Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8984

Search results for: Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KPCA).

8984 Finger Vein Recognition using PCA-based Methods

Authors: Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared, Ali Khalili Mobarakeh, Mohsen Pashna, , Jiangping Gou Sayedmehran Mirsafaie Rizi, Saba Nazari, Shadi Mahmoodi Khaniabadi, Mohamad Ali Bagheri

Abstract:

In this paper a novel algorithm is proposed to merit the accuracy of finger vein recognition. The performances of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), and Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KECA) in this algorithm are validated and compared with each other in order to determine which one is the most appropriate one in terms of finger vein recognition.

Keywords: Biometrics, finger vein recognition, PrincipalComponent Analysis (PCA), Kernel Principal Component Analysis(KPCