos, 162.49μW/m2 in Ibadan and 5411.26μW/m2 in Abuja. Also, the maximum GSM 1800 signal power density was 296.82μW/m2 in Lagos, 116.82μW/m2 in Ibadan and 1263.00μW/m2 in Abuja. The level of power density of GSM 900 and GSM 1800 signals in the cities of Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja are far less than the recommended value of 4.5W/m2 for GSM 900 and 9.0 W/m2 for GSM 1800 by the ICNRP guideline. It can be concluded that exposure to GSM signals in these cities cannot contribute to the health detriments caused by thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation.
Keywords: Radiofrequency, power density, radiation exposure, base stations (BTS).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2393
11352 Energy Management System in Fuel Cell, Ultracapacitor, Battery Hybrid Energy Storage
Authors: Vinod Tejwani, Bhavik Suthar
The paper presents and energy management strategy for a Fuel Cell, Ultracapacitor, Battery hybrid energy storage. The fuel cell hybrid power system is devised basically for emergency power requirements and transient load applications. The power density of an Ultracapacitor is extremely high and for a battery, it is subtle. For a fuel cell, the value of power density is medium. The energy density of these three stockpiling gadgets is contrarily about the power density, i.e. for the batteries it is most noteworthy and for the Ultracapacitor, it is least. Again the fuel cell has medium energy density. The proposed Energy Management System (EMS) is trying to rationalize these parameters viz. the energy density and power density. The working of the fuel cell, Ultracapacitor and batteries are controlled in a coordinated environment in a way to optimize the energy usage and at the same time to get benefits of power and energy density from their inherent characteristics. MATLAB/ Simulink® based test bench is created by using different DC-DC converters for all energy storage devices and an inverter is modeled to supply the time varying load. The results provided by the EMS are highly satisfactory that proves its adaptability.
Keywords: Energy Management System (EMS) Fuel Cell, Ultracapacitor, Battery, Hybrid Energy Storage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1595
11351 Demonstration of a Low-Cost Monocycle Pulse for UWB Radio Transceiver
Authors: Richard Thai-Singama, Jean-Pierre Belin, Frédéric Du Burck, Marc Piette
Abstract:This paper presents a simple and original method for the generation of short monocycle pulses based on the transient response of a passive band-pass filter. The recorded sub-nanosecond pulses show a good symmetry and a small ringing (13 % of the peak amplitude). Their spectral density covers the range 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz. The possibility to adapt the pulse spectral density to the indoor FCC frequency mask is demonstrated with a prototype working at a reduced frequency (FCC/1000). A detection technique is proposed.
Keywords: Impulse, Monocycle, Transient, UWB.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1756
11350 The Ratios between the Spectral Norm, the Numerical Radius and the Spectral Radius
Authors: Kui Du
Recently, Uhlig [Numer. Algorithms, 52(3):335-353, 2009] proposed open questions about the ratios between the spectral norm, the numerical radius and the spectral radius of a square matrix. In this note, we provide some observations to answer these questions.
Keywords: Spectral norm, Numerical radius, Spectral radius, RatiosProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1667
11349 An Intelligent Combined Method Based on Power Spectral Density, Decision Trees and Fuzzy Logic for Hydraulic Pumps Fault Diagnosis
Authors: Kaveh Mollazade, Hojat Ahmadi, Mahmoud Omid, Reza Alimardani
Abstract:Recently, the issue of machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis as a part of maintenance system became global due to the potential advantages to be gained from reduced maintenance costs, improved productivity and increased machine availability. The aim of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of a new fault diagnosis method based on power spectral density (PSD) of vibration signals in combination with decision trees and fuzzy inference system (FIS). To this end, a series of studies was conducted on an external gear hydraulic pump. After a test under normal condition, a number of different machine defect conditions were introduced for three working levels of pump speed (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm), corresponding to (i) Journal-bearing with inner face wear (BIFW), (ii) Gear with tooth face wear (GTFW), and (iii) Journal-bearing with inner face wear plus Gear with tooth face wear (B&GW). The features of PSD values of vibration signal were extracted using descriptive statistical parameters. J48 algorithm is used as a feature selection procedure to select pertinent features from data set. The output of J48 algorithm was employed to produce the crisp if-then rule and membership function sets. The structure of FIS classifier was then defined based on the crisp sets. In order to evaluate the proposed PSD-J48-FIS model, the data sets obtained from vibration signals of the pump were used. Results showed that the total classification accuracy for 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm conditions were 96.42%, 100%, and 96.42% respectively. The results indicate that the combined PSD-J48-FIS model has the potential for fault diagnosis of hydraulic pumps.
