Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 379

Search results for: dispersion managed solitons

379 Wavelength Conversion of Dispersion Managed Solitons at 100 Gbps through Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

Authors: Kadam Bhambri, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

All optical wavelength conversion is essential in present day optical networks for transparent interoperability, contention resolution, and wavelength routing. The incorporation of all optical wavelength convertors leads to better utilization of the network resources and hence improves the efficiency of optical networks. Wavelength convertors that can work with Dispersion Managed (DM) solitons are attractive due to their superior transmission capabilities. In this paper, wavelength conversion for dispersion managed soliton signals was demonstrated at 100 Gbps through semiconductor optical amplifier and an optical filter. The wavelength conversion was achieved for a 1550 nm input signal to1555nm output signal. The output signal was measured in terms of BER, Q factor and system margin.    

Keywords: All optical wavelength conversion, dispersion managed solitons, semiconductor optical amplifier, cross gain modulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 985
378 Soliton Interaction in Birefringent Fibers with Third-Order Dispersion

Authors: Dowluru Ravi Kumar, Bhima Prabhakara Rao

Abstract:

Propagation of solitons in single-mode birefringent fibers is considered under the presence of third-order dispersion (TOD). The behavior of two neighboring solitons and their interaction is investigated under the presence of third-order dispersion with different group velocity dispersion (GVD) parameters. It is found that third-order dispersion makes the resultant soliton to deviate from its ideal position and increases the interaction between adjacent soliton pulses. It is also observed that this deviation due to third-order dispersion is considerably small when the optical pulse propagates at wavelengths relatively far from the zerodispersion. Modified coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-s equations (CNLSE) representing the propagation of optical pulse in single mode fiber with TOD are solved using split-step Fourier algorithm. The results presented in this paper reveal that the third-order dispersion can substantially increase the interaction between the solitons, but large group velocity dispersion reduces the interaction between neighboring solitons.

Keywords: Birefringence, Group velocity dispersion, Polarization mode dispersion, Soliton interaction, Third order dispersion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1020
377 Solution of The KdV Equation with Asymptotic Degeneracy

Authors: Tapas Kumar Sinha, Joseph Mathew

Abstract:

Recently T. C. Au-Yeung, C.Au, and P. C. W. Fung [2] have given the solution of the KdV equation [1] to the boundary condition , where b is a constant. We have further extended the method of [2] to find the solution of the KdV equation with asymptotic degeneracy. Via simulations we find both bright and dark Solitons (i.e. Solitons with opposite phases).

Keywords: KdV equation, Asymptotic Degeneracy, Solitons, Inverse Scattering

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1365
376 Realization of Soliton Phase Characteristics in 10 Gbps, Single Channel, Uncompensated Telecommunication System

Authors: A. Jawahar

Abstract:

In this paper, the dependence of soliton pulses with respect to phase in a 10Gbps, single channel, dispersion uncompensated telecommunication system was studied. The characteristic feature of periodic soliton interaction was noted at the Interaction point (I=6202.5Km) in one collision length of L=12405.1 Km. The interaction point is located for 10Gbps system with an initial relative spacing (qo) of soliton as 5.28 using Perturbation theory. It is shown that, when two in-phase solitons are launched, they interact at the point I=6202.5 Km, but the interaction could be restricted with introduction of different phase initially. When the phase of the input solitons increases, the deviation of soliton pulses at the ‘I’ also increases. We have successfully demonstrated this effect in a telecommunication set-up in terms of Quality factor (Q), where the Q=0 for in-phase soliton. The Q was noted to be 125.9, 38.63, 47.53, 59.60, 161.37, and 78.04 for different phases such as 10o, 20o, 30o, 45o, 60o and 90o degrees respectively at Interaction point (I).

Keywords: Soliton interaction, Initial relative spacing, phase, Perturbation theory and telecommunication system.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1590
375 Solitons in Nonlinear Optical Lattices

Authors: Tapas Kumar Sinha, Joseph Mathew

Abstract:

Based on the Lagrangian for the Gross –Pitaevskii equation as derived by H. Sakaguchi and B.A Malomed [5] we have derived a double well model for the nonlinear optical lattice. This model explains the various features of nonlinear optical lattices. Further, from this model we obtain and simulate the probability for tunneling from one well to another which agrees with experimental results [4].

