Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 280

Search results for: Optical Bistability

280 Exploiting Silicon-on-Insulator Microring Resonator Bistability Behavior for All Optical Set-Reset Flip-Flop

Authors: P. Nadimi, D. D. Caviglia, E. Di Zitti

Abstract:

We propose an all optical flip-flop circuit composedof two Silicon-on-insulator microring resonators coupled to straightwaveguides by exploiting the optical bistability behavior due to thenonlinear Kerr effect. We used the transfer matrix analysis toinvestigate continuous wave propagation through microrings, as wellwe considered the nonlinear switching characteristics of an opticaldevice using a double-coupler silicon ring resonator in presence ofthe Kerr nonlinearity, thus obtaining the bistability behavior of theoutput port, the drop port and also inside the silicon microringresonator. It is shown that the bistability behavior depends on thecontrol of the input wavelength.KeywordsAll optical flip-flops, Kerr effect, microringresonator, optical bistability.

Keywords: All optical flip-flops, Kerr effect, microring resonator, optical bistability.

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279 XPM Response of Multiple Quantum Well chirped DFB-SOA All Optical Flip-Flop Switching

Authors: Masoud Jabbari, Mohammad Kazem Moravvej-Farshi, Rahim Ghayour, Abbas Zarifkar

Abstract:

In this paper, based on the coupled-mode and carrier rate equations, derivation of a dynamic model and numerically analysis of a MQW chirped DFB-SOA all-optical flip-flop is done precisely. We have analyzed the effects of strains of QW and MQW and cross phase modulation (XPM) on the dynamic response, and rise and fall times of the DFB-SOA all optical flip flop. We have shown that strained MQW active region in under an optimized condition into a DFB-SOA with chirped grating can improve the switching ON speed limitation in such a of the device, significantly while the fall time is increased. The values of the rise times for such an all optical flip-flop, are obtained in an optimized condition, areas tr=255ps.

Keywords: All-Optical Flip-Flop (AO-FF), Distributed feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFB-SOA), Optical Bistability, Multi quantum well (MQW)

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278 The Influence of Doping of Fullerene Derivative (PCBM) on the Optical Properties of Vanadyl Phthalocyanine (VOPc)

Authors: Fakhra Aziz, K. Sulaiman, Kh. S. Karimov, M. Hassan Sayyad

Abstract:

This paper presents a spectroscopic study on doping of Vanadyl pathalocyanine (VOPc) by [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The films are characterized by UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. A drastic increase in the absorption coefficient has been observed with increasing dopant concentration. Optical properties of VOPc:PCBM films deposited by spin coating technique were studied in detail. Optical band gap decreased with the PCBM incorporation in the VOPc film. Optical band gap calculated from the absorption spectra decreased from 3.32 eV to 3.26 eV with a variation of 0–75 % of PCBM concentration in the VOPC films.

Keywords: Optical properties, spin-coating, optical properties, optical energy gap

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277 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based On Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: Optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory.

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276 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based On Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: Optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory.

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275 Monitoring and Prediction of Intra-Crosstalk in All-Optical Network

Authors: Ahmed Jedidi, Mesfer Mohammed Alshamrani, Alwi Mohammad A. Bamhdi

Abstract:

Optical performance monitoring and optical network management are essential in building a reliable, high-capacity, and service-differentiation enabled all-optical network. One of the serious problems in this network is the fact that optical crosstalk is additive, and thus the aggregate effect of crosstalk over a whole AON may be more nefarious than a single point of crosstalk. As results, we note a huge degradation of the Quality of Service (QoS) in our network. For that, it is necessary to identify and monitor the impairments in whole network. In this way, this paper presents new system to identify and monitor crosstalk in AONs in real-time fashion. particular, it proposes a new technique to manage intra-crosstalk in objective to relax QoS of the network.

Keywords: All-optical networks, optical crosstalk, optical cross-connect, crosstalk, monitoring crosstalk.

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274 Characterization Non-Deterministic of Optical Channels

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

The use of optical technologies in the telecommunications has been increasing due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. However, as in all systems of data transmission, optical communication channels suffer from undesirable and non-deterministic effects, being essential to know the same. Thus, this research allows the assessment of these effects, as well as their characterization and beneficial uses of these effects.