Keywords: Power Spectral Density, Machine ConditionMonitoring, Hydraulic Pump, Fuzzy Logic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2543
11348 Enhancement of m-FISH Images using Spectral Unmixing
Authors: Martin De Biasio, Raimund Leitner, Franz G. Wuertz, Sergey Verzakov, Pierre J. Elbischger
Abstract:Breast carcinoma is the most common form of cancer in women. Multicolour fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (m-FISH) is a common method for staging breast carcinoma. The interpretation of m-FISH images is complicated due to two effects: (i) Spectral overlap in the emission spectra of fluorochrome marked DNA probes and (ii) tissue autofluorescence. In this paper hyper-spectral images of m-FISH samples are used and spectral unmixing is applied to produce false colour images with higher contrast and better information content than standard RGB images. The spectral unmixing is realised by combinations of: Orthogonal Projection Analysis (OPA), Alterating Least Squares (ALS), Simple-to-use Interactive Self-Modeling Mixture Analysis (SIMPLISMA) and VARIMAX. These are applied on the data to reduce tissue autofluorescence and resolve the spectral overlap in the emission spectra. The results show that spectral unmixing methods reduce the intensity caused by tissue autofluorescence by up to 78% and enhance image contrast by algorithmically reducing the overlap of the emission spectra.
Keywords: breast carcinoma, hyperspectral imaging, m-FISH, spectral unmixingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1629
11347 The Spectral Power Amplification on the Regular Lattices
Authors: Kotbi Lakhdar, Hachi Mostefa
We show that a simple transformation between the regular lattices (the square, the triangular, and the honeycomb) belonging to the same dimensionality can explain in a natural way the universality of the critical exponents found in phase transitions and critical phenomena. It suffices that the Hamiltonian and the lattice present similar writing forms. In addition, it appears that if a property can be calculated for a given lattice then it can be extrapolated simply to any other lattice belonging to the same dimensionality. In this study, we have restricted ourselves on the spectral power amplification (SPA), we note that the SPA does not have an effect on the critical exponents but does have an effect by the criticality temperature of the lattice; the generalisation to other lattice could be shown according to the containment principle.
Keywords: Ising model, phase transitions, critical temperature, critical exponent, spectral power amplification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 713
11346 Comparison of Detrending Methods in Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
Authors: Liping Li, Changchun Liu, Ke Li, Chengyu Liu
Abstract:Non-stationary trend in R-R interval series is considered as a main factor that could highly influence the evaluation of spectral analysis. It is suggested to remove trends in order to obtain reliable results. In this study, three detrending methods, the smoothness prior approach, the wavelet and the empirical mode decomposition, were compared on artificial R-R interval series with four types of simulated trends. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram was used for spectral analysis of R-R interval series. Results indicated that the wavelet method showed a better overall performance than the other two methods, and more time-saving, too. Therefore it was selected for spectral analysis of real R-R interval series of thirty-seven healthy subjects. Significant decreases (19.94±5.87% in the low frequency band and 18.97±5.78% in the ratio (p<0.001)) were found. Thus the wavelet method is recommended as an optimal choice for use.
Keywords: empirical mode decomposition, heart rate variability, signal detrending, smoothness priors, waveletProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1901
11345 Outdoor Anomaly Detection with a Spectroscopic Line Detector
Authors: O. J. G. Somsen
Abstract:One of the tasks of optical surveillance is to detect anomalies in large amounts of image data. However, if the size of the anomaly is very small, limited information is available to distinguish it from the surrounding environment. Spectral detection provides a useful source of additional information and may help to detect anomalies with a size of a few pixels or less. Unfortunately, spectral cameras are expensive because of the difficulty of separating two spatial in addition to one spectral dimension. We investigate the possibility of modifying a simple spectral line detector for outdoor detection. This may be especially useful if the area of interest forms a line, such as the horizon. We use a monochrome CCD that also enables detection into the near infrared. A simple camera is attached to the setup to determine which part of the environment is spectrally imaged. Our preliminary results indicate that sensitive detection of very small targets is indeed possible. Spectra could be taken from the various targets by averaging columns in the line image. By imaging a set of lines of various widths we found narrow lines that could not be seen in the color image but remained visible in the spectral line image. A simultaneous analysis of the entire spectra can produce better results than visual inspection of the line spectral image. We are presently developing calibration targets for spatial and spectral focusing and alignment with the spatial camera. This will present improved results and more use in outdoor application.
