Search results for: Intelligent optical network
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3727

Search results for: Intelligent optical network

3727 Design of Ultra Fast Polymer Electro-Optic waveguide Switch for Intelligent Optical Networks

Authors: S.Ponmalar, S.Sundaravadivelu

Abstract:

Traditional optical networks are gradually evolving towards intelligent optical networks due to the need for faster bandwidth provisioning, protection and restoration of the network that can be accomplished with devices like optical switch, add drop multiplexer and cross connects. Since dense wavelength multiplexing forms the physical layer for intelligent optical networking, the roll of high speed all optical switch is important. This paper analyzes such an ultra-high speed polymer electro-optic switch. The performances of the 2x2 optical waveguide switch with rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal grating profiles on various device parameters are analyzed. The simulation result shows that trapezoidal grating is the optimized structure which has the coupling length of 81μm and switching voltage of 11V for the operating wavelength of 1550nm. The switching time for this proposed switch is 0.47 picosecond. This makes the proposed switch to be an important element in the intelligent optical network.

Keywords: Intelligent optical network, optical switch, electrooptic effect, coupled mode theory, waveguide grating structures

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3726 Monitoring and Prediction of Intra-Crosstalk in All-Optical Network

Authors: Ahmed Jedidi, Mesfer Mohammed Alshamrani, Alwi Mohammad A. Bamhdi

Abstract:

Optical performance monitoring and optical network management are essential in building a reliable, high-capacity, and service-differentiation enabled all-optical network. One of the serious problems in this network is the fact that optical crosstalk is additive, and thus the aggregate effect of crosstalk over a whole AON may be more nefarious than a single point of crosstalk. As results, we note a huge degradation of the Quality of Service (QoS) in our network. For that, it is necessary to identify and monitor the impairments in whole network. In this way, this paper presents new system to identify and monitor crosstalk in AONs in real-time fashion. particular, it proposes a new technique to manage intra-crosstalk in objective to relax QoS of the network.

Keywords: All-optical networks, optical crosstalk, optical cross-connect, crosstalk, monitoring crosstalk.

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3725 A Framework for the Design of Green Giga Passive Optical Fiber Access Network in Kuwait

Authors: Ali A. Hammadi

Abstract:

In this work, a practical study on a commissioned Giga Passive Optical Network (GPON) fiber to the home access network in Kuwait is presented. The work covers the framework of the conceptual design of the deployed Passive Optical Networks (PONs), access network, optical fiber cable network distribution, technologies, and standards. The work also describes methodologies applied by system engineers for design of Optical Network Terminals (ONTs) and Optical Line Terminals (OLTs) transceivers with respect to the distance, operating wavelengths, splitting ratios. The results have demonstrated and justified the limitation of transmission distance of a PON link in Fiber to The Premises (FTTP) to not exceed 20 km. Optical Time Domain Reflector (OTDR) test has been carried for this project to confirm compliance with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) specifications regarding the total length of the deployed optical cable, total loss in dB, and loss per km in dB/km with respect to the operating wavelengths. OTDR test results with traces for segments of implemented fiber network will be provided and discussed.

Keywords: Passive optical networks, fiber to the premises, access network, OTDR.

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3724 Reliability Optimization for 3G Cellular Access Networks

Authors: Ekkaluk Eksook, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

This paper address the network reliability optimization problem in the optical access network design for the 3G cellular systems. We presents a novel 0-1 integer programming model for designing optical access network topologies comprised of multi-rings with common-edge in order to guarantee always-on services. The results show that the proposed model yields access network topologies with the optimal reliablity and satisfies both network cost limitations and traffic demand requirements.

Keywords: Network Reliability, Topological Network Design, 3G Cellular Networks.

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3723 Bayesian Network Based Intelligent Pediatric System

Authors: Jagmohan Mago, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Neeru Chawla

Abstract:

In this paper, a Bayesian Network (BN) based system is presented for providing clinical decision support to healthcare practitioners in rural or remote areas of India for young infants or children up to the age of 5 years. The government is unable to appoint child specialists in rural areas because of inadequate number of available pediatricians. It leads to a high Infant Mortality Rate (IMR). In such a scenario, Intelligent Pediatric System provides a realistic solution. The prototype of an intelligent system has been developed that involves a knowledge component called an Intelligent Pediatric Assistant (IPA); and User Agents (UA) along with their Graphical User Interfaces (GUI). The GUI of UA provides the interface to the healthcare practitioner for submitting sign-symptoms and displaying the expert opinion as suggested by IPA. Depending upon the observations, the IPA decides the diagnosis and the treatment plan. The UA and IPA form client-server architecture for knowledge sharing.