Keywords: Double well model, nonlinear optical lattice, Solitons, tunneling.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1305
374 Rarefactive and Compressive Solitons in Warm Dusty Plasma with Electrons and Nonthermal Ions

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

Dust acoustic solitary waves are studied in warm dusty plasma containing negatively charged dusts, nonthermal ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons. Sagdeev pseudopotential method is used in order to investigate solitary wave solutions in the plasmas. The existence of compressive and rarefractive solitons is studied.

Keywords: Nonthermal, Soliton, Dust, Sagdeev potential

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1226
373 Rarefactive and Compressive Solitary Waves in Warm Plasma with Positrons and Nonthermal Electrons

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

Ion-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma with nonthermal electrons, thermal positrons and warm ions are investigated using Sagdeev-s pseudopotential technique. We study the effects of non-thermal electrons and ion temperature on solitons and show both negative and positive potential waves are possible.

Keywords: Ion acoustic waves, Solitons, Nonlinear phenomena, Sagdeev potential

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 845
372 Solitons and Universes with Acceleration Driven by Bulk Particles

Authors: A. C. Amaro de Faria Jr, A. M. Canone

Abstract:

Considering a scenario where our universe is taken as a 3d domain wall embedded in a 5d dimensional Minkowski space-time, we explore the existence of a richer class of solitonic solutions and their consequences for accelerating universes driven by collisions of bulk particle excitations with the walls. In particular it is shown that some of these solutions should play a fundamental role at the beginning of the expansion process. We present some of these solutions in cosmological scenarios that can be applied to models that describe the inflationary period of the Universe.

Keywords: Solitons, topological defects, Branes, kinks, accelerating universes in Brane scenarios.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 234
371 Characterization of the Dispersion Phenomenon in an Optical Biosensor

Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chin-Ting Kuo, Yung-Chun Yang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, Chiang-Ho Cheng

Abstract:

Optical biosensors have become a powerful detection and analysis tool for wide-ranging applications in biomedical research, pharmaceuticals and environmental monitoring. This study carried out the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to explore the dispersion phenomenon in the micro channel of an optical biosensor. The predicted time sequences of concentration contours were utilized to better understand the dispersion development occurred in different geometric shapes of micro channels. The simulation results showed the surface concentrations at the sensing probe (with the best performance of a grating coupler) in respect of time to appraise the dispersion effect and therefore identify the design configurations resulting in minimum dispersion.

Keywords: CFD simulations, dispersion, microfluidic, optical waveguide sensors.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1689
370 On the Characteristics of Liquid Explosive Dispersing Flow

Authors: Lei Li, Xiaobing Ren, Xiaoxia Lu, Xiaofang Yan

Abstract:

In this paper, some experiments of liquid dispersion flow driven by explosion in vertical plane were carried out using a liquid explosive dispersion device with film cylindrical constraints. The separated time series describing the breakup shape and dispersion process of liquid were recorded with high speed CMOS camera. The experimental results were analyzed and some essential characteristics of liquid dispersing flow are presented.

Keywords: Explosive Disseminations, liquid dispersion Flow, Cavitations, Gasification.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1581
369 The Effects of Peristalsis on Dispersion of a Micropolar Fluid in the Presence of Magnetic Field

Authors: Habtu Alemayehu, G. Radhakrishnamacharya

Abstract:

The paper presents an analytical solution for dispersion of a solute in the peristaltic motion of a micropolar fluid in the presence of magnetic field and both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. The average effective dispersion coefficient has been found using Taylor-s limiting condition under long wavelength approximation. The effects of various relevant parameters on the average coefficient of dispersion have been studied. The average effective dispersion coefficient increases with amplitude ratio, cross viscosity coefficient and heterogeneous chemical reaction rate parameter. But it decreases with magnetic field parameter and homogeneous chemical reaction rate parameter. It can be noted that the presence of peristalsis enhances dispersion of a solute.

