Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1197

Search results for: Kernel Principal Component Analysis(KPCA)

1197 Finger Vein Recognition using PCA-based Methods

Authors: Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared, Ali Khalili Mobarakeh, Mohsen Pashna, , Jiangping Gou Sayedmehran Mirsafaie Rizi, Saba Nazari, Shadi Mahmoodi Khaniabadi, Mohamad Ali Bagheri

Abstract:

In this paper a novel algorithm is proposed to merit the accuracy of finger vein recognition. The performances of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), and Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KECA) in this algorithm are validated and compared with each other in order to determine which one is the most appropriate one in terms of finger vein recognition.

Keywords: Biometrics, finger vein recognition, PrincipalComponent Analysis (PCA), Kernel Principal Component Analysis(KPCA), Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KPCA).

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1196 Optimal Feature Extraction Dimension in Finger Vein Recognition Using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Amir Hajian, Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared

Abstract:

In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.

Keywords: Biometrics, finger vein recognition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA).

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1195 Adaptive Kernel Principal Analysis for Online Feature Extraction

Authors: Mingtao Ding, Zheng Tian, Haixia Xu

Abstract:

The batch nature limits the standard kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) methods in numerous applications, especially for dynamic or large-scale data. In this paper, an efficient adaptive approach is presented for online extraction of the kernel principal components (KPC). The contribution of this paper may be divided into two parts. First, kernel covariance matrix is correctly updated to adapt to the changing characteristics of data. Second, KPC are recursively formulated to overcome the batch nature of standard KPCA.This formulation is derived from the recursive eigen-decomposition of kernel covariance matrix and indicates the KPC variation caused by the new data. The proposed method not only alleviates sub-optimality of the KPCA method for non-stationary data, but also maintains constant update speed and memory usage as the data-size increases. Experiments for simulation data and real applications demonstrate that our approach yields improvements in terms of both computational speed and approximation accuracy.

Keywords: adaptive method, kernel principal component analysis, online extraction, recursive algorithm

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1194 Face Recognition with PCA and KPCA using Elman Neural Network and SVM

Authors: Hossein Esbati, Jalil Shirazi

Abstract:

In this paper, in order to categorize ORL database face pictures, principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) methods by using Elman neural network and Support Vector Machine (SVM) categorization methods are used. Elman network as a recurrent neural network is proposed for modeling storage systems and also it is used for reviewing the effect of using PCA numbers on system categorization precision rate and database pictures categorization time. Categorization stages are conducted with various components numbers and the obtained results of both Elman neural network categorization and support vector machine are compared. In optimum manner 97.41% recognition accuracy is obtained.

Keywords: Face recognition, Principal Component Analysis, Kernel Principal Component Analysis, Neural network, Support Vector Machine.

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1193 Principal Component Analysis for the Characterization in the Application of Some Soil Properties

Authors: Kamolchanok Panishkan, Kanokporn Swangjang, Natdhera Sanmanee, Daoroong Sungthong

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to study principal component analysis for classification of 67 soil samples collected from different agricultural areas in the western part of Thailand. Six soil properties were measured on the soil samples and are used as original variables. Principal component analysis is applied to reduce the number of original variables. A model based on the first two principal components accounts for 72.24% of total variance. Score plots of first two principal components were used to map with agricultural areas divided into horticulture, field crops and wetland. The results showed some relationships between soil properties and agricultural areas. PCA was shown to be a useful tool for agricultural areas classification based on soil properties.

Keywords: soil organic matter, soil properties, classification, principal components

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1192 Principal Component Regression in Noninvasive Pineapple Soluble Solids Content Assessment Based On Shortwave Near Infrared Spectrum

Authors: K. S. Chia, H. Abdul Rahim, R. Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

The Principal component regression (PCR) is a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The objective of this paper is to revise the use of PCR in shortwave near infrared (SWNIR) (750-1000nm) spectral analysis. The idea of PCR was explained mathematically and implemented in the non-destructive assessment of the soluble solid content (SSC) of pineapple based on SWNIR spectral data. PCR achieved satisfactory results in this application with root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.7611 Brix°, coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.5865 and root mean squared error of crossvalidation (RMSECV) of 0.8323 Brix° with principal components (PCs) of 14.

Keywords: Pineapple, Shortwave near infrared, Principal component regression, Non-invasive measurement; Soluble solids content

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1191 Non-negative Principal Component Analysis for Face Recognition

Authors: Zhang Yan, Yu Bin

Abstract:

Principle component analysis is often combined with the state-of-art classification algorithms to recognize human faces. However, principle component analysis can only capture these features contributing to the global characteristics of data because it is a global feature selection algorithm. It misses those features contributing to the local characteristics of data because each principal component only contains some levels of global characteristics of data. In this study, we present a novel face recognition approach using non-negative principal component analysis which is added with the constraint of non-negative to improve data locality and contribute to elucidating latent data structures. Experiments are performed on the Cambridge ORL face database. We demonstrate the strong performances of the algorithm in recognizing human faces in comparison with PCA and NREMF approaches.

Keywords: classification, face recognition, non-negativeprinciple component analysis (NPCA)

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1190 Comparative Studies of Support Vector Regression between Reproducing Kernel and Gaussian Kernel

Authors: Wei Zhang, Su-Yan Tang, Yi-Fan Zhu, Wei-Ping Wang

Abstract:

Support vector regression (SVR) has been regarded as a state-of-the-art method for approximation and regression. The importance of kernel function, which is so-called admissible support vector kernel (SV kernel) in SVR, has motivated many studies on its composition. The Gaussian kernel (RBF) is regarded as a “best" choice of SV kernel used by non-expert in SVR, whereas there is no evidence, except for its superior performance on some practical applications, to prove the statement. Its well-known that reproducing kernel (R.K) is also a SV kernel which possesses many important properties, e.g. positive definiteness, reproducing property and composing complex R.K by simpler ones. However, there are a limited number of R.Ks with explicit forms and consequently few quantitative comparison studies in practice. In this paper, two R.Ks, i.e. SV kernels, composed by the sum and product of a translation invariant kernel in a Sobolev space are proposed. An exploratory study on the performance of SVR based general R.K is presented through a systematic comparison to that of RBF using multiple criteria and synthetic problems. The results show that the R.K is an equivalent or even better SV kernel than RBF for the problems with more input variables (more than 5, especially more than 10) and higher nonlinearity.

Keywords: admissible support vector kernel, reproducing kernel, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, support vector regression.

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1189 Principal Component Analysis using Singular Value Decomposition of Microarray Data

Authors: Dong Hoon Lim

Abstract:

A series of microarray experiments produces observations of differential expression for thousands of genes across multiple conditions. Principal component analysis(PCA) has been widely used in multivariate data analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the data in order to simplify subsequent analysis and allow for summarization of the data in a parsimonious manner. PCA, which can be implemented via a singular value decomposition(SVD), is useful for analysis of microarray data. For application of PCA using SVD we use the DNA microarray data for the small round blue cell tumors(SRBCT) of childhood by Khan et al.(2001). To decide the number of components which account for sufficient amount of information we draw scree plot. Biplot, a graphic display associated with PCA, reveals important features that exhibit relationship between variables and also the relationship of variables with observations.

Keywords: Principal component analysis, singular value decomposition, microarray data, SRBCT

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1188 Application of Multi-Dimensional Principal Component Analysis to Medical Data

Authors: Naoki Yamamoto, Jun Murakami, Chiharu Okuma, Yutaro Shigeto, Satoko Saito, Takashi Izumi, Nozomi Hayashida

Abstract:

Multi-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) is the extension of the PCA, which is used widely as the dimensionality reduction technique in multivariate data analysis, to handle multi-dimensional data. To calculate the PCA the singular value decomposition (SVD) is commonly employed by the reason of its numerical stability. The multi-dimensional PCA can be calculated by using the higher-order SVD (HOSVD), which is proposed by Lathauwer et al., similarly with the case of ordinary PCA. In this paper, we apply the multi-dimensional PCA to the multi-dimensional medical data including the functional independence measure (FIM) score, and describe the results of experimental analysis.