Keywords: Network, Based Intelligent, Pediatric System

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3722 Comparative Performance Analysis of Fiber Delay Line Based Buffer Architectures for Contention Resolution in Optical WDM Networks

Authors: Manoj Kumar Dutta

Abstract:

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is the most promising technology for the proper utilization of huge raw bandwidth provided by an optical fiber. One of the key problems in implementing the all-optical WDM network is the packet contention. This problem can be solved by several different techniques. In time domain approach the packet contention can be reduced by incorporating Fiber Delay Lines (FDLs) as optical buffer in the switch architecture. Different types of buffering architectures are reported in literatures. In the present paper a comparative performance analysis of three most popular FDL architectures are presented in order to obtain the best contention resolution performance. The analysis is further extended to consider the effect of different fiber non-linearities on the network performance.

Keywords: WDM network, contention resolution, optical buffering, non-linearity, throughput.

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3721 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) Networks

Authors: Eman I. Raslan, Haitham S. Hamza, Reda A. El-Khoribi

Abstract:

Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) networks are a promising candidate for future broadband access networks. These networks combine the optical network as the back end where different passive optical network (PON) technologies are realized and the wireless network as the front end where different wireless technologies are adopted, e.g. LTE, WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). The convergence of both optical and wireless technologies requires designing architectures with robust efficient and effective bandwidth allocation schemes. Different bandwidth allocation algorithms have been proposed in FiWi networks aiming to enhance the different segments of FiWi networks including wireless and optical subnetworks. In this survey, we focus on the differentiating between the different bandwidth allocation algorithms according to their enhancement segment of FiWi networks. We classify these techniques into wireless, optical and Hybrid bandwidth allocation techniques.

Keywords: Fiber-Wireless (FiWi), dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), passive optical networks (PON), media access control (MAC).

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3720 Using of Latin Router for Routing Wavelength with Configuration Algorithm

Authors: A. Habiboghli, R. Mostafaei, M. R.Meybodi

Abstract:

Optical network uses a tool for routing which is called Latin router. These routers use particular algorithms for routing. In this paper, we present algorithm for configuration of optical network that is optimized regarding previous algorithm. We show that by decreasing the number of hops for source-destination in lightpath number of satisfied request is less. Also we had shown that more than single-hop lightpath relating single-hop lightpath is better.

Keywords: Latin Router, Constraint Satisfied, Wavelength, Optical Network

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3719 An Optical WDM Network Concept for Tanzania

Authors: S. Pazi, C. Chatwin, R. Young, P. Birch

Abstract:

Tanzania is a developing country, which significantly lags behind the rest of the world in information communications technology (ICT), especially for the Internet. Internet connectivity to the rest of the world is via expensive satellite links, thus leaving the majority of the population unable to access the Internet due to the high cost. This paper introduces the concept of an optical WDM network for Internet infrastructure in Tanzania, so as to reduce Internet connection costs, and provide Internet access to the majority of people who live in both urban and rural areas. We also present a proposed optical WDM network, which mitigates the effects of system impairments, and provide simulation results to show that the data is successfully transmitted over a longer distance using a WDM network.

Keywords: Internet infrastructure, Internet access, Internettraffic, WDM.

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3718 Development of the Gas Safety Management System using an Intelligent Gasmeter with Wireless ZigBee Network

Authors: Gyou-tae Park, Young-gyu Kim, Jeong-rock Kwon, Yongwoo Lee, Hiesik Kim

Abstract:

The gas safety management system using an intelligent gas meter we proposed is to monitor flow and pressure of gas, earthquake, temperature, smoke and leak of methane. Then our system takes safety measures to protect a serious risk by the result of an event, to communicate with a wall-pad including a gateway by zigbee network in buildings and to report the event to user by the safety management program in a server. Also, the inner cutoff valve of an intelligent gas meter is operated if any event occurred or abnormal at each sensor.

Keywords: micom gas-meter, gas safety, zigbee, ubiquitous

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3717 Wavelength Conversion of Dispersion Managed Solitons at 100 Gbps through Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

Authors: Kadam Bhambri, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

All optical wavelength conversion is essential in present day optical networks for transparent interoperability, contention resolution, and wavelength routing. The incorporation of all optical wavelength convertors leads to better utilization of the network resources and hence improves the efficiency of optical networks. Wavelength convertors that can work with Dispersion Managed (DM) solitons are attractive due to their superior transmission capabilities. In this paper, wavelength conversion for dispersion managed soliton signals was demonstrated at 100 Gbps through semiconductor optical amplifier and an optical filter. The wavelength conversion was achieved for a 1550 nm input signal to1555nm output signal. The output signal was measured in terms of BER, Q factor and system margin.    

