Search results for: Plated Pneumatic Artificial Muscle
1026 Neural Network Control of a Biped Robot Model with Composite Adaptation Low
Authors: Ahmad Forouzantabar
Abstract:this paper presents a novel neural network controller with composite adaptation low to improve the trajectory tracking problems of biped robots comparing with classical controller. The biped model has 5_link and 6 degrees of freedom and actuated by Plated Pneumatic Artificial Muscle, which have a very high power to weight ratio and it has large stoke compared to similar actuators. The proposed controller employ a stable neural network in to approximate unknown nonlinear functions in the robot dynamics, thereby overcoming some limitation of conventional controllers such as PD or adaptive controllers and guarantee good performance. This NN controller significantly improve the accuracy requirements by retraining the basic PD/PID loop, but adding an inner adaptive loop that allows the controller to learn unknown parameters such as friction coefficient, therefore improving tracking accuracy. Simulation results plus graphical simulation in virtual reality show that NN controller tracking performance is considerably better than PD controller tracking performance.
Keywords: Biped robot, Neural network, Plated Pneumatic Artificial Muscle, Composite adaptationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1750
1025 Predictive Functional Control with Disturbance Observer for Tendon-Driven Balloon Actuator
Authors: Jun-ya Nagase, Toshiyuki Satoh, Norihiko Saga, Koichi Suzumori
In recent years, Japanese society has been aging, engendering a labor shortage of young workers. Robots are therefore expected to perform tasks such as rehabilitation, nursing elderly people, and day-to-day work support for elderly people. The pneumatic balloon actuator is a rubber artificial muscle developed for use in a robot hand in such environments. This actuator has a long stroke and a high power-to-weight ratio compared with the present pneumatic artificial muscle. Moreover, the dynamic characteristics of this actuator resemble those of human muscle. This study evaluated characteristics of force control of balloon actuator using a predictive functional control (PFC) system with disturbance observer. The predictive functional control is a model-based predictive control (MPC) scheme that predicts the future outputs of the actual plants over the prediction horizon and computes the control effort over the control horizon at every sampling instance. For this study, a 1-link finger system using a pneumatic balloon actuator is developed. Then experiments of PFC control with disturbance observer are performed. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of its control of a pneumatic balloon actuator for a robot hand.
Keywords: Disturbance observer, Pneumatic balloon, Predictive functional control, Rubber artificial muscle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2069
1024 Design and Evaluation of a Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Gripper
Authors: Tudor Deaconescu, Andrea Deaconescu
Deployment of pneumatic muscles in various industrial applications is still in its early days, considering the relative newness of these components. The field of robotics holds particular future potential for pneumatic muscles, especially in view of their specific behaviour known as compliance. The paper presents and discusses an innovative constructive solution for a gripper system mountable on an industrial robot, based on actuation by a linear pneumatic muscle and transmission of motion by gear and rack mechanism. The structural, operational and constructive models of the new gripper are presented, along with some of the experimental results obtained subsequently to the testing of a prototype. Further presented are two control variants of the gripper system, one by means of a 3/2-way fast-switching solenoid valve, the other by means of a proportional pressure regulator. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for both variants.
Keywords: Gripper system, pneumatic muscle, structural modeling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2388
1023 Study Concerning the Energy-to-Mass Ratio in Pneumatic Muscles
Authors: Tudor Deaconescu, Andrea Deaconescu
The utilization of pneumatic muscles in the actuation of industrial systems is still in its early stages, hence studies on the constructive solutions which include an assessment of their functional performance with a focus on one of the most important characteristics-energy efficiency are required. A quality indicator that adequately reflects the energy efficiency of an actuator is the energy-to-mass ratio. This ratio is computed in the paper for various types and sizes of pneumatic muscles manufactured by Festo, and is subsequently compared to the similar ratios determined for two categories of pneumatic cylinders.
