Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: gas hold-up

8 An Experimental Study on Holdup Measurement in Fluidized Bed by Light Transmission

Authors: E. Shahbazali, N. Afrasiabi, A. A. Safekordi

Abstract:

Nowadays, fluidized bed plays an important part in industry. The design of this kind of reactor requires knowing the interfacial area between two phases and this interfacial area leads to calculate the solid holdup in the bed. Consequently achieving interfacial area between gas and solid in the bed experimentally is so significant. On interfacial area measurement in fluidized bed with gas has been worked, but light transmission technique has been used less. Therefore, in the current research the possibility of using of this technique and its accuracy are investigated. Measuring, a fluidized bed was designed and the problems were averted as far as possible. By using fine solid with equal shape and diameter and installing an optical system, the absorption of light during the time of fluidization has been measured. Results indicate that this method that its validity has been proved in the gas-liquid system, by different reasons have less application in gas-solid system. One important reason could be non-uniformity in such systems.

Keywords: Fluidization, Holdup, Light Transmission, Two phase system.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1265
7 Use of Detectors Technology for Gamma Ray Issued from Radioactive Isotopes and its Impact on Knowledge of Behavior of the Stationary Case of Solid Phase Holdup

Authors: Abbas Ali Mahmood Karwi

Abstract:

For gamma radiation detection, assemblies having scintillation crystals and a photomultiplier tube, also there is a preamplifier connected to the detector because the signals from photomultiplier tube are of small amplitude. After pre-amplification the signals are sent to the amplifier and then to the multichannel analyser. The multichannel analyser sorts all incoming electrical signals according to their amplitudes and sorts the detected photons in channels covering small energy intervals. The energy range of each channel depends on the gain settings of the multichannel analyser and the high voltage across the photomultiplier tube. The exit spectrum data of the two main isotopes studied ,putting data in biomass program ,process it by Matlab program to get the solid holdup image (solid spherical nuclear fuel)

Keywords: Multichannel analyzer, Spectrum, Energies, Fluids holdup, Image

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1473
6 Identification of the Main Transition Velocities in a Bubble Column Based on a Modified Shannon Entropy

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert

Abstract:

The gas holdup fluctuations in a bubble column (0.15 m in ID) have been recorded by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor in order to extract information about the main transition velocities. These parameters are very important for bubble column design, operation and scale-up. For this purpose, the classical definition of the Shannon entropy was modified and used to identify both the onset (at UG=0.034 m/s) of the transition flow regime and the beginning (at UG=0.089 m/s) of the churn-turbulent flow regime. The results were compared with the Kolmogorov entropy (KE) results. A slight discrepancy was found, namely the transition velocities identified by means of the KE were shifted to somewhat higher (0.045 and 0.101 m/s) superficial gas velocities UG.

Keywords: Bubble column, gas holdup fluctuations, Modified Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov entropy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1283
5 Slug Initiation Evaluation in Long Horizontal Channels Experimentally

Authors: P. Adibi, M. R. Ansari, S. Jafari, B. Habibpour, E. Salimi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of gas and liquid superficial inlet velocities and for the first time the effect of liquid holdup on slug initiation position are studied experimentally. Empirical correlations are also presented based on the obtained results. The tests are conducted for three liquid holdups in a long horizontal channel with dimensions of 5cm10cm and 36m length. Usl and Usg rated as to 0.11m/s to 0.56m/s and 1.88m/s to 13m/s, respectively. The obtained results show that as αl=0.25, slug initiation position is increasing monotonically with Usl and Usg. During αl=0.50, slug initiation position is almost constant. For αl=0.75, slug initiation position is decreasing monotonically with Usl and Usg. In the case of equal void fraction of phases, generated slugs are weakly (low pressure). However, for the unequal void fraction of phases strong slugs (high pressure) are formed.

Keywords: Liquid holdup, Long horizontal channel, Slug initiation position, Superficial inlet velocity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1599
4 CFD Simulations to Validate Two and Three Phase Up-flow in Bubble Columns

Authors: Shyam Kumar, Nannuri Srinivasulu, Ashok Khanna

Abstract:

Bubble columns have a variety of applications in absorption, bio-reactions, catalytic slurry reactions, and coal liquefaction; because they are simple to operate, provide good heat and mass transfer, having less operational cost. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for bubble column becomes important, since it can describe the fluid hydrodynamics on both local and global scale. Euler- Euler two-phase fluid model has been used to simulate two-phase (air and water) transient up-flow in bubble column (15cm diameter) using FLUENT6.3. These simulations and experiments were operated over a range of superficial gas velocities in the bubbly flow and churn turbulent regime (1 to16 cm/s) at ambient conditions. Liquid velocity was varied from 0 to 16cm/s. The turbulence in the liquid phase is described using the standard k-ε model. The interactions between the two phases are described through drag coefficient formulations (Schiller Neumann). The objectives are to validate CFD simulations with experimental data, and to obtain grid-independent numerical solutions. Quantitatively good agreements are obtained between experimental data for hold-up and simulation values. Axial liquid velocity profiles and gas holdup profiles were also obtained for the simulation.

Keywords: Bubble column, Computational fluid dynamics, Gas holdup profile, k-ε model.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2481
3 Hydrodynamics of Bubbly Flow in a Modified Reactor

Authors: M. Sivaiah, R. Parmar, S. K. Majumder

Abstract:

This article reports on hydrodynamic, mass transfer performances of fine bubble in a modified reactor. The quality of mixing in the modified reactor is discussed in the paper. Mass transfer efficiency based on quality of mixing is enunciated. To interpret the gas phase volume fraction and the quality of mixing is the empirical models for the modified system are developed.

Keywords: Downflow, bubble, hydrodynamics, gas-liquid, mixing, mass transfer, gas holdup

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1821
2 CFD Simulation of Hydrodynamic Behaviors and Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in a Stirred Airlift Bioreactor

Authors: Sérgio S. de Jesus, Edgar Leonardo Martínez, Aulus R.R. Binelli, Aline Santana, Rubens Maciel Filho

Abstract:

The speed profiles, gas holdup (eG) and global oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) from a stirred airlift bioreactor using water as the fluid model, was investigated by computational fluid dynamics modeling. The parameters predicted by the computer model were validated with the experimental dates. The CFD results were very close to those obtained experimentally. During the simulation it was verified a prevalent impeller effect at low speeds, propelling a large volume of fluid against the walls of the vessel, which without recirculation, results in low values of eG and kLa; however, by increasing air velocity, the impeller effect is smaller with the air flow being greater, in the region of the riser, causing fluid recirculation, which explains the increase in eG and kLa.

Keywords: CFD, Hydrodynamics, Mass transfer, Stirred airlift bioreactor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3457
1 Influence of Gas-Liquid Separator Design on Performance of Airlift Bioreactors

Authors: Mateus N. Esperança, Marcel O. Cerri, Alberto C. Badino

Abstract:

The performance of airlift bioreactors are closely related with their geometry, especially the gas-liquid separator design. In this study, the influence of the gas-liquid separator geometry on oxygen transfer and gas hold-up was evaluated in 10-L concentric-tube airlift bioreactor operating with distilled water and xanthan gum solution. The specific airflow rate (ɸAIR) exhibited the higher effect on the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) for both fluids. While the gas-liquid separator openness angle (α) and liquid volume fraction on the gas-liquid separator (VGLS) have presented opposite effects on oxygen mass transfer, they affected negatively the global gas hold-up of distilled water system. The best degassing zone geometry corresponded to a 90° openness angle with 10% of the liquid on it.

Keywords: Airlift bioreactor, gas holdup, gas-liquid separator, oxygen transfer.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1952