Keywords: All optical wavelength conversion, dispersion managed solitons, semiconductor optical amplifier, cross gain modulation.

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3716 Tehran-Tabriz Intelligent Highway

Authors: P. Parvizi, F. Norouzifard, S.Mohammadi

Abstract:

The need to implement intelligent highways is much more emphasized with the growth of vehicle production line as well as vehicle intelligence. The control of intelligent vehicles in order to reduce human error and boost ease congestion is not accomplished solely by the aid of human resources. The present article is an attempt to introduce an intelligent control system based on a single central computer. In this project, central computer, without utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS), is capable of tracking all vehicles, crisis management and control, traffic guidance and recording traffic crimes along the highway. By the help of RFID technology, vehicles are connected to computerized systems, intelligent light poles and other available hardware along the way. By the aid of Wimax communicative technology, all components of the system are virtually connected together through local and global networks devised in them and the energy of the network is provided by the solar cells installed on the intelligent light poles.

Keywords: intelligent highway, intelligent light pole, highway automation

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3715 A Novel Feedback-Based Integrated FiWi Networks Architecture by Centralized Interlink-ONU Communication

Authors: Noman Khan, B. S. Chowdhry, A.Q.K Rajput

Abstract:

Integrated fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks are a viable solution that can deliver the high profile quadruple play services. Passive optical networks (PON) networks integrated with wireless access networks provide ubiquitous characteristics for high bandwidth applications. Operation of PON improves by employing a variety of multiplexing techniques. One of it is time division/wavelength division multiplexed (TDM/WDM) architecture that improves the performance of optical-wireless access networks. This paper proposes a novel feedback-based TDM/WDM-PON architecture and introduces a model of integrated PON-FiWi networks. Feedback-based link architecture is an efficient solution to improves the performance of optical-line-terminal (OLT) and interlink optical-network-units (ONUs) communication. Furthermore, the feedback-based WDM/TDM-PON architecture is compared with existing architectures in terms of capacity of network throughput.

Keywords: Fiber-wireless (FiWi), Passive Optical Network (PON), TDM/WDM architecture

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3714 Analysis of MAC Protocols with Correlation Receiver for OCDMA Networks - Part II

Authors: Shivaleela E. S., Shrikant S. Tangade

Abstract:

In this paper optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) packet network is considered, which offers inherent security in the access networks. Two types of random access protocols are proposed for packet transmission. In protocol 1, all distinct codes and in protocol 2, distinct codes as well as shifted versions of all these codes are used. O-CDMA network performance using optical orthogonal codes (OOCs) 1-D and two-dimensional (2-D) wavelength/time single-pulse-per-row (W/T SPR) codes are analyzed. The main advantage of using 2-D codes instead of onedimensional (1-D) codes is to reduce the errors due to multiple access interference among different users. In this paper, correlation receiver is considered in the analysis. Using analytical model, we compute and compare packet-success probability for 1-D and 2-D codes in an O-CDMA network and the analysis shows improved performance with 2-D codes as compared to 1-D codes.

Keywords: Optical code-division multiple-access, optical CDMA correlation receiver, wavelength/time optical CDMA codes.

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3713 Blind Spot Area Tracking Solution Using 1x12 POF-Based Optical Couplers

Authors: Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Mohd Hadi Guna Safnal, Mohd Hazwan Harun, Mohd.Saiful Dzulkefly Zan, Kasmiran Jumari

Abstract:

Optical 1x12 fused-taper-twisted polymer optical fiber (POF) couplers has been fabricated by a perform technique. Characterization of the coupler which proposed to be used in passive night vision application to tracking a blind sport area was reported. During the development process of fused-taper-twisted POF couplers was carried out, red LED fully utilized to be injected into the couplers to test the quality of fabricated couplers. Some characterization parameters, such as optical output power, POFs attenuation characteristics and power losses on the network were observed. The maximum output power efficiency of the coupler is about 40%, but it can be improved gradually through experience and practice.

Keywords: polymer optical fiber (POF), customer-made, fused-taper-twisted fiber, optical coupler, small world communication, home network.