Keywords: Optical communication, optical fiber, non-deterministic effects.

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273 All-Optical Function Based on Self-Similar Spectral Broadening for 2R Regeneration in High-Bit-Rate Optical Transmission Systems

Authors: Leila Graini

Abstract:

In this paper, we demonstrate basic all-optical functions for 2R regeneration (Re-amplification and Re-shaping) based on self-similar spectral broadening in low normal dispersion and highly nonlinear fiber (ND-HNLF) to regenerate the signal through optical filtering including the transfer function characteristics, and output extinction ratio. Our approach of all-optical 2R regeneration is based on those of Mamyshev. The numerical study reveals the self-similar spectral broadening very effective for 2R all-optical regeneration; the proposed design presents high stability compared to a conventional regenerator using SPM broadening with reduction of the intensity fluctuations and improvement of the extinction ratio.

Keywords: All-optical function, 2R optical regeneration, self-similar broadening, Mamyshev regenerator.

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272 Study and Analysis of Optical Intersatellite Links

Authors: Boudene Maamar, Xu Mai

Abstract:

Optical Intersatellite Links (OISLs) are wireless communications using optical signals to interconnect satellites. It is expected to be the next generation wireless communication technology according to its inherent characteristics like: an increased bandwidth, a high data rate, a data transmission security, an immunity to interference, and an unregulated spectrum etc. Optical space links are the best choice for the classical communication schemes due to its distinctive properties; high frequency, small antenna diameter and lowest transmitted power, which are critical factors to define a space communication. This paper discusses the development of free space technology and analyses the parameters and factors to establish a reliable intersatellite links using an optical signal to exchange data between satellites.

Keywords: Optical intersatellite links, optical wireless communications, free space optical communications, next generation wireless communication.

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271 Multicasting Characteristics of All-Optical Triode Based On Negative Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Authors: S. Aisyah Azizan, M. Syafiq Azmi, Yuki Harada, Yoshinobu Maeda, Takaomi Matsutani

Abstract:

We introduced an all-optical multicasting characteristics with wavelength conversion based on a novel all-optical triode using negative feedback semiconductor optical amplifier. This study was demonstrated with a transfer speed of 10 Gb/s to a non-return zero 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence system. This multi-wavelength converter device can simultaneously provide three channels of output signal with the support of non-inverted and inverted conversion. We studied that an all-optical multicasting and wavelength conversion accomplishing cross gain modulation is effective in a semiconductor optical amplifier which is effective to provide an inverted conversion thus negative feedback. The relationship of received power of back to back signal and output signals with wavelength 1535 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1550 nm, and 1555 nm with bit error rate was investigated. It was reported that the output signal wavelengths were successfully converted and modulated with a power penalty of less than 8.7 dB, which the highest is 8.6 dB while the lowest is 4.4 dB. It was proved that all-optical multicasting and wavelength conversion using an optical triode with a negative feedback by three channels at the same time at a speed of 10 Gb/s is a promising device for the new wavelength conversion technology.

Keywords: Cross gain modulation, multicasting, negative feedback optical amplifier, semiconductor optical amplifier.

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270 Effect of Fire Retardant Painting Product on Smoke Optical Density of Burning Natural Wood Samples

Authors: Abdullah N. Olimat, Ahmad S. Awad, Faisal M. AL-Ghathian

Abstract:

Natural wood is used in many applications in Jordan such as furniture, partitions constructions, and cupboards. Experimental work for smoke produced by the combustion of certain wood samples was studied. Smoke generated from burning of natural wood, is considered as a major cause of death in furniture fires. The critical parameter for life safety in fires is the available time for escape, so the visual obscuration due to smoke release during fire is taken into consideration. The effect of smoke, produced by burning of wood, depends on the amount of smoke released in case of fire. The amount of smoke production, apparently, affects the time available for the occupants to escape. To achieve the protection of life of building occupants during fire growth, fire retardant painting products are tested. The tested samples of natural wood include Beech, Ash, Beech Pine, and white Beech Pine. A smoke density chamber manufactured by fire testing technology has been used to perform measurement of smoke properties. The procedure of test was carried out according to the ISO-5659. A nonflammable vertical radiant heat flux of 25 kW/m2 is exposed to the wood samples in a horizontal orientation. The main objective of the current study is to carry out the experimental tests for samples of natural woods to evaluate the capability to escape in case of fire and the fire safety requirements. Specific optical density, transmittance, thermal conductivity, and mass loss are main measured parameters. Also, comparisons between samples with paint and with no paint are carried out between the selected samples of woods.

Keywords: Optical density, specific optical density, transmittance, visibility.

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269 Routing Capability and Blocking Analysis of Dynamic ROADM Optical Networks (Category - II) for Dynamic Traffic

Authors: Indumathi T. S., T. Srinivas, B. Siva Kumar

Abstract:

Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) can be classified into three categories based on their underlying switching technologies. Category I consists of a single large optical switch; category II is composed of a number of small optical switches aligned in parallel; and category III has a single optical switch and only one wavelength being added/dropped. In this paper, to evaluate the wavelength-routing capability of ROADMs of category-II in dynamic optical networks,the dynamic traffic models are designed based on Bernoulli, Poisson distributions for smooth and regular types of traffic. Through Analytical and Simulation results, the routing power of cat-II of ROADM networks for two traffic models are determined.

Keywords: Fully-Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers (FROADMs), Limited Tunability in Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop multiplexers (LROADM), Multiplexer/De- Multiplexer (MUX/DEMUX), Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs), Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM).

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268 Multiple-Channel Piezoelectric Actuated Tunable Optical Filter for WDM Application

Authors: Hailu Dessalegn, T. Srinivas

Abstract:

We propose new multiple-channel piezoelectric (PZT) actuated tunable optical filter based on racetrack multi-ring resonators for wavelength de-multiplexing network applications. We design tunable eight-channel wavelength de-multiplexer consisting of eight cascaded PZT actuated tunable multi-ring resonator filter with a channel spacing of 1.6nm. The filter for each channel is basically structured on a suspended beam, sandwiched with piezoelectric material and built in integrated ring resonators which are placed on the middle of the beam to gain uniform stress and linearly varying longitudinal strain. A reference single mode serially coupled multi stage racetrack ring resonator with the same radii and coupling length is designed with a line width of 0.8974nm with a flat top pass band at 1dB of 0.5205nm and free spectral range of about 14.9nm. In each channel, a small change in the perimeter of the rings is introduced to establish the shift in resonance wavelength as per the defined channel spacing. As a result, when a DC voltage is applied, the beams will elongate, which involves mechanical deformation of the ring resonators that induces a stress and a strain, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift providing the tunability of central wavelength in each channel. Simultaneous wave length shift as high as 45.54pm/

Keywords: Optical MEMS, piezoelectric (PZT) actuation, tunable optical filter, wavelength de-multiplexer.

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267 Performance Evaluation of the OCDM/WDM Technique for Optical Packet Switches

Authors: V. Eramo, L. Piazzo, M. Listanti, A. Germoni, A Cianfrani

Abstract:

The performance of the Optical Code Division Multiplexing/ Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM/OCDM) technique for Optical Packet Switch is investigated. The impact on the performance of the impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise is studied. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. The Packet Loss Probability of the OCDM/WDM switch can reach 10-9 when M=16 wavelengths, Gold code of length L=511 and only 24 wavelength converters are used in the switch.

Keywords: Optical code division multiplexing, bufferless optical packet switch, performance evaluation.

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266 A Novel Single-Wavelength All-Optical Flip-Flop Employing Single SOA-MZI

Authors: H. Kaatuzian, M. Sedghi, S. Khatami

Abstract:

In this paper, by exploiting a single semiconductor optical amplifier-Mach Zehnder Interferometer (SOA-MZI), an integratable all-optical flip-flop (AOFF) is proposed. It is composed of a SOA-MZI with a bidirectional coupler at the output. Output signals of both bar and crossbar of the SOA-MZI is fed back to SOAs located in the arms of the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI). The injected photon-rates to the SOAs are modulated by feedback signals in order to form optical flip-flop. According to numerical analysis, Gaussian optical pulses with the energy of 15.2 fJ and 20 ps duration with the full width at half-maximum criterion, can switch the states of the SR-AOFF. Also simulation results show that the SR-AOFF has the contrast ratio of 8.5 dB between two states with the transition time of nearly 20 ps.

Keywords: All Optical, Flip-Flop, Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI), Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA).

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265 All Optical Wavelength Conversion Based On Four Wave Mixing in Optical Fiber

Authors: Surinder Singh, Gursewak Singh Lovkesh

Abstract:

We have designed wavelength conversion based on four wave mixing in an optical fiber at 10 Gb/s. The power of converted signal increases with increase in signal power. The converted signal power is investigated as a function of input signal power and pump power. On comparison of converted signal power at different value of input signal power, we observe that best converted signal power is obtained at -2 dBm input signal power for both up conversion as well as for down conversion. Further, FWM efficiency, quality factor is observed for increase in input signal power and optical fiber length.

Keywords: FWM, Optical fiber, Quality, Wavelength Converter.

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264 Analysis of MAC Protocols with Correlation Receiver for OCDMA Networks - Part II

Authors: Shivaleela E. S., Shrikant S. Tangade

Abstract:

In this paper optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) packet network is considered, which offers inherent security in the access networks. Two types of random access protocols are proposed for packet transmission. In protocol 1, all distinct codes and in protocol 2, distinct codes as well as shifted versions of all these codes are used. O-CDMA network performance using optical orthogonal codes (OOCs) 1-D and two-dimensional (2-D) wavelength/time single-pulse-per-row (W/T SPR) codes are analyzed. The main advantage of using 2-D codes instead of onedimensional (1-D) codes is to reduce the errors due to multiple access interference among different users. In this paper, correlation receiver is considered in the analysis. Using analytical model, we compute and compare packet-success probability for 1-D and 2-D codes in an O-CDMA network and the analysis shows improved performance with 2-D codes as compared to 1-D codes.

Keywords: Optical code-division multiple-access, optical CDMA correlation receiver, wavelength/time optical CDMA codes.

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263 Design of Ultra Fast Polymer Electro-Optic waveguide Switch for Intelligent Optical Networks

Authors: S.Ponmalar, S.Sundaravadivelu

Abstract:

Traditional optical networks are gradually evolving towards intelligent optical networks due to the need for faster bandwidth provisioning, protection and restoration of the network that can be accomplished with devices like optical switch, add drop multiplexer and cross connects. Since dense wavelength multiplexing forms the physical layer for intelligent optical networking, the roll of high speed all optical switch is important. This paper analyzes such an ultra-high speed polymer electro-optic switch. The performances of the 2x2 optical waveguide switch with rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal grating profiles on various device parameters are analyzed. The simulation result shows that trapezoidal grating is the optimized structure which has the coupling length of 81μm and switching voltage of 11V for the operating wavelength of 1550nm. The switching time for this proposed switch is 0.47 picosecond. This makes the proposed switch to be an important element in the intelligent optical network.

Keywords: Intelligent optical network, optical switch, electrooptic effect, coupled mode theory, waveguide grating structures

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262 System Performance Comparison of Turbo and Trellis Coded Optical CDMA Systems

Authors: M. Kulkarni, R. K. Sinha, D. R. Bhaskar

Abstract:

In this paper, we have compared the performance of a Turbo and Trellis coded optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system. The comparison of the two codes has been accomplished by employing optical orthogonal codes (OOCs). The Bit Error Rate (BER) performances have been compared by varying the code weights of address codes employed by the system. We have considered the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI), thermal noise and avalanche photodiode (APD) detector noise. Analysis has been carried out for the system with and without double optical hard limiter (DHL). From the simulation results it is observed that a better and distinct comparison can be drawn between the performance of Trellis and Turbo coded systems, at lower code weights of optical orthogonal codes for a fixed number of users. The BER performance of the Turbo coded system is found to be better than the Trellis coded system for all code weights that have been considered for the simulation. Nevertheless, the Trellis coded OCDMA system is found to be better than the uncoded OCDMA system. Trellis coded OCDMA can be used in systems where decoding time has to be kept low, bandwidth is limited and high reliability is not a crucial factor as in local area networks. Also the system hardware is less complex in comparison to the Turbo coded system. Trellis coded OCDMA system can be used without significant modification of the existing chipsets. Turbo-coded OCDMA can however be employed in systems where high reliability is needed and bandwidth is not a limiting factor.

Keywords: avalanche photodiode, optical code division multipleaccess, optical multiple access interference, Trellis codedmodulation, Turbo code

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261 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi

Abstract:

The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: Dielectric constants, optical band gap (Eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid.