Keywords: Pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic muscles, energy-to-mass ratio, muscle stroke.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1034
1022 Modular Hybrid Robots for Safe Human-Robot Interaction
Authors: J. Radojicic, D. Surdilovic, G. Schreck
The paper considers a novel modular and intrinsically safe redundant robotic system with biologically inspired actuators (pneumatic artificial muscles and rubber bellows actuators). Similarly to the biological systems, the stiffness of the internal parallel modules, representing 2 DOF joints in the serial robotic chains, is controlled by co-activation of opposing redundant actuator groups in the null-space of the module Jacobian, without influencing the actual robot position. The decoupled position/stiffness control allows the realization of variable joint stiffness according to different force-displacement relationships. The variable joint stiffness, as well as limited pneumatic muscle/bellows force ability, ensures internal system safety that is crucial for development of human-friendly robots intended for human-robot collaboration. The initial experiments with the system prototype demonstrate the capabilities of independently, simultaneously controlling both joint (Cartesian) motion and joint stiffness. The paper also presents the possible industrial applications of snake-like robots built using the new modules.
Keywords: bellows actuator, human-robot interaction, hyper redundant robot, pneumatic muscle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1744
1021 Development of a Novel Pneumatic Hybrid Engine
Authors: Yu-Ta Shen, Yean-Ren Hwang
Abstract:Although electrical motors are still the main devices used in vehicular exhaust comprises more than 95 percent of the air pollution in Taiwan's largest city, Taipei. On average, all commuters in Taipei travel 13.6 km daily, while motorcycle commuters travel 12.2 km. The convenience and mobility of motorcycles makes them irreplaceable in Taiwan city traffic but they add significantly to air pollution problems. In order to improve air pollution conditions, some new types of vehicles have been proposed, such as fuel cell driven and hybrid energy vehicles. In this study, we develop a model pneumatic hybrid motorcycle system and simulate its acceleration and mileage (km/L) performance. The results show that the pneumatic hybrid motorcycle can improve efficiency.
Keywords: vehicular, exhaust, air pollution, pneumatic, hybrid, motorcycleProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1930
1020 The Analysis of Two-Phase Jet in Pneumatic Powder Injection into Liquid Alloys
Authors: J. Jezierski, K. Janerka
Abstract:The results of the two-phase gas-solid jet in pneumatic powder injection process analysis were presented in the paper. The researches were conducted on model set-up with high speed camera jet movement recording. Then the recorded material was analyzed to estimate main particles movement parameters. The values obtained from this direct measurement were compared to those calculated with the use of the well-known formulas for the two-phase flows (pneumatic conveying). Moreover, they were compared to experimental results previously achieved by authors. The analysis led to conclusions which to some extent changed the assumptions used even by authors, regarding the two-phase jet in pneumatic powder injection process. Additionally, the visual analysis of the recorded clips supplied data to make a more complete evaluation of the jet behavior in the lance outlet than before.
Keywords: injection lance, liquid metal, powder injection, slip velocity, two-phase jetProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1479
1019 Porous Particles Drying in a Vertical Upward Pneumatic Conveying Dryer
Authors: Samy M. El-Behery, W. A. El-Askary, K. A. Ibrahim, Mofreh H. Hamed
A steady two-phase flow model has been developed to simulate the drying process of porous particle in a pneumatic conveying dryer. The model takes into account the momentum, heat and mass transfer between the continuous phase and the dispersed phase. A single particle model was employed to calculate the evaporation rate. In this model the pore structure is simplified to allow the dominant evaporation mechanism to be readily identified at all points within the duct. The predominant mechanism at any time depends upon the pressure, temperature and the diameter of pore from which evaporating is occurring. The model was validated against experimental studies of pneumatic transport at low and high speeds as well as pneumatic drying. The effects of operating conditions on the dryer parameters are studied numerically. The present results show that the drying rate is enhanced as the inlet gas temperature and the gas flow rate increase and as the solid mass flow rate deceases. The present results also demonstrate the necessity of measuring the inlet gas velocity or the solid concentration in any experimental analysis.
Keywords: Two-phase, gas-solid, pneumatic drying, pneumatic conveying, heat and mass transferProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3147
1018 A New Muscle Architecture Model with Non-Uniform Distribution of Muscle Fiber Types
Authors: Javier Navallas, Armando Malanda, Luis Gila, Javier Rodriguez, Ignacio Rodriguez
According to previous studies, some muscles present a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of its muscle fiber types and motor unit types. However, available muscle models only deal with muscles with homogeneous distributions. In this paper, a new architecture muscle model is proposed to permit the construction of non-uniform distributions of muscle fibers within the muscle cross section. The idea behind is the use of a motor unit placement algorithm that controls the spatial overlapping of the motor unit territories of each motor unit type. Results show the capabilities of the new algorithm to reproduce arbitrary muscle fiber type distributions.
Keywords: muscle model, muscle architecture, motor unit, EMG simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1444
1017 Myotonometry Method for Assessment Muscle Performance
Authors: Rusu Ligia, Cosma Germina, Lica Eliana, Marin Mihnea, Cernăianu Sorina, Copilusi Petre Cristian, Rusu Petre Florinel
Abstract:The aim of this paper is to present the role of myotonometry in assessment muscle viscoelasticity by measurement of force index (IF) and stiffness (S) at thigh muscle groups. The results are used for improve the muscle training. The method is based on mechanic impulse on the muscle group, that involve a muscle response like acceleration, speed and amplitude curves. From these we have information about elasticity, stiffness beginning from mechanic oscillations of muscle tissue. Using this method offer the possibility for monitoring the muscle capacity for produce mechanic energy, that allows a efficiency of movement with a minimal tissue deformation.
Keywords: assessment, infraspinatus syndrome, kinetic therapy, rehabilitationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2022
1016 Gaits Stability Analysis for a Pneumatic Quadruped Robot Using Reinforcement Learning
Authors: Soofiyan Atar, Adil Shaikh, Sahil Rajpurkar, Pragnesh Bhalala, Aniket Desai, Irfan Siddavatam
Deep reinforcement learning (deep RL) algorithms leverage the symbolic power of complex controllers by automating it by mapping sensory inputs to low-level actions. Deep RL eliminates the complex robot dynamics with minimal engineering. Deep RL provides high-risk involvement by directly implementing it in real-world scenarios and also high sensitivity towards hyperparameters. Tuning of hyperparameters on a pneumatic quadruped robot becomes very expensive through trial-and-error learning. This paper presents an automated learning control for a pneumatic quadruped robot using sample efficient deep Q learning, enabling minimal tuning and very few trials to learn the neural network. Long training hours may degrade the pneumatic cylinder due to jerk actions originated through stochastic weights. We applied this method to the pneumatic quadruped robot, which resulted in a hopping gait. In our process, we eliminated the use of a simulator and acquired a stable gait. This approach evolves so that the resultant gait matures more sturdy towards any stochastic changes in the environment. We further show that our algorithm performed very well as compared to programmed gait using robot dynamics.
Keywords: model-based reinforcement learning, gait stability, supervised learning, pneumatic quadrupedProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 375
1015 Complex Method for Localized Muscle Fatigue Evaluation
Authors: Vasilescu M., Rusu L., Nestianu V., Romanescu F., Dragomir M
Abstract:The research was designed to examine the relationship between the development of muscle fatigue and the effect it has on sport performance, specifically during maximal voluntary contraction. This kind of this investigation using simultaneous electrophysiological and mechanical recordings, based on advanced mathematical processing, allows us to get parameters, and indexes in a short time, and finally, the mapping to use for the thorough investigation of the muscle contraction force, respectively the phenomenon of local muscle fatigue, both for athletes and other subjects.
Keywords: Electromyography, mechanomyography, musclefatigueProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1375
1014 Corrosion Evaluation of Zinc Coating Prepared by Two Types of Electric Currents
Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Karimi Abadeh
In this research, zinc coatings were fabricated by electroplating process in a sulfate solution under direct and pulse current conditions. In direct and pulse current conditions, effect of maximum current was investigated on the coating properties. Also a comparison was made between the obtained coatings under direct and pulse current. Morphology of the coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test. In pulse current conditions, the effect of pulse frequency and duty cycle was also studied. The effect of these conditions and parameters were also investigated on morphology and corrosion behavior. All of DC plated coatings are showing a distinct passivation area in -1 to -0.4 V range. Pulsed current coatings possessed a higher corrosion resistance. The results showed that current density is the most important factor regarding the fabrication process. Furthermore, a rise in duty cycle deteriorated corrosion resistance of coatings. Pulsed plated coatings performed almost 10 times better than DC plated coatings.
Keywords: Corrosion, duty cycle, pulsed current, zinc.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 536
1013 Design, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of Mobile Engine-Driven Pneumatic Paddy Collector
Authors: Sony P. Aquino, Helen F. Gavino, Victorino T. Taylan, Teresito G. Aguinaldo
A simple mobile engine-driven pneumatic paddy collector made of locally available materials using local manufacturing technology was designed, fabricated, and tested for collecting and bagging of paddy dried on concrete pavement. The pneumatic paddy collector had the following major components: radial flat bladed type centrifugal fan, power transmission system, bagging area, frame and the conveyance system. Results showed significant differences on the collecting capacity, noise level, and fuel consumption when rotational speed of the air mover shaft was varied. Other parameters such as collecting efficiency, air velocity, augmented cracked grain percentage, and germination rate were not significantly affected by varying rotational speed of the air mover shaft. The pneumatic paddy collector had a collecting efficiency of 99.33 % with a collecting capacity of 2685.00 kg/h at maximum rotational speed of centrifugal fan shaft of about 4200 rpm. The machine entailed an investment cost of P 62,829.25. The break-even weight of paddy was 510,606.75 kg/yr at a collecting cost of 0.11 P/kg of paddy. Utilizing the machine for 400 hours per year generated an income of P 23,887.73. The projected time needed to recover cost of the machine based on 2685 kg/h collecting capacity was 2.63 year.
Keywords: Mobile engine-driven pneumatic paddy collector, collecting capacity and efficiency, simple cost analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5286
1012 Optimal Rest Interval between Sets in Robot-Based Upper-Arm Rehabilitation
Authors: Virgil Miranda, Gissele Mosqueda, Pablo Delgado, Yimesker Yihun
Muscular fatigue affects the muscle activation that is needed for producing the desired clinical outcome. Integrating optimal muscle relaxation periods into a variety of health care rehabilitation protocols is important to maximize the efficiency of the therapy. In this study, four muscle relaxation periods (30, 60, 90 and 120 seconds) and their effectiveness in producing consistent muscle activation of the muscle biceps brachii between sets of an elbow flexion and extension task were investigated among a sample of 10 subjects with no disabilities. The same resting periods were then utilized in a controlled exoskeleton-based exercise for a sample size of 5 subjects and have shown similar results. On average, the muscle activity of the biceps brachii decreased by 0.3% when rested for 30 seconds, and it increased by 1.25%, 0.76% and 0.82% when using muscle relaxation periods of 60, 90 and 120 seconds, respectively. The preliminary results suggest that a muscle relaxation period of about 60 seconds is needed for optimal continuous muscle activation within rehabilitation regimens. Robot-based rehabilitation is good to produce repetitive tasks with the right intensity and knowing the optimal resting period will make the automation more effective.
Keywords: Rest intervals, muscle biceps brachii, robot rehabilitation, muscle fatigue.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 108
1011 Prediction of Oxygen Transfer and Gas Hold-Up in Pneumatic Bioreactors Containing Viscous Newtonian Fluids
Authors: Caroline E. Mendes, Alberto C. Badino
Pneumatic reactors have been widely employed in various sectors of the chemical industry, especially where are required high heat and mass transfer rates. This study aimed to obtain correlations that allow the prediction of gas hold-up (Ԑ) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa), and compare these values, for three models of pneumatic reactors on two scales utilizing Newtonian fluids. Values of kLa were obtained using the dynamic pressure-step method, while e was used for a new proposed measure. Comparing the three models of reactors studied, it was observed that the mass transfer was superior to draft-tube airlift, reaching e of 0.173 and kLa of 0.00904s-1. All correlations showed good fit to the experimental data (R2≥94%), and comparisons with correlations from the literature demonstrate the need for further similar studies due to shortage of data available, mainly for airlift reactors and high viscosity fluids.