Keywords: Anomaly detection, spectroscopic line imaging, image analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1498
11344 Spectral Coherence Analysis between Grinding Interaction Forces and the Relative Motion of the Workpiece and the Cutting Tool
Authors: Abdulhamit Donder, Erhan Ilhan Konukseven
Grinding operation is performed in order to obtain desired surfaces precisely in machining process. The needed relative motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece is generally created either by the movement of the cutting tool or by the movement of the workpiece or by the movement of both of them as in our case. For all these cases, the coherence level between the movements and the interaction forces is a key influential parameter for efficient grinding. Therefore, in this work, spectral coherence analysis has been performed to investigate the coherence level between grinding interaction forces and the movement of the workpiece on our robotic-grinding experimental setup in METU Mechatronics Laboratory.
Keywords: Coherence analysis, correlation, FFT, grinding, Hanning window, machining, Piezo actuator, reverse arrangements test, spectral analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 929
11343 Performance Analysis of MIMO-OFDM Using Convolution Codes with QAM Modulation
Authors: I Gede Puja Astawa, Yoedy Moegiharto, Ahmad Zainudin, Imam Dui Agus Salim, Nur Annisa Anggraeni
Performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system can be improved by adding channel coding (error correction code) to detect and correct errors that occur during data transmission. One can use the convolution code. This paper present performance of OFDM using Space Time Block Codes (STBC) diversity technique use QAM modulation with code rate ½. The evaluation is done by analyzing the value of Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Energy per Bit to Noise Power Spectral Density Ratio (Eb/No). This scheme is conducted 256 subcarrier transmits Rayleigh multipath channel in OFDM system. To achieve a BER of 10-3 is required 10dB SNR in SISO-OFDM scheme. For 2x2 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 10 dB to achieve a BER of 10-3. For 4x4 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 5 dB while adding convolution in a 4x4 MIMO-OFDM can improve performance up to 0 dB to achieve the same BER. This proves the existence of saving power by 3 dB of 4x4 MIMO-OFDM system without coding, power saving 7dB of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM and significant power savings from SISO-OFDM system
Keywords: Convolution code, OFDM, MIMO, QAM, BER.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3266
11342 Estimation of Wind Characteristics and Energy Yield at Different Towns in Libya
Authors: Farag Ahwide, Souhel Bousheha
A technical assessment has been made of electricity generation, considering wind turbines ranging between Vestas (V80-2.0 MW and V112-3.0 MW) and the air density is equal to 1.225 Kg/m3, at different towns in Libya. Wind speed might have been measured each 3 hours during 10 m stature at a time for 10 quite sometime between 2000 Furthermore 2009, these towns which are spotted on the bank from claiming Mediterranean ocean also how in the desert, which need aid Derna 1, Derna 2, Shahat, Benghazi, Ajdabya, Sirte, Misurata, Tripoli-Airport, Al-Zawya, Al-Kofra, Sabha, Nalut. The work presented long term "wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal, monthly and diurnal variations at these sites. Wind power density with different heights has been studied. Excel sheet program was used to calculate the values of wind power density and the values of wind speed frequency for the stations; their seasonally values have been estimated. Limit variable with rated wind pace to 10 different wind turbines need to be been estimated, which is used to focus those required yearly vitality yield of a wind vitality change framework (WECS), acknowledging wind turbines extending between 600 kW and 3000 kW).