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3712 Monitoring and Fault-Recovery Capacity with Waveguide Grating-based Optical Switch over WDM/OCDMA-PON

Authors: Yao-Tang Chang, Chuen-Ching Wang, Shu-Han Hu

Abstract:

In order to implement flexibility as well as survivable capacities over passive optical network (PON), a new automatic random fault-recovery mechanism with array-waveguide-grating based (AWG-based) optical switch (OSW) is presented. Firstly, wavelength-division-multiplexing and optical code-division multiple-access (WDM/OCDMA) scheme are configured to meet the various geographical locations requirement between optical network unit (ONU) and optical line terminal (OLT). The AWG-base optical switch is designed and viewed as central star-mesh topology to prohibit/decrease the duplicated redundant elements such as fiber and transceiver as well. Hence, by simple monitoring and routing switch algorithm, random fault-recovery capacity is achieved over bi-directional (up/downstream) WDM/OCDMA scheme. When error of distribution fiber (DF) takes place or bit-error-rate (BER) is higher than 10-9 requirement, the primary/slave AWG-based OSW are adjusted and controlled dynamically to restore the affected ONU groups via the other working DFs immediately.

Keywords: Random fault recovery mechanism, Array-waveguide-grating based optical switch (AWG- based OSW), wavelength-division-multiplexing and optical code-divisionmultiple-access (WDM/ OCDMA)

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3711 Design of Non-Blocking and Rearrangeable Modified Banyan Network with Electro-Optic MZI Switching Elements

Authors: Ghanshyam Singh, Tirtha Pratim Bhattacharjee, R. P. Yadav, V. Janyani

Abstract:

Banyan networks are really attractive for serving as the optical switching architectures due to their unique properties of small depth and absolute signal loss uniformity. The fact has been established that the limitations of blocking nature and the nonavailability of proper connections due to non-rearrangeable property can be easily ruled out using electro-optic MZI switches as basic switching elements. Combination of the horizontal expansion and vertical stacking of optical banyan networks is an appropriate scheme for constructing non-blocking banyan-based optical switching networks. The interconnected banyan switching fabrics (IBSF) have been considered and analyzed to best serve the purpose of optical switching with electro-optic MZI basic elements. The cross/bar state interchange for the switches has been facilitated by appropriate voltage switching or the by the switching of operating wavelength. The paper is dedicated to the modification of the basic switching element being used as well as the architecture of the switching network.

Keywords: MZI switch, Banyan network, Reconfigurable switches.

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3710 Auto-Parking System via Intelligent Computation Intelligence

Authors: Y. J. Huang, C. H. Chang

Abstract:

In this paper, an intelligent automatic parking control method is proposed. First, the dynamical equation of the rear parking control is derived. Then a fuzzy logic control is proposed to perform the parking planning process. Further, a rear neural network is proposed for the steering control. Through the simulations and experiments, the intelligent auto-parking mode controllers have been shown to achieve the demanded goals with satisfactory control performance and to guarantee the system robustness under parametric variations and external disturbances. To improve some shortcomings and limitations in conventional parking mode control and further to reduce consumption time and prime cost.

Keywords: Auto-parking system, Fuzzy control, Neural network, Robust

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3709 Optical Signal-To-Noise Ratio Monitoring Based on Delay Tap Sampling Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Feng Wang, Shencheng Ni, Shuying Han, Shanhong You

Abstract:

With the development of optical communication, optical performance monitoring (OPM) has received more and more attentions. Since optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is directly related to bit error rate (BER), it is one of the important parameters in optical networks. Recently, artificial neural network (ANN) has been greatly developed. ANN has strong learning and generalization ability. In this paper, a method of OSNR monitoring based on delay-tap sampling (DTS) and ANN has been proposed. DTS technique is used to extract the eigenvalues of the signal. Then, the eigenvalues are input into the ANN to realize the OSNR monitoring. The experiments of 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) on–off keying (OOK), 20 Gb/s pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) and 20 Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) systems are demonstrated for the OSNR monitoring based on the proposed method. The experimental results show that the range of OSNR monitoring is from 15 to 30 dB and the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK, 20 Gb/s PAM4 and 20 Gb/s RZ-DPSK systems are 0.36 dB, 0.45 dB and 0.48 dB respectively. The impact of chromatic dispersion (CD) on the accuracy of OSNR monitoring is also investigated in the three experimental systems mentioned above.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, ANN, chromatic dispersion, delay-tap sampling, optical signal-to-noise ratio, OSNR.