Keywords: Bubble column, internal loop airlift, gas hold-up, kLa.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1413
1010 Identification of Individual Objects at the Intelligent Assembly Cell
Authors: Ružarovský, Roman, Danišová, Nina, Velíšek, Karol
Abstract:In this contribution is presented a complex design of individual objects identification in the workplace of intelligent assembly cell. Intelligent assembly cell is situated at Institute of Manufacturing Systems and Applied Mechanics and is used for pneumatic actuator assembly. Pneumatic actuator components are pneumatic roller, cover, piston and spring. Two identification objects alternatives for assembly are designed in the workplace of industrial robot. In the contribution is evaluated and selected suitable alternative for identification – 2D codes reader. The complex design of individual object identification is going out of intelligent manufacturing systems knowledge. Intelligent assembly and manufacturing systems as systems of new generation are gradually loaded in to the mechanical production, when they are removeing human operation out of production process and they also short production times.
Keywords: system, cell, intelligent, mechanics, deviceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1319
1009 Control of an Asymmetrical Design of a Pneumatically Actuated Ambidextrous Robot Hand
Authors: Emre Akyürek, Anthony Huynh, Tatiana Kalganova
The Ambidextrous Robot Hand is a robotic device with the purpose to mimic either the gestures of a right or a left hand. The symmetrical behavior of its fingers allows them to bend in one way or another keeping a compliant and anthropomorphic shape. However, in addition to gestures they can reproduce on both sides, an asymmetrical mechanical design with a three tendons routing has been engineered to reduce the number of actuators. As a consequence, control algorithms must be adapted to drive efficiently the ambidextrous fingers from one position to another and to include grasping features. These movements are controlled by pneumatic muscles, which are nonlinear actuators. As their elasticity constantly varies when they are under actuation, the length of pneumatic muscles and the force they provide may differ for a same value of pressurized air. The control algorithms introduced in this paper take both the fingers asymmetrical design and the pneumatic muscles nonlinearity into account to permit an accurate control of the Ambidextrous Robot Hand. The finger motion is achieved by combining a classic PID controller with a phase plane switching control that turns the gain constants into dynamic values. The grasping ability is made possible because of a sliding mode control that makes the fingers adapt to the shape of an object before strengthening their positions.
Keywords: Ambidextrous hand, intelligent algorithms, nonlinear actuators, pneumatic muscles, robotics, sliding control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2117
1008 The Effects of Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) towards Male Skeletal Muscle Mass
Authors: Mohd Faridz Ahmad, Amirul Hakim Hasbullah
Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has been introduced and globally gained increasing attention on its usefulness. Continuous application of EMS may lead to the increment of muscle mass and indirectly will increase the strength. This study can be used as an alternative to help people especially those living a sedentary lifestyle to improve their muscle activity without having to go through a heavy workout session. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the effectiveness of EMS training program in 5 weeks interventions towards male body composition. It was a quasiexperimental design, held at the Impulse Studio Bangsar, which examined the effects of EMS training towards skeletal muscle mass among the subjects. Fifteen subjects (n = 15) were selected to assist in this study. The demographic data showed that, the average age of the subjects was 43.07 years old ± 9.90, height (173.4 cm ± 9.09) and weight was (85.79 kg ± 18.07). Results showed that there was a significant difference on the skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.01 < 0.05), upper body (p = 0.01 < 0.05) and lower body (p = 0.00 < 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis has been rejected in this study. As a conclusion, the application of EMS towards body composition can increase the muscle size and strength. This method has been proven to be able to improve athlete strength and thus, may be implemented in the sports science area of knowledge.
Keywords: Body composition, EMS, skeletal muscle mass, strength.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5939
1007 Accurate Control of a Pneumatic System using an Innovative Fuzzy Gain-Scheduling Pattern
Authors: M. G. Papoutsidakis, G. Chamilothoris, F. Dailami, N. Larsen, A Pipe
Abstract:Due to their high power-to-weight ratio and low cost, pneumatic actuators are attractive for robotics and automation applications; however, achieving fast and accurate control of their position have been known as a complex control problem. A methodology for obtaining high position accuracy with a linear pneumatic actuator is presented. During experimentation with a number of PID classical control approaches over many operations of the pneumatic system, the need for frequent manual re-tuning of the controller could not be eliminated. The reason for this problem is thermal and energy losses inside the cylinder body due to the complex friction forces developed by the piston displacements. Although PD controllers performed very well over short periods, it was necessary in our research project to introduce some form of automatic gain-scheduling to achieve good long-term performance. We chose a fuzzy logic system to do this, which proved to be an easily designed and robust approach. Since the PD approach showed very good behaviour in terms of position accuracy and settling time, it was incorporated into a modified form of the 1st order Tagaki- Sugeno fuzzy method to build an overall controller. This fuzzy gainscheduler uses an input variable which automatically changes the PD gain values of the controller according to the frequency of repeated system operations. Performance of the new controller was significantly improved and the need for manual re-tuning was eliminated without a decrease in performance. The performance of the controller operating with the above method is going to be tested through a high-speed web network (GRID) for research purposes.