Keywords: multi-dimensional principal component analysis, higher-order SVD (HOSVD), functional independence measure (FIM), medical data, tensor decomposition

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1187 Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Decathlon Performance Results in Olympic Athletes (1988-2008)

Authors: Jaebum Park, Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky

Abstract:

The performance results of the athletes competed in the 1988-2008 Olympic Games were analyzed (n = 166). The data were obtained from the IAAF official protocols. In the principal component analysis, the first three principal components explained 70% of the total variance. In the 1st principal component (with 43.1% of total variance explained) the largest factor loadings were for 100m (0.89), 400m (0.81), 110m hurdle run (0.76), and long jump (–0.72). This factor can be interpreted as the 'sprinting performance'. The loadings on the 2nd factor (15.3% of the total variance) presented a counter-intuitive throwing-jumping combination: the highest loadings were for throwing events (javelin throwing 0.76; shot put 0.74; and discus throwing 0.73) and also for jumping events (high jump 0.62; pole vaulting 0.58). On the 3rd factor (11.6% of total variance), the largest loading was for 1500 m running (0.88); all other loadings were below 0.4.

Keywords: Decathlon, principal component analysis, Olympic Games, multivariate statistical analysis.

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1186 Adaptive Kernel Filtering Used in Video Processing

Authors: Rasmus Engholm, Eva B. Vedel Jensen, Henrik Karstoft

Abstract:

In this paper we present a noise reduction filter for video processing. It is based on the recently proposed two dimensional steering kernel, extended to three dimensions and further augmented to suit the spatial-temporal domain of video processing. Two alternative filters are proposed - the time symmetric kernel and the time asymmetric kernel. The first reduces the noise on single sequences, but to handle the problems at scene shift the asymmetric kernel is introduced. The performance of both are tested on simulated data and on a real video sequence together with the existing steering kernel. The proposed kernels improves the Rooted Mean Squared Error (RMSE) compared to the original steering kernel method on video material.

Keywords: Adaptive image filtering, noise reduction, kernel methods, video processing.

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1185 Application of Formal Methods for Designing a Separation Kernel for Embedded Systems

Authors: Kei Kawamorita, Ryouta Kasahara, Yuuki Mochizuki, Kenichiro Noguchi

Abstract:

A separation-kernel-based operating system (OS) has been designed for use in secure embedded systems by applying formal methods to the design of the separation-kernel part. The separation kernel is a small OS kernel that provides an abstract distributed environment on a single CPU. The design of the separation kernel was verified using two formal methods, the B method and the Spin model checker. A newly designed semi-formal method, the extended state transition method, was also applied. An OS comprising the separation-kernel part and additional OS services on top of the separation kernel was prototyped on the Intel IA-32 architecture. Developing and testing of a prototype embedded application, a point-of-sale application, on the prototype OS demonstrated that the proposed architecture and the use of formal methods to design its kernel part are effective for achieving a secure embedded system having a high-assurance separation kernel.

Keywords: B method, embedded systems, extended state transition, formal methods, separation kernel, Spin.

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1184 Identifying Missing Component in the Bechdel Test Using Principal Component Analysis Method

Authors: Raghav Lakhotia, Chandra Kanth Nagesh, Krishna Madgula

Abstract:

A lot has been said and discussed regarding the rationale and significance of the Bechdel Score. It became a digital sensation in 2013, when Swedish cinemas began to showcase the Bechdel test score of a film alongside its rating. The test has drawn criticism from experts and the film fraternity regarding its use to rate the female presence in a movie. The pundits believe that the score is too simplified and the underlying criteria of a film to pass the test must include 1) at least two women, 2) who have at least one dialogue, 3) about something other than a man, is egregious. In this research, we have considered a few more parameters which highlight how we represent females in film, like the number of female dialogues in a movie, dialogue genre, and part of speech tags in the dialogue. The parameters were missing in the existing criteria to calculate the Bechdel score. The research aims to analyze 342 movies scripts to test a hypothesis if these extra parameters, above with the current Bechdel criteria, are significant in calculating the female representation score. The result of the Principal Component Analysis method concludes that the female dialogue content is a key component and should be considered while measuring the representation of women in a work of fiction.