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260 Parallel Computation of Data Summation for Multiple Problem Spaces on Partitioned Optical Passive Stars Network

Authors: Khin Thida Latt, Mineo Kaneko, Yoichi Shinoda

Abstract:

In Partitioned Optical Passive Stars POPS network,nodes and couplers become free after slot to slot in some computation.It is necessary to efficiently utilize free couplers and nodes to be cost effective. Improving parallelism, we present the fast data summation algorithm for multiple problem spaces on P OP S(g, g) with smaller number of nodes for the case of d =n = g. For the case of d >n > g, we simulate the calculation of large number of data items dedicated to larger system with many nodes on smaller system with smaller number of nodes. The algorithm is faster than the best know algorithm and using smaller number of nodes and groups make the system low cost and practical.

Keywords: Partitioned optical passive stars network, parallelcomputing, optical computing, data sum

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259 Blind Spot Area Tracking Solution Using 1x12 POF-Based Optical Couplers

Authors: Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Mohd Hadi Guna Safnal, Mohd Hazwan Harun, Mohd.Saiful Dzulkefly Zan, Kasmiran Jumari

Abstract:

Optical 1x12 fused-taper-twisted polymer optical fiber (POF) couplers has been fabricated by a perform technique. Characterization of the coupler which proposed to be used in passive night vision application to tracking a blind sport area was reported. During the development process of fused-taper-twisted POF couplers was carried out, red LED fully utilized to be injected into the couplers to test the quality of fabricated couplers. Some characterization parameters, such as optical output power, POFs attenuation characteristics and power losses on the network were observed. The maximum output power efficiency of the coupler is about 40%, but it can be improved gradually through experience and practice.

Keywords: polymer optical fiber (POF), customer-made, fused-taper-twisted fiber, optical coupler, small world communication, home network.

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258 Coherent PON for NG-PON2: 40Gbps Downstream Transmission with 40dB Power Margin using Commercial DFB Lasers and no Optical Amplification

Authors: Roberto Gaudino, Antonino Nespola, Dario Zeolla, Stefano Straullu, Vittorio Curri, Gabriella Bosco, Roberto Cigliutti, Stefano Capriata, Paolo Solina.

Abstract:

We demonstrate a 40Gbps downstream PON transmission based on PM-QPSK modulation using commercial DFB lasers without optical amplifier in the ODN, obtaining 40dB power budget. We discuss this solution within NG-PON2 architectures.

Keywords: DFB lasers, Optical Coherent Receiver, Passive Optical Networks.

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257 Effect of Chromatic Dispersion on Optical Generation of Tunable Millimeter-Wave Signals

Authors: M. R. Salehi, S. Khosroabadi

Abstract:

In this paper, the optical generation of three bands of continuously tunable millimeter-wave signals using an optical phase modulator (OPM) and a polarization state rotation filter (PSRF) as an optical notch filter is analyzed. The effect of the chromatic dispersion on millimeter-wave signals is presented.

Keywords: Optical generation, millimeter-wave, optical notchfilter , chromatic dispersion.

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256 Combining Skin Color and Optical Flow for Computer Vision Systems

Authors: Muhammad Raza Ali, Tim Morris

Abstract:

Skin color is an important visual cue for computer vision systems involving human users. In this paper we combine skin color and optical flow for detection and tracking of skin regions. We apply these techniques to gesture recognition with encouraging results. We propose a novel skin similarity measure. For grouping detected skin regions we propose a novel skin region grouping mechanism. The proposed techniques work with any number of skin regions making them suitable for a multiuser scenario.

Keywords: Bayesian tracking, chromaticity space, optical flowgesture recognition

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255 MAS Simulations of Optical Antenna Structures

Authors: K.Tavzarashvili, G.Ghvedashili

Abstract:

A semi-analytic boundary discretization method, the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is used to analyze Optical Antennas consisting of metallic parts. In addition to standard dipoletype antennas, consisting of two pieces of metal, a new structure consisting of a single metal piece with a tiny groove in the center is analyzed. It is demonstrated that difficult numerical problems are caused because optical antennas exhibit strong material dispersion, loss, and plasmon-polariton effects that require a very accurate numerical simulation. This structure takes advantage of the Channel Plasmon-Polariton (CPP) effect and exhibits a strong enhancement of the electric field in the groove. Also primitive 3D antenna model with spherical nano particles is analyzed.