Keywords: Fuzzy logic, gain scheduling, leaky integrator, pneumatic actuator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1649
1006 PSO Based Weight Selection and Fixed Structure Robust Loop Shaping Control for Pneumatic Servo System with 2DOF Controller
Authors: Randeep Kaur, Jyoti Ohri
This paper proposes a new technique to design a fixed-structure robust loop shaping controller for the pneumatic servosystem. In this paper, a new method based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for tuning the weighting function parameters to design an H∞ controller is presented. The PSO algorithm is used to minimize the infinity norm of the transfer function of the nominal closed loop system to obtain the optimal parameters of the weighting functions. The optimal stability margin is used as an objective in PSO for selecting the optimal weighting parameters; it is shown that the proposed method can simplify the design procedure of H∞ control to obtain optimal robust controller for pneumatic servosystem. In addition, the order of the proposed controller is much lower than that of the conventional robust loop shaping controller, making it easy to implement in practical works. Also two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control design procedure is proposed to improve tracking performance in the face of noise and disturbance. Result of simulations demonstrates the advantages of the proposed controller in terms of simple structure and robustness against plant perturbations and disturbances.
Keywords: Robust control, Pneumatic Servosystem, PSO, H∞ control, 2DOF.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2266
1005 Dynamic Performances of Tubular Linear Induction Motor for Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System
Authors: Wisuwat Plodpradista
Tubular linear induction motor (TLIM) can be used as a capsule pump in a large pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system. Parametric performance evaluation of the designed 1-meter diameter PCP-TLIM system yields encouraging results for practical implementation. The capsule thrust and speed inside the TLIM pump can be calculated from the combination of the PCP fluid mechanics and the TLIM equations. The TLIM equivalent circuits derived from those of the conventional three-phase induction motor are used as a model to predict the static test results of a small-scale PCP-TLIM system. In this paper, additional dynamic tests are performed on the same small-scale PCP-TLIM system with two capsules of different diameters. The behaviors of the capsule inside the pump are observed and analyzed. The dynamic performances from the dynamic tests are compared with the theoretical predictions based on the TLIM equivalent circuit model.
Keywords: Pneumatic capsule pipeline, Tubular linear induction motorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1928
1004 Learning Example of a Biomedical Project from a Real Problem of Muscle Fatigue
Authors: M. Rezki, A. Belaidi
This paper deals with a method of learning to solve a real problem in biomedical engineering from a technical study of muscle fatigue. Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles (viewpoint: anatomical and physiological). EMG is used as a diagnostics tool for identifying neuromuscular diseases, assessing low-back pain and muscle fatigue in general. In order to study the EMG signal for detecting fatigue in a muscle, we have taken a real problem which touches the tramway conductor the handle bar. For the study, we have used a typical autonomous platform in order to get signals at real time. In our case study, we were confronted with complex problem to do our experiments in a tram. This type of problem is recurring among students. To teach our students the method to solve this kind of problem, we built a similar system. Through this study, we realized a lot of objectives such as making the equipment for simulation, the study of detection of muscle fatigue and especially how to manage a study of biomedical looking.