Keywords: Energy yield, wind turbines, wind speed, wind power density.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 878
11341 Development for the Evaluation Index of an Anesthesia Depth using the Bispectrum Analysis
Authors: Soo-young Ye, Jun-mo Park, Jae-hyung Kim, Jae-hee Jung, Ah-young Jeon, In-cheol Kim, Jung-man Son, Ki-gon Nam, Seong-wan Baik, Jung-hoon Ro, Gye-rok Jeon
Abstract:The linear SEF (Spectral Edge Frequency) parameter and spectrum analysis method can not reflect the non-linear of EEG. This method can not contribute to acquire real time analysis and obtain a high confidence in the clinic due to low discrimination. To solve the problems, the development of a new index is carried out using the bispectrum analyzing the EEG(electroencephalogram) including the non-linear characteristic. After analyzing the bispectrum of the 2 dimension, the most significant power spectrum density peaks appeared abundantly at the specific area in awakening and anesthesia state. These points are utilized to create the new index since many peaks appeared at the specific area in the frequency coordinate. The measured range of an index was 0-100. An index is 20-50 at an anesthesia, while the index is 90-60 at the awake. New index could afford to effectively discriminate the awake and anesthesia state.
Keywords: Bispectrum, anesthesia depth, EEG, SEF.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1444
11340 Adaptive Filtering of Heart Rate Signals for an Improved Measure of Cardiac Autonomic Control
Authors: Desmond B. Keenan, Paul Grossman
Abstract:In order to provide accurate heart rate variability indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, the low frequency and high frequency components of an RR heart rate signal must be adequately separated. This is not always possible by just applying spectral analysis, as power from the high and low frequency components often leak into their adjacent bands. Furthermore, without the respiratory spectra it is not obvious that the low frequency component is not another respiratory component, which can appear in the lower band. This paper describes an adaptive filter, which aids the separation of the low frequency sympathetic and high frequency parasympathetic components from an ECG R-R interval signal, enabling the attainment of more accurate heart rate variability measures. The algorithm is applied to simulated signals and heart rate and respiratory signals acquired from an ambulatory monitor incorporating single lead ECG and inductive plethysmography sensors embedded in a garment. The results show an improvement over standard heart rate variability spectral measurements.
Keywords: Heart rate variability, vagal tone, sympathetic, parasympathetic, spectral analysis, adaptive filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1592
11339 Effect of Physical Contact (Hand-Holding) on Heart Rate Variability
Authors: T. Pishbin, S.M.P. Firoozabadi, N. Jafarnia Dabanloo, F. Mohammadi, S. Koozehgari
Abstract:Heart-s electric field can be measured anywhere on the surface of the body (ECG). When individuals touch, one person-s ECG signal can be registered in other person-s EEG and elsewhere on his body. Now, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that physical contact (hand-holding) of two persons changes their heart rate variability. Subjects were sixteen healthy female (age: 20- 26) which divided into eight sets. In each sets, we had two friends that they passed intimacy test of J.sternberg. ECG of two subjects (each set) acquired for 5 minutes before hand-holding (as control group) and 5 minutes during they held their hands (as experimental group). Then heart rate variability signals were extracted from subjects' ECG and analyzed in linear feature space (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear feature space. Considering the results, we conclude that physical contact (hand-holding of two friends) increases parasympathetic activity, as indicate by increase SD1, SD1/SD2, HF and MF power (p<0.05) and decreases sympathetic activity, as indicate by decrease LF power (p<0.01) and LF/HF ratio (p<0.05).
Keywords: Autonomic nervous system (ANS), Hand- holding, Heart rate variability (HRV), Power spectral density analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2935
11338 Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Dynamics in Motion of Pathogenic Spirochetes: Implications toward Virulence and Treatment of Leptospirosis
Authors: R. Amornmaneekul, S. Chadsuthi, D. Triampo, W. Triampo
We apply a particle tracking technique to track the motion of individual pathogenic Leptospira. We observe and capture images of motile Leptospira by means of CCD and darkfield microscope. Image processing, statistical theories and simulations are used for data analysis. Based on trajectory patterns, mean square displacement, and power spectral density characteristics, we found that the motion modes are most likely to be directed motion mode (70%) and the rest are either normal diffusion or unidentified mode. Our findings may support the fact that why leptospires are very well efficient toward targeting internal tissues as a result of increase in virulence factor.
Keywords: Leptospirosis, spirochetes, patterns, motion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1408