Keywords: Peristalsis, Dispersion, Chemical reaction, Magneticfield, Micropolar fluid

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1489
368 Effect of Medium Capacity on the Relationship between Chemical Heterogeneity and Linearly Adsorbed Solute Dispersion into Fixed Beds

Authors: K. Kaabeche-Djerafi, N. Bendjaballah-Lalaoui, S. Semra

Abstract:

The paper aims at investigating influence of medium capacity on linear adsorbed solute dispersion into chemically heterogeneous fixed beds. A discrete chemical heterogeneity distribution is considered in the one-dimensional advectivedispersive equation. The partial differential equation is solved using finite volumes method based on the Adam-Bashforth algorithm. Increased dispersion is estimated by comparing breakthrough curves second order moments and keeping identical hydrodynamic properties. As a result, dispersion increase due to chemical heterogeneity depends on the column size and surprisingly on the solid capacity. The more intense capacity is, the more important solute dispersion is. Medium length which is known to favour this effect vanishing according to the linear adsorption in fixed bed seems to create nonmonotonous variation of dispersion because of the heterogeneity. This nonmonotonous behaviour is also favoured by high capacities.

Keywords: linear adsorption; chemical heterogeneity;dispersion; fixed bed; porous media

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1396
367 Group Velocity Dispersion Management of Microstructure Optical Fibers

Authors: S. M. Abdur Razzak, M. A. Rashid, Y. Namihira, A. Sayeem

Abstract:

A simple microstructure optical fiber design based on an octagonal cladding structure is presented for simultaneously controlling dispersion and leakage properties. The finite difference method with anisotropic perfectly matched boundary layer is used to investigate the guiding properties. It is demonstrated that octagonal photonic crystal fibers with four rings can assume negative ultra-flattened dispersion of -19 + 0.23 ps/nm/km in the wavelength range of 1.275 μm to 1.68 μm, nearly zero ultra-flattened dispersion of 0 ± 0.40 ps/nm/km in a 1.38 to 1.64 μm, and low confinement losses less than 10-3 dB/km in the entire band of interest.

Keywords: Finite difference modeling, group velocity dispersion, optical fiber design, photonic crystal fiber.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1568
366 Dispersion of a Solute in Peristaltic Motion of a Couple Stress Fluid in the Presence of Magnetic Field

Authors: Habtu Alemayehu, G. Radhakrishnamacharya

Abstract:

An analytical solution for dispersion of a solute in the peristaltic motion of a couple stress fluid in the presence of magnetic field with both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions is presented. The average effective dispersion coefficient has been found using Taylor-s limiting condition and long wavelength approximation. The effects of various relevant parameters on the average effective coefficient of dispersion have been studied. The average effective dispersion coefficient tends to decrease with magnetic field parameter, homogeneous chemical reaction rate parameter and amplitude ratio but tends to increase with heterogeneous chemical reaction rate parameter.

Keywords: Dispersion, Peristalsis, Couple stress fluid, Chemicalreaction, Magnetic field.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1537
365 Influence of Chirp of High-Speed Laser Diodes and Fiber Dispersion on Performance of Non-Amplified 40-Gbps Optical Fiber Links

Authors: Moustafa Ahmed, Ahmed Bakry, Safwat W. Z. Mahmoud

Abstract:

We model and simulate the combined effect of fiber dispersion and frequency chirp of a directly modulated high-speed laser diode on the figures of merit of a non-amplified 40-Gbps optical fiber link. We consider both the return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) patterns of the pseudorandom modulation bits. The performance of the fiber communication system is assessed by the fiber-length limitation due to the fiber dispersion. We study the influence of replacing standard single-mode fibers by non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers on the maximum fiber length and evaluate the associated power penalty. We introduce new dispersion tolerances for 1-dB power penalty of the RZ and NRZ 40-Gbps optical fiber links.

Keywords: Bit error rate, dispersion, frequency chirp, fiber communications, semiconductor laser.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2919
364 Dispersion of a Solute in Peristaltic Motion of a Couple Stress Fluid through a Porous Medium with Slip Condition

Authors: Habtu Alemayehu, G. Radhakrishnamacharya

Abstract:

The paper presents an analytical solution for dispersion of a solute in the peristaltic motion of a couple stress fluid through a porous medium with slip condition in the presence of both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions. The average effective dispersion coefficient has been found using Taylor-s limiting condition and long wavelength approximation. The effects of various relevant parameters on the average coefficient of dispersion have been studied. The average effective dispersion coefficient tends to increase with permeability parameter but tends to decrease with homogeneous chemical reaction rate parameter, couple stress parameter, slip parameter and heterogeneous reaction rate parameter.