Keywords: EMG, health platform, conductor’s tram, muscle fatigue.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1567
1003 Wavelet Enhanced CCA for Minimization of Ocular and Muscle Artifacts in EEG
Authors: B. S. Raghavendra, D. Narayana Dutt
Abstract:Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts. In this paper, the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used as blind source separation (BSS) technique (BSS-CCA) to decompose the artifact contaminated EEG into component signals. We combine the BSSCCA technique with wavelet filtering approach for minimizing both ocular and muscle artifacts simultaneously, and refer the proposed method as wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA. In this approach, after careful visual inspection, the muscle artifact components are discarded and ocular artifact components are subjected to wavelet filtering to retain high frequency cerebral information, and then clean EEG is reconstructed. The performance of the proposed wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA method is tested on real EEG recordings contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts, for which power spectral density is used as a quantitative measure. Our results suggest that the proposed hybrid approach minimizes ocular and muscle artifacts effectively, minimally affecting underlying cerebral activity in EEG recordings.
Keywords: Blind source separation, Canonical correlationanalysis, Electroencephalogram, Muscle artifact, Ocular artifact, Power spectrum, Wavelet threshold.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2187
1002 A Study on Human Musculoskeletal Model for Cycle Fitting: Comparison with EMG
Authors: Yoon- Ho Shin, Jin-Seung Choi, Dong-Won Kang, Jeong-Woo Seo, Joo-Hack Lee, Ju-Young Kim, Dae-Hyeok Kim, Seung-Tae Yang, Gye-Rae Tack
It is difficult to study the effect of various variables on cycle fitting through actual experiment. To overcome such difficulty, the forward dynamics of a musculoskeletal model was applied to cycle fitting in this study. The measured EMG data weres compared with the muscle activities of the musculoskeletal model through forward dynamics. EMG data were measured from five cyclists who do not have musculoskeletal diseases during three minutes pedaling with a constant load (150 W) and cadence (90 RPM). The muscles used for the analysis were the Vastus Lateralis (VL), Tibialis Anterior (TA), Bicep Femoris (BF), and Gastrocnemius Medial (GM). Person’s correlation coefficients of the muscle activity patterns, the peak timing of the maximum muscle activities, and the total muscle activities were calculated and compared. BIKE3D model of AnyBody (Anybodytech, Denmark) was used for the musculoskeletal model simulation. The comparisons of the actual experiments with the simulation results showed significant correlations in the muscle activity patterns (VL: 0.789, TA: 0.503, BF: 0.468, GM: 0.670). The peak timings of the maximum muscle activities were distributed at particular phases. The total muscle activities were compared with the normalized muscle activities, and the comparison showed about 10% difference in the VL (+10%), TA (+9.7%), and BF (+10%), excluding the GM (+29.4%). Thus, it can be concluded that muscle activities of model & experiment showed similar results. The results of this study indicated that it was possible to apply the simulation of further improved musculoskeletal model to cycle fitting.
Keywords: Cycle fitting, EMG, Musculoskeletal modeling, Simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3033
1001 Measurement of Rheologic Properties of Soft Tissue (Muscle Tissue) by Myotonometer
Authors: Petr Šifta, Václav Bittner, Martin Kysela, Matěj Kolář
The purpose of the research described in this work is to answer how to measure the rheologic (viscoelastic) properties tendo–deformational characteristics of soft tissue. The method would also resemble muscle palpation examination as it is known in clinical practice. For this purpose, an instrument with the working name “myotonometer” has been used. At present, there is lack of objective methods for assessing the muscle tone by viscous and elastic properties of soft tissue. That is why we decided to focus on creating or finding quantitative and qualitative methodology capable to specify muscle tone.
Keywords: Rheologicproperties, tendo–deformational characteristics, viscosity, elasticity, hypertonus, spasticity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1475
1000 Auto-Selective Three Term Control of Position and Compliance of a Pneumatic Actuator
Authors: M. G. Papoutsidakis, G. Chamilothoris, A Pipe
Due to their high power-to-weight ratio and low cost, pneumatic actuators are attractive for robotics and automation applications; however, achieving fast and accurate control of their position have been known as a complex control problem. The paper presents a methodology for obtaining controllers that achieve high position accuracy and preserve the closed-loop characteristics over a broad operating range. Experimentation with a number of conventional (or "classical") three-term controllers shows that, as repeated operations accumulate, the characteristics of the pneumatic actuator change requiring frequent re-tuning of the controller parameters (PID gains). Furthermore, three-term controllers are found to perform poorly in recovering the closed-loop system after the application of load or other external disturbances. The key reason for these problems lies in the non-linear exchange of energy inside the cylinder relating, in particular, to the complex friction forces that develop on the piston-wall interface. In order to overcome this problem but still remain within the boundaries of classical control methods, we designed an auto selective classicaql controller so that the system performance would benefit from all three control gains (KP, Kd, Ki) according to system requirements and the characteristics of each type of controller. This challenging experimentation took place for consistent performance in the face of modelling imprecision and disturbances. In the work presented, a selective PID controller is presented for an experimental rig comprising an air cylinder driven by a variable-opening pneumatic valve and equipped with position and pressure sensors. The paper reports on tests carried out to investigate the capability of this specific controller to achieve consistent control performance under, repeated operations and other changes in operating conditions.