Keywords: Bechdel test, dialogue genre, parts of speech tags, principal component analysis.

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1183 Online Prediction of Nonlinear Signal Processing Problems Based Kernel Adaptive Filtering

Authors: Hamza Nejib, Okba Taouali

Abstract:

This paper presents two of the most knowing kernel adaptive filtering (KAF) approaches, the kernel least mean squares and the kernel recursive least squares, in order to predict a new output of nonlinear signal processing. Both of these methods implement a nonlinear transfer function using kernel methods in a particular space named reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) where the model is a linear combination of kernel functions applied to transform the observed data from the input space to a high dimensional feature space of vectors, this idea known as the kernel trick. Then KAF is the developing filters in RKHS. We use two nonlinear signal processing problems, Mackey Glass chaotic time series prediction and nonlinear channel equalization to figure the performance of the approaches presented and finally to result which of them is the adapted one.

Keywords: KLMS, online prediction, KAF, signal processing, RKHS, Kernel methods, KRLS, KLMS.

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1182 M-band Wavelet and Cosine Transform Based Watermark Algorithm Using Randomization and Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Tong Liu, Xuan Xu, Xiaodi Wang

Abstract:

Computational techniques derived from digital image processing are playing a significant role in the security and digital copyrights of multimedia and visual arts. This technology has the effect within the domain of computers. This research presents discrete M-band wavelet transform (MWT) and cosine transform (DCT) based watermarking algorithm by incorporating the principal component analysis (PCA). The proposed algorithm is expected to achieve higher perceptual transparency. Specifically, the developed watermarking scheme can successfully resist common signal processing, such as geometric distortions, and Gaussian noise. In addition, the proposed algorithm can be parameterized, thus resulting in more security. To meet these requirements, the image is transformed by a combination of MWT & DCT. In order to improve the security further, we randomize the watermark image to create three code books. During the watermark embedding, PCA is applied to the coefficients in approximation sub-band. Finally, first few component bands represent an excellent domain for inserting the watermark.

Keywords: discrete M-band wavelet transform , discrete M-band wavelet transform, randomized watermark, principal component analysis

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1181 Quantitative Ranking Evaluation of Wine Quality

Authors: A. Brunel, A. Kernevez, F. Leclere, J. Trenteseaux

Abstract:

Today, wine quality is only evaluated by wine experts with their own different personal tastes, even if they may agree on some common features. So producers do not have any unbiased way to independently assess the quality of their products. A tool is here proposed to evaluate wine quality by an objective ranking based upon the variables entering wine elaboration, and analysed through principal component analysis (PCA) method. Actual climatic data are compared by measuring the relative distance between each considered wine, out of which the general ranking is performed.

Keywords: Wine, grape, vine, weather conditions, rating, climate, principal component analysis, metric analysis.

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1180 An Experimental Comparison of Unsupervised Learning Techniques for Face Recognition

Authors: Dinesh Kumar, C.S. Rai, Shakti Kumar

Abstract:

Face Recognition has always been a fascinating research area. It has drawn the attention of many researchers because of its various potential applications such as security systems, entertainment, criminal identification etc. Many supervised and unsupervised learning techniques have been reported so far. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) are the three techniques among many others as proposed by different researchers for Face Recognition, known as the unsupervised techniques. This paper proposes integration of the two techniques, SOM and PCA, for dimensionality reduction and feature selection. Simulation results show that, though, the individual techniques SOM and PCA itself give excellent performance but the combination of these two can also be utilized for face recognition. Experimental results also indicate that for the given face database and the classifier used, SOM performs better as compared to other unsupervised learning techniques. A comparison of two proposed methodologies of SOM, Local and Global processing, shows the superiority of the later but at the cost of more computational time.