Keywords: Dispersion, Peristalsis, Couple stress fluid, Porousmedium, Chemical reaction, Slip condition.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1349
363 Predicting Dispersion Coefficient in Free-Flowing Zones of Rivers by Genetic Programming

Authors: Rajeev Ranjan Sahay

Abstract:

Transient storage zones along the flow paths of rivers have great influence on the dispersion of pollutants that are either accidentally or otherwise led into them. The speed with which these pollution clouds get transported and dispersed downstream is, to a large extent, explained by the longitudinal dispersion coefficients in the free-flowing zones of rivers (Kf). In the present work, a new empirical expression for Kf has been derived employing genetic programming (GP) on published dispersion data. The proposed expression uses few hydraulic and geometric characteristics of a river that are readily available to field engineers. Based on various performance indices, the proposed expression is found superior to other existing expression for Kf.

Keywords: Dispersion, parameter estimation, rivers, transient pollutant.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1122
362 On the Early Development of Dispersion in Flow through a Tube with Wall Reactions

Authors: M. W. Lau, C. O. Ng

Abstract:

This is a study on numerical simulation of the convection-diffusion transport of a chemical species in steady flow through a small-diameter tube, which is lined with a very thin layer made up of retentive and absorptive materials. The species may be subject to a first-order kinetic reversible phase exchange with the wall material and irreversible absorption into the tube wall. Owing to the velocity shear across the tube section, the chemical species may spread out axially along the tube at a rate much larger than that given by the molecular diffusion; this process is known as dispersion. While the long-time dispersion behavior, well described by the Taylor model, has been extensively studied in the literature, the early development of the dispersion process is by contrast much less investigated. By early development, that means a span of time, after the release of the chemical into the flow, that is shorter than or comparable to the diffusion time scale across the tube section. To understand the early development of the dispersion, the governing equations along with the reactive boundary conditions are solved numerically using the Flux Corrected Transport Algorithm (FCTA). The computation has enabled us to investigate the combined effects on the early development of the dispersion coefficient due to the reversible and irreversible wall reactions. One of the results is shown that the dispersion coefficient may approach its steady-state limit in a short time under the following conditions: (i) a high value of Damkohler number (say Da ≥ 10); (ii) a small but non-zero value of absorption rate (say Γ* ≤ 0.5).

Keywords: Dispersion coefficient, early development of dispersion, FCTA, wall reactions.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1156
361 Soliton Interaction in Multi-Core Optical Fiber: Application to WDM System

Authors: S. Arun Prakash, V. Malathi, M. S. Mani Rajan

Abstract:

The analytical bright two soliton solution of the 3- coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients in birefringent optical fiber is obtained by Darboux transformation method. To the design of ultra-speed optical devices, Soliton interaction and control in birefringence fiber is investigated. Lax pair is constructed for N coupled NLS system through AKNS method. Using two-soliton solution, we demonstrate different interaction behaviors of solitons in birefringent fiber depending on the choice of control parameters. Our results shows that interactions of optical solitons have some specific applications such as construction of logic gates, optical computing, soliton switching, and soliton amplification in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system.

Keywords: Optical soliton, soliton interaction, soliton switching, WDM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1738
360 Exact Pfaffian and N-Soliton Solutions to a (3+1)-Dimensional Generalized Integrable Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Magdy G. Asaad

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to use the Pfaffian technique to construct different classes of exact Pfaffian solutions and N-soliton solutions to some of the generalized integrable nonlinear partial differential equations in (3+1) dimensions. In this paper, I will show that the Pfaffian solutions to the nonlinear PDEs are nothing but Pfaffian identities. Solitons are among the most beneficial solutions for science and technology, from ocean waves to transmission of information through optical fibers or energy transport along protein molecules. The existence of multi-solitons, especially three-soliton solutions, is essential for information technology: it makes possible undisturbed simultaneous propagation of many pulses in both directions.