Keywords: optical antenna, channel plasmon-polariton, computational physics, Method of Auxiliary Sources

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254 Full Potential Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of NdF3

Authors: Sapan Mohan Saini

Abstract:

We report the electronic structure and optical properties of NdF3 compound. Our calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method with the inclusion of spin orbit coupling. We employed the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and Coulomb-corrected local spin density approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. We find that the standard LSDA approach is incapable of correctly describing the electronic properties of such materials since it positions the f-bands incorrectly resulting in an incorrect metallic ground state. On the other hand, LSDA + U approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. Interestingly, however, we do not find any significant differences in the optical properties calculated using LSDA, and LSDA + U suggesting that the 4f electrons do not play a decisive role in the optical properties of these compounds. The reflectivity for NdF3 compound stays low till 7 eV which is consistent with their large energy gaps. The calculated energy gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculated reflectivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band to band transitions.

Keywords: FPLAPW Method, optical properties, rare earthtrifluorides LSDA+U

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253 Structural and Optical Characterizations of CIGST Solar Cell Materials

Authors: Abhay Kumar Singh

Abstract:

Structural and UV/Visible optical properties can be useful to describe a material for the CIGS solar cell active layer, therefore, this work demonstrates the properties like surface morphology, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) bonding energy (EB) core level spectra, UV/Visible absorption spectra, refractive index (n), optical energy band (Eg), reflection spectra for the Cu25 (In16Ga9) Se40Te10 (CIGST-1) and Cu20 (In14Ga9) Se45Te12 (CIGST-2) chalcogenide compositions. Materials have been exhibited homogenous surface morphologies, broading /-or diffusion of bonding energy peaks relative elemental values and a high UV/Visible absorption tendency in the wave length range 400 nm- 850 nm range with the optical energy band gaps 1.37 and 1.42 respectively. Subsequently, UV/Visible reflectivity property in the wave length range 250 nm to 320 nm for these materials has also been discussed.

Keywords: Chalcogen, Optical energy band gap, UV/Visible spectra, XPS spectra.

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252 Analysis of Capillary Coating Die Flow in an Optical Fiber Coating Applicator

Authors: Kyoungjin Kim

Abstract:

Viscous heating becomes significant in the high speed resin coating process of glass fibers for optical fiber manufacturing. This study focuses on the coating resin flows inside the capillary coating die of optical fiber coating applicator and they are numerically simulated to examine the effects of viscous heating and subsequent temperature increase in coating resin. Resin flows are driven by fast moving glass fiber and the pressurization at the coating die inlet, while the temperature dependent viscosity of liquid coating resin plays an important role in the resin flow. It is found that the severe viscous heating near the coating die wall profoundly alters the radial velocity profiles and that the increase of final coating thickness by die pressurization is amplified if viscous heating is present.

Keywords: Optical fiber manufacturing, Optical fiber coating, Capillary flow, Viscous heating, Flow simulation

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251 Optical Limiting Characteristics of Core-Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: G.Vinitha, A.Ramalingam

Abstract:

TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method at 180°C from TiOSO4 aqueous solution with1m/l concentration. The obtained products were coated with silica by means of a seeded polymerization technique for a coating time of 1440 minutes to obtain well defined [email protected] core-shell structure. The uncoated and coated nanoparticles were characterized by using X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study their physico-chemical properties. Evidence from XRD and FTIR results show that SiO2 is homogenously coated on the surface of titania particles. FTIR spectra show that there exists an interaction between TiO2 and SiO2 and results in the formation of Ti-O-Si chemical bonds at the interface of TiO2 particles and SiO2 coating layer. The non linear optical limiting properties of TiO2 and [email protected] nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol were studied at 532nm using 5ns Nd:YAG laser pulses. Three-photon absorption is responsible for optical limiting characteristics in these nanoparticles and it is seen that the optical nonlinearity is enhanced in core-shell structures when compared with single counterparts. This effective three-photon type absorption at this wavelength, is of potential application in fabricating optical limiting devices.

Keywords: hydrothermal method, optical limiting devicesseeded polymerization technique, three-photon type absorption

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