Keywords: Face Recognition, Principal Component Analysis, Self Organizing Maps, Independent Component Analysis

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1179 The Robust Clustering with Reduction Dimension

Authors: Dyah E. Herwindiati

Abstract:

A clustering is process to identify a homogeneous groups of object called as cluster. Clustering is one interesting topic on data mining. A group or class behaves similarly characteristics. This paper discusses a robust clustering process for data images with two reduction dimension approaches; i.e. the two dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). A standard approach to overcome this problem is dimension reduction, which transforms a high-dimensional data into a lower-dimensional space with limited loss of information. One of the most common forms of dimensionality reduction is the principal components analysis (PCA). The 2DPCA is often called a variant of principal component (PCA), the image matrices were directly treated as 2D matrices; they do not need to be transformed into a vector so that the covariance matrix of image can be constructed directly using the original image matrices. The decomposed classical covariance matrix is very sensitive to outlying observations. The objective of paper is to compare the performance of robust minimizing vector variance (MVV) in the two dimensional projection PCA (2DPCA) and the PCA for clustering on an arbitrary data image when outliers are hiden in the data set. The simulation aspects of robustness and the illustration of clustering images are discussed in the end of paper

Keywords: Breakdown point, Consistency, 2DPCA, PCA, Outlier, Vector Variance

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1178 Dimension Reduction of Microarray Data Based on Local Principal Component

Authors: Ali Anaissi, Paul J. Kennedy, Madhu Goyal

Abstract:

Analysis and visualization of microarraydata is veryassistantfor biologists and clinicians in the field of diagnosis and treatment of patients. It allows Clinicians to better understand the structure of microarray and facilitates understanding gene expression in cells. However, microarray dataset is a complex data set and has thousands of features and a very small number of observations. This very high dimensional data set often contains some noise, non-useful information and a small number of relevant features for disease or genotype. This paper proposes a non-linear dimensionality reduction algorithm Local Principal Component (LPC) which aims to maps high dimensional data to a lower dimensional space. The reduced data represents the most important variables underlying the original data. Experimental results and comparisons are presented to show the quality of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, experiments also show how this algorithm reduces high dimensional data whilst preserving the neighbourhoods of the points in the low dimensional space as in the high dimensional space.

Keywords: Linear Dimension Reduction, Non-Linear Dimension Reduction, Principal Component Analysis, Biologists.

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1177 Effects of Different Meteorological Variables on Reference Evapotranspiration Modeling: Application of Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Akinola Ikudayisi, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

The correct estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETₒ) is required for effective irrigation water resources planning and management. However, there are some variables that must be considered while estimating and modeling ETₒ. This study therefore determines the multivariate analysis of correlated variables involved in the estimation and modeling of ETₒ at Vaalharts irrigation scheme (VIS) in South Africa using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. Weather and meteorological data between 1994 and 2014 were obtained both from South African Weather Service (SAWS) and Agricultural Research Council (ARC) in South Africa for this study. Average monthly data of minimum and maximum temperature (°C), rainfall (mm), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m/s) were the inputs to the PCA-based model, while ETₒ is the output. PCA technique was adopted to extract the most important information from the dataset and also to analyze the relationship between the five variables and ETₒ. This is to determine the most significant variables affecting ETₒ estimation at VIS. From the model performances, two principal components with a variance of 82.7% were retained after the eigenvector extraction. The results of the two principal components were compared and the model output shows that minimum temperature, maximum temperature and windspeed are the most important variables in ETₒ estimation and modeling at VIS. In order words, ETₒ increases with temperature and windspeed. Other variables such as rainfall and relative humidity are less important and cannot be used to provide enough information about ETₒ estimation at VIS. The outcome of this study has helped to reduce input variable dimensionality from five to the three most significant variables in ETₒ modelling at VIS, South Africa.

Keywords: Irrigation, principal component analysis, reference evapotranspiration, Vaalharts.