Keywords: Bilinear operator, G-BKP equation, Integrable nonlinear PDEs, Jimbo-Miwa equation, Ma-Fan equation, N-soliton solutions, Pfaffian solutions.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1834
359 Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: Optical communication systems, nanostructured, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2694
358 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Ultrasonication on Dispersion and Mechanical Performance of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Cement Mortar Composites

Authors: S. Alrekabi, A. Cundy, A. Lampropoulos, I. Savina

Abstract:

Due to their remarkable mechanical properties, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are considered by many researchers to be a highly promising filler and reinforcement agent for enhanced performance cementitious materials. Currently, however, achieving an effective dispersion of MWCNTs remains a major challenge in developing high performance nano-cementitious composites, since carbon nanotubes tend to form large agglomerates and bundles as a consequence of Van der Waals forces. In this study, effective dispersion of low concentrations of MWCNTs at 0.01%, 0.025%, and 0.05% by weight of cement in the composite was achieved by applying different sonication conditions in combination with the use of polycarboxylate ether as a surfactant. UV-Visible spectroscopy and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the dispersion of MWCNTs in water, while the dispersion states of MWCNTs within the cement composites and their surface interactions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A high sonication intensity applied over a short time period significantly enhanced the dispersion of MWCNTs at initial mixing stages, and 0.025% of MWCNTs wt. of cement, caused 86% and 27% improvement in tensile strength and compressive strength respectively, compared with a plain cement mortar.

Keywords: Dispersion, multiwall carbon nanotubes, mechanical performance, sonication conditions.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1590
357 Numerical Simulation of the Air Pollutants Dispersion Emitted by CHP Using ANSYS CFX

Authors: Oliver Mărunţălu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Elena Elisabeta Manea, Dana Andreya Bondrea, Lăcrămioara Diana Robescu

Abstract:

This paper presents the results obtained by numerical simulation using the software ANSYS CFX-CFD for the air pollutants dispersion in the atmosphere coming from the evacuation of combustion gases resulting from the fuel combustion in an electric thermal power plant. The model uses the Navier-Stokes equation to simulate the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. It is considered as important factors in elaboration of simulation the atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction), the exhaust velocity of the combustion gases, chimney height and the obstacles (buildings). Using the air quality monitoring stations it is measured the concentrations of main pollutants (SO2, NOx and PM). The pollutants were monitored over a period of 3 months, after that the average concentration are calculated, which is used by the software. The concentrations are: 8.915 μg/m3 (NOx), 9.587 μg/m3 (SO2) and 42 μg/m3 (PM). A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dispersion of the pollutant as well the concentration of this pollutants in the atmosphere.

Keywords: Air pollutants, computational fluid dynamics, dispersion, simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3978
356 The Impact of Self-Phase Modulation on Dispersion Compensated Mapping Multiplexing Technique (MMT)

Authors: Mohamed A. Elsherif, A. Malekmohammadi

Abstract:

An exploration in the competency of the optical multilevel Mapping Multiplexing Technique (MMT) system in tolerating to the impact of nonlinearities as Self Phase Modulation (SPM) during the presence of dispersion compensation methods. The existence of high energy pulses stimulates deterioration in the chirp compression process attained by SPM which introduces an upper power boundary limit. An evaluation of the post and asymmetric prepost fiber compensation methods have been deployed on the MMT system compared with others of the same bit rate modulation formats. The MMT 40 Gb/s post compensation system has 1.4 dB enhancements to the 40 Gb/s 4-Arysystem and less than 3.9 dB penalty compared to the 40 Gb/s OOK-RZsystem. However, the optimized Pre-Post asymmetric compensation has an enhancement of 4.6 dB compared to the Post compensation MMT configuration for a 30% pre compensation dispersion.

Keywords: Dispersion compensation, mapping multiplexing technique, self-phase modulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1687
355 Characteristics of Speed Dispersion in Urban Expressway

Authors: Fujian Wang, Shubin Ruan, Meiwei Dai

Abstract:

Speed dispersion has tight relation to traffic safety. In this paper, several kinds of indicating parameters (the standard speed deviation, the coefficient of variation, the deviation of V85 and V15, the mean speed deviations, and the difference between adjacent car speeds) are applied to investigate the characteristics of speed dispersion, where V85 and V15 are 85th and 15th percentile speed, respectively. Their relationships are into full investigations and the results show that: there exists a positive relation (linear) between mean speed and the deviation of V85 and V15; while a negative relation (quadratic) between traffic flow and standard speed deviation. The mean speed deviation grows exponentially with mean speed while the absolute speed deviation between adjacent cars grows linearly with the headway. The results provide some basic information for traffic management.