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3708 Parallel Computation of Data Summation for Multiple Problem Spaces on Partitioned Optical Passive Stars Network

Authors: Khin Thida Latt, Mineo Kaneko, Yoichi Shinoda

Abstract:

In Partitioned Optical Passive Stars POPS network,nodes and couplers become free after slot to slot in some computation.It is necessary to efficiently utilize free couplers and nodes to be cost effective. Improving parallelism, we present the fast data summation algorithm for multiple problem spaces on P OP S(g, g) with smaller number of nodes for the case of d =n = g. For the case of d >n > g, we simulate the calculation of large number of data items dedicated to larger system with many nodes on smaller system with smaller number of nodes. The algorithm is faster than the best know algorithm and using smaller number of nodes and groups make the system low cost and practical.

Keywords: Partitioned optical passive stars network, parallelcomputing, optical computing, data sum

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3707 Access Control System: Monitoring Tool for Fiber to the Home Passive Optical Network

Authors: Aswir Premadi, Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab. Rahman, Mohamad Najib Moh. Saupe, KasmiranJumari

Abstract:

An optical fault monitoring in FTTH-PON using ACS is demonstrated. This device can achieve real-time fault monitoring for protection feeder fiber. In addition, the ACS can distinguish optical fiber fault from the transmission services to other customers in the FTTH-PON. It is essential to use a wavelength different from the triple-play services operating wavelengths for failure detection. ACS is using the operating wavelength 1625 nm for monitoring and failure detection control. Our solution works on a standard local area network (LAN) using a specially designed hardware interfaced with a microcontroller integrated Ethernet.

Keywords: ACS, monitoring tool, FTTH-PON.

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3706 Intelligent Network-Based Stepping Stone Detection Approach

Authors: Mohd Nizam Omar, Rahmat Budiarto

Abstract:

This research intends to introduce a new usage of Artificial Intelligent (AI) approaches in Stepping Stone Detection (SSD) fields of research. By using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) approaches as the engine, through the experiment, it is shown that SOM has the capability to detect the number of connection chains that involved in a stepping stones. Realizing that by counting the number of connection chain is one of the important steps of stepping stone detection and it become the research focus currently, this research has chosen SOM as the AI techniques because of its capabilities. Through the experiment, it is shown that SOM can detect the number of involved connection chains in Network-based Stepping Stone Detection (NSSD).

Keywords: Artificial Intelligent, Self-Organizing Map (SOM), Stepping Stone Detection, Tracing Intruder.

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3705 Intelligent Multi-Agent Middleware for Ubiquitous Home Networking Environments

Authors: Minwoo Son, Seung-Hun Lee, Dongkyoo Shin, Dongil Shin

Abstract:

The next stage of the home networking environment is supposed to be ubiquitous, where each piece of material is equipped with an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tag. To fully support the ubiquitous environment, home networking middleware should be able to recommend home services based on a user-s interests and efficiently manage information on service usage profiles for the users. Therefore, USN (Ubiquitous Sensor Network) technology, which recognizes and manages a appliance-s state-information (location, capabilities, and so on) by connecting RFID tags is considered. The Intelligent Multi-Agent Middleware (IMAM) architecture was proposed to intelligently manage the mobile RFID-based home networking and to automatically supply information about home services that match a user-s interests. Evaluation results for personalization services for IMAM using Bayesian-Net and Decision Trees are presented.

Keywords: Intelligent Agents, Home Network, Mobile RFID, Intelligent Middleware.

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3704 An Enterprise Intelligent System Development and Solution Framework

Authors: Rajendra M. Sonar

Abstract:

The recent trend has been using hybrid approach rather than using a single intelligent technique to solve the problems. In this paper, we describe and discuss a framework to develop enterprise solutions that are backed by intelligent techniques. The framework not only uses intelligent techniques themselves but it is a complete environment that includes various interfaces and components to develop the intelligent solutions. The framework is completely Web-based and uses XML extensively. It can work like shared plat-form to be accessed by multiple developers, users and decision makers.

Keywords: Intelligent System Development Framework, WebbasedIntelligent Systems, Retail Banking.

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3703 Using Technology with a New Model of Management Development by Simulation of Neural Network and its Application on Intelligent Schools

Authors: Ahmad Ghayoumi, Mehdi Ghayoumi

Abstract:

Intelligent schools are those which use IT devices and technologies as media software, hardware and networks to improve learning process. On the other hand management improvement is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations Here, we present a model Management improvement System that has been applied on some schools and have made strict improvement.