Keywords: Classical selective controller, long-termexperimentation, pneumatic actuator, position accuracy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1764
999 Pain and Lumbar Muscle Activation before and after Functional Task in Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain
Authors: Lídia E. O. Cruz, Adriano P. C. Calvo, Renato J. Soares, Regiane A. Carvalho
Individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain may present altered movement patterns during functional activities. However, muscle behavior before and after performing a functional task with different load conditions is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study is to analyze lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground (with and without load) in individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain. 20 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain and 20 healthy subjects participated in this study. A surface electromyography was performed in the ilio-costal, longissimus and multifidus muscles to evaluate lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground, with and without load. The symptomatic participants had greater lumbar muscle activation compared to the asymptomatic group, more evident in performing the task without load, with statistically significant difference (p = 0,033) between groups for the right multifidus muscle. This study showed that individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain have higher muscle activation before and after performing a functional task compared to healthy participants.
Keywords: Chronic low back pain, functional task, lumbar muscles, muscle activity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 247
998 Effect of Aging on the Second Law Efficiency, Exergy Destruction and Entropy Generation in the Skeletal Muscles during Exercise
Authors: Jale Çatak, Bayram Yılmaz, Mustafa Ozilgen
Abstract:The second law muscle work efficiency is obtained by multiplying the metabolic and mechanical work efficiencies. Thermodynamic analyses are carried out with 19 sets of arms and legs exercise data which were obtained from the healthy young people. These data are used to simulate the changes occurring during aging. The muscle work efficiency decreases with aging as a result of the reduction of the metabolic energy generation in the mitochondria. The reduction of the mitochondrial energy efficiency makes it difficult to carry out the maintenance of the muscle tissue, which in turn causes a decline of the muscle work efficiency. When the muscle attempts to produce more work, entropy generation and exergy destruction increase. Increasing exergy destruction may be regarded as the result of the deterioration of the muscles. When the exergetic efficiency is 0.42, exergy destruction becomes 1.49 folds of the work performance. This proportionality becomes 2.50 and 5.21 folds when the exergetic efficiency decreases to 0.30 and 0.17 respectively.
Keywords: Aging mitochondria, entropy generation, exergy destruction, muscle work performance, second law efficiency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1239
997 Extractable Heavy Metal Concentrations in Bottom Ash from Incineration of Wood-Based Residues in a BFB Boiler Using Artificial Sweat and Gastric Fluids
Authors: Risto Pöykiö, Olli Dahl, Hannu Nurmesniemi
The highest extractable concentration in the artificial sweat fluid was observed for Ba (120mg/kg; d.w.). The highest extractable concentration in the artificial gastric fluid was observed for Al (9030mg/kg; d.w.). Furthermore, the extractable concentrations of Ba (550mg/kg; d.w.) and Zn (400mg/kg: d.w.) in the bottom ash using artificial gastric fluid were elevated. The extractable concentrations of all heavy metals in the artificial gastric fluid were higher than those in the artificial sweat fluid. These results are reasonable in the light of the fact that the pH of the artificial gastric fluid was extremely acidic both before (pH 1.54) and after (pH 1.94) extraction, whereas the pH of the artificial sweat fluid was slightly alkaline before (pH 6.50) and after extraction (pH 8.51).
Keywords: Ash, artificial fluid, heavy metals, in vitro, waste.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2810