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1176 A New Composition Method of Admissible Support Vector Kernel Based on Reproducing Kernel

Authors: Wei Zhang, Xin Zhao, Yi-Fan Zhu, Xin-Jian Zhang

Abstract:

Kernel function, which allows the formulation of nonlinear variants of any algorithm that can be cast in terms of dot products, makes the Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been successfully applied in many fields, e.g. classification and regression. The importance of kernel has motivated many studies on its composition. It-s well-known that reproducing kernel (R.K) is a useful kernel function which possesses many properties, e.g. positive definiteness, reproducing property and composing complex R.K by simple operation. There are two popular ways to compute the R.K with explicit form. One is to construct and solve a specific differential equation with boundary value whose handicap is incapable of obtaining a unified form of R.K. The other is using a piecewise integral of the Green function associated with a differential operator L. The latter benefits the computation of a R.K with a unified explicit form and theoretical analysis, whereas there are relatively later studies and fewer practical computations. In this paper, a new algorithm for computing a R.K is presented. It can obtain the unified explicit form of R.K in general reproducing kernel Hilbert space. It avoids constructing and solving the complex differential equations manually and benefits an automatic, flexible and rigorous computation for more general RKHS. In order to validate that the R.K computed by the algorithm can be used in SVM well, some illustrative examples and a comparison between R.K and Gaussian kernel (RBF) in support vector regression are presented. The result shows that the performance of R.K is close or slightly superior to that of RBF.

Keywords: admissible support vector kernel, reproducing kernel, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, Green function, support vectorregression

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1175 A Bayesian Kernel for the Prediction of Protein- Protein Interactions

Authors: Hany Alashwal, Safaai Deris, Razib M. Othman

Abstract:

Understanding proteins functions is a major goal in the post-genomic era. Proteins usually work in context of other proteins and rarely function alone. Therefore, it is highly relevant to study the interaction partners of a protein in order to understand its function. Machine learning techniques have been widely applied to predict protein-protein interactions. Kernel functions play an important role for a successful machine learning technique. Choosing the appropriate kernel function can lead to a better accuracy in a binary classifier such as the support vector machines. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian kernel for the support vector machine to predict protein-protein interactions. The use of Bayesian kernel can improve the classifier performance by incorporating the probability characteristic of the available experimental protein-protein interactions data that were compiled from different sources. In addition, the probabilistic output from the Bayesian kernel can assist biologists to conduct more research on the highly predicted interactions. The results show that the accuracy of the classifier has been improved using the Bayesian kernel compared to the standard SVM kernels. These results imply that protein-protein interaction can be predicted using Bayesian kernel with better accuracy compared to the standard SVM kernels.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Protein-protein interactions, Bayesian Kernel, Support Vector Machines.

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1174 A Comparison of the Nonparametric Regression Models using Smoothing Spline and Kernel Regression

Authors: Dursun Aydin

Abstract:

This paper study about using of nonparametric models for Gross National Product data in Turkey and Stanford heart transplant data. It is discussed two nonparametric techniques called smoothing spline and kernel regression. The main goal is to compare the techniques used for prediction of the nonparametric regression models. According to the results of numerical studies, it is concluded that smoothing spline regression estimators are better than those of the kernel regression.

Keywords: Kernel regression, Nonparametric models, Prediction, Smoothing spline.

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1173 Chilean Wines Classification based only on Aroma Information

Authors: Nicolás H. Beltrán, Manuel A. Duarte-Mermoud, Víctor A. Soto, Sebastián A. Salah, and Matías A. Bustos

Abstract:

Results of Chilean wine classification based on the information provided by an electronic nose are reported in this paper. The classification scheme consists of two parts; in the first stage, Principal Component Analysis is used as feature extraction method to reduce the dimensionality of the original information. Then, Radial Basis Functions Neural Networks is used as pattern recognition technique to perform the classification. The objective of this study is to classify different Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carménère wine samples from different years, valleys and vineyards of Chile.

Keywords: Feature extraction techniques, Pattern recognitiontechniques, Principal component analysis, Radial basis functionsneural networks, Wine classification.

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1172 A New Approach for Classifying Large Number of Mixed Variables

Authors: Hashibah Hamid

Abstract:

The issue of classifying objects into one of predefined groups when the measured variables are mixed with different types of variables has been part of interest among statisticians in many years. Some methods for dealing with such situation have been introduced that include parametric, semi-parametric and nonparametric approaches. This paper attempts to discuss on a problem in classifying a data when the number of measured mixed variables is larger than the size of the sample. A propose idea that integrates a dimensionality reduction technique via principal component analysis and a discriminant function based on the location model is discussed. The study aims in offering practitioners another potential tool in a classification problem that is possible to be considered when the observed variables are mixed and too large.

Keywords: classification, location model, mixed variables, principal component analysis.

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1171 A New Face Recognition Method using PCA, LDA and Neural Network

Authors: A. Hossein Sahoolizadeh, B. Zargham Heidari, C. Hamid Dehghani

Abstract:

In this paper, a new face recognition method based on PCA (principal Component Analysis), LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis) and neural networks is proposed. This method consists of four steps: i) Preprocessing, ii) Dimension reduction using PCA, iii) feature extraction using LDA and iv) classification using neural network. Combination of PCA and LDA is used for improving the capability of LDA when a few samples of images are available and neural classifier is used to reduce number misclassification caused by not-linearly separable classes. The proposed method was tested on Yale face database. Experimental results on this database demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for face recognition with less misclassification in comparison with previous methods.

Keywords: Face recognition Principal component analysis, Linear discriminant analysis, Neural networks.

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1170 Generalization Kernel for Geopotential Approximation by Harmonic Splines

Authors: Elena Kotevska

Abstract:

This paper presents a generalization kernel for gravitational potential determination by harmonic splines. It was shown in [10] that the gravitational potential can be approximated using a kernel represented as a Newton integral over the real Earth body. On the other side, the theory of geopotential approximation by harmonic splines uses spherically oriented kernels. The purpose of this paper is to show that in the spherical case both kernels have the same type of representation, which leads us to conclusion that it is possible to consider the kernel represented as a Newton integral over the real Earth body as a kind of generalization of spherically harmonic kernels to real geometries.

Keywords: Geopotential, Reproducing Kernel, Approximation, Regular Surface

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1169 Factors Influencing Students' Self-Concept among Malaysian Students

Authors: Z. Ishak, S. Jamaluddin, F.P Chew

Abstract:

This paper examines the students’ self-concept among 16- and 17- year- old adolescents in Malaysian secondary schools. Previous studies have shown that positive self-concept played an important role in student adjustment and academic performance during schooling. This study attempts to investigate the factors influencing students’ perceptions toward their own self-concept. A total of 1168 students participated in the survey. This study utilized the CoPs (UM) instrument to measure self-concept. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed three factors: academic selfconcept, physical self-concept and social self-concept. This study confirmed that students perceived certain internal context factors, and revealed that external context factor also have an impact on their self-concept.

Keywords: Academic self-concept, physical self-concept, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), social self-concept.

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1168 An Automated Stock Investment System Using Machine Learning Techniques: An Application in Australia

Authors: Carol Anne Hargreaves

Abstract:

A key issue in stock investment is how to select representative features for stock selection. The objective of this paper is to firstly determine whether an automated stock investment system, using machine learning techniques, may be used to identify a portfolio of growth stocks that are highly likely to provide returns better than the stock market index. The second objective is to identify the technical features that best characterize whether a stock’s price is likely to go up and to identify the most important factors and their contribution to predicting the likelihood of the stock price going up. Unsupervised machine learning techniques, such as cluster analysis, were applied to the stock data to identify a cluster of stocks that was likely to go up in price – portfolio 1. Next, the principal component analysis technique was used to select stocks that were rated high on component one and component two – portfolio 2. Thirdly, a supervised machine learning technique, the logistic regression method, was used to select stocks with a high probability of their price going up – portfolio 3. The predictive models were validated with metrics such as, sensitivity (recall), specificity and overall accuracy for all models. All accuracy measures were above 70%. All portfolios outperformed the market by more than eight times. The top three stocks were selected for each of the three stock portfolios and traded in the market for one month. After one month the return for each stock portfolio was computed and compared with the stock market index returns. The returns for all three stock portfolios was 23.87% for the principal component analysis stock portfolio, 11.65% for the logistic regression portfolio and 8.88% for the K-means cluster portfolio while the stock market performance was 0.38%. This study confirms that an automated stock investment system using machine learning techniques can identify top performing stock portfolios that outperform the stock market.

Keywords: Machine learning, stock market trading, logistic principal component analysis, automated stock investment system.

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