Keywords: Intelligent school, Management development system, Learning station, Teaching station

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3702 Gain Tuning Fuzzy Controller for an Optical Disk Drive

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Ming-Tien Su

Abstract:

Since the driving speed and control accuracy of commercial optical disk are increasing significantly, it needs an efficient controller to monitor the track seeking and following operations of the servo system for achieving the desired data extracting response. The nonlinear behaviors of the actuator and servo system of the optical disk drive will influence the laser spot positioning. Here, the model-free fuzzy control scheme is employed to design the track seeking servo controller for a d.c. motor driving optical disk drive system. In addition, the sliding model control strategy is introduced into the fuzzy control structure to construct a 1-D adaptive fuzzy rule intelligent controller for simplifying the implementation problem and improving the control performance. The experimental results show that the steady state error of the track seeking by using this fuzzy controller can maintain within the track width (1.6 μm ). It can be used in the track seeking and track following servo control operations.

Keywords: Fuzzy control, gain tuning and optical disk drive.

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3701 Comparison of Router Intelligent and Cooperative Host Intelligent Algorithms in a Continuous Model of Fixed Telecommunication Networks

Authors: Dávid Csercsik, Sándor Imre

Abstract:

The performance of state of the art worldwide telecommunication networks strongly depends on the efficiency of the applied routing mechanism. Game theoretical approaches to this problem offer new solutions. In this paper a new continuous network routing model is defined to describe data transfer in fixed telecommunication networks of multiple hosts. The nodes of the network correspond to routers whose latency is assumed to be traffic dependent. We propose that the whole traffic of the network can be decomposed to a finite number of tasks, which belong to various hosts. To describe the different latency-sensitivity, utility functions are defined for each task. The model is used to compare router and host intelligent types of routing methods, corresponding to various data transfer protocols. We analyze host intelligent routing as a transferable utility cooperative game with externalities. The main aim of the paper is to provide a framework in which the efficiency of various routing algorithms can be compared and the transferable utility game arising in the cooperative case can be analyzed.

Keywords: Routing, Telecommunication networks, Performance evaluation, Cooperative game theory, Partition function form games

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3700 Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Comparative Analysis: Modulation Formats and Channel Spacings

Authors: A. Fayad, Q. Alqhazaly, T. Cinkler

Abstract:

In light of the substantial increase in end-user requirements and the incessant need of network operators to upgrade the capabilities of access networks, in this paper, the performance of the different modulation formats on eight-channels Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (TWDM-PON) transmission system has been examined and compared. Limitations and features of modulation formats have been determined to outline the most suitable design to enhance the data rate and transmission reach to obtain the best performance of the network. The considered modulation formats are On-Off Keying Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ-OOK), Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero (CSRZ), Duo Binary (DB), Modified Duo Binary (MODB), Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), and Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK). The performance has been analyzed by varying transmission distances and bit rates under different channel spacing. Furthermore, the system is evaluated in terms of minimum Bit Error Rate (BER) and Quality factor (Qf) without applying any dispersion compensation technique, or any optical amplifier. Optisystem software was used for simulation purposes.

Keywords: Bit Error Rate, BER, Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero, CSRZ, Duo Binary, DB, Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, DQPSK, Modified Duo Binary, MODB, On-Off Keying Non-Return-to-Zero, NRZ-OOK, Quality factor, Qf, Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network, TWDM-PON.

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3699 Persian Printed Numeral Characters Recognition Using Geometrical Central Moments and Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network

Authors: Hamid Reza Boveiri

Abstract:

In this paper, a new proposed system for Persian printed numeral characters recognition with emphasis on representation and recognition stages is introduced. For the first time, in Persian optical character recognition, geometrical central moments as character image descriptor and fuzzy min-max neural network for Persian numeral character recognition has been used. Set of different experiments on binary images of regular, translated, rotated and scaled Persian numeral characters has been done and variety of results has been presented. The best result was 99.16% correct recognition demonstrating geometrical central moments and fuzzy min-max neural network are adequate for Persian printed numeral character recognition.

Keywords: Fuzzy min-max neural network, geometrical centralmoments, optical character recognition, Persian digits recognition, Persian printed numeral characters recognition.

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3698 Characterization Non-Deterministic of Optical Channels

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

The use of optical technologies in the telecommunications has been increasing due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. However, as in all systems of data transmission, optical communication channels suffer from undesirable and non-deterministic effects, being essential to know the same. Thus, this research allows the assessment of these effects, as well as their characterization and beneficial uses of these effects.

Keywords: Optical communication, optical fiber, non-deterministic effects.

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