Keywords: Headway, indicating parameters, speed dispersion, urban expressway.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1139
354 Optical Switching Based On Bragg Solitons in A Nonuniform Fiber Bragg Grating

Authors: Abdulatif Abdusalam, Mohamed Shaban

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the nonlinear pulse propagation through a nonuniform birefringent fiber Bragg grating (FBG) whose index modulation depth varies along the propagation direction. Here, the pulse propagation is governed by the nonlinear birefringent coupled mode (NLBCM) equations. To form the Bragg soliton outside the photonic bandgap (PBG), the NLBCM equations are reduced to the well known NLS type equation by multiple scale analysis. As we consider the pulse propagation in a nonuniform FBG, the pulse propagation outside the PBG is governed by inhomogeneous NLS (INLS) rather than NLS. We then discuss the formation of soliton in the FBG known as Bragg soliton whose central frequency lies outside but close to the PBG of the grating structure. Further, we discuss Bragg soliton compression due to a delicate balance between the SPM and the varying grating induced dispersion. In addition, Bragg soliton collision, Bragg soliton switching and possible logic gates have also been discussed.

Keywords: Bragg grating, Nonuniform fiber, Nonlinear pulse.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1670
353 Effect of Chromatic Dispersion on Optical Generation of Tunable Millimeter-Wave Signals

Authors: M. R. Salehi, S. Khosroabadi

Abstract:

In this paper, the optical generation of three bands of continuously tunable millimeter-wave signals using an optical phase modulator (OPM) and a polarization state rotation filter (PSRF) as an optical notch filter is analyzed. The effect of the chromatic dispersion on millimeter-wave signals is presented.

Keywords: Optical generation, millimeter-wave, optical notchfilter , chromatic dispersion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1572
352 Characteristic Study on Conventional and Soliton Based Transmission System

Authors: Bhupeshwaran Mani, S. Radha, A. Jawahar, A. Sivasubramanian

Abstract:

Here, we study the characteristic feature of conventional (ON-OFF keying) and soliton based transmission system. We consider 20Gbps transmission system implemented with Conventional Single Mode Fiber (C-SMF) to examine the role of Gaussian pulse which is the characteristic of conventional propagation and Hyperbolic-secant pulse which is the characteristic of soliton propagation in it. We note the influence of these pulses with respect to different dispersion lengths and soliton period in conventional and soliton system respectively and evaluate the system performance in terms of Quality factor. From the analysis, we could prove that the soliton pulse has the consistent performance even for long distance without dispersion compensation than the conventional system as it is robust to dispersion. For the length of transmission of 200Km, soliton system yielded Q of 33.958 while the conventional system totally exhausted with Q=0.

Keywords: Soliton, dispersion length, Soliton period, Return-tozero (RZ), Q-factor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1425
351 CO-OFDM DSP Channel Estimation

Authors: Pranav Ravikumar, Arunabha Bera, Vijay K. Mehra, Anand Kumar

Abstract:

This paper solves the Non Linear Schrodinger Equation using the Split Step Fourier method for modeling an optical fiber. The model generates a complex wave of optical pulses and using the results obtained two graphs namely Loss versus Wavelength and Dispersion versus Wavelength are generated. Taking Chromatic Dispersion and Polarization Mode Dispersion losses into account, the graphs generated are compared with the graphs formulated by JDS Uniphase Corporation which uses standard values of dispersion for optical fibers. The graphs generated when compared with the JDS Uniphase Corporation plots were found to be more or less similar thus verifying that the model proposed is right. MATLAB software was used for doing the modeling.

Keywords: Modulation, Non Linear Schrodinger Equation, Optical fiber, Split Step Fourier Method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2539
350 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao

Abstract:

Particles exhausted from cars have adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: Dispersion, Idling conditions, Particle concentration, Residential underground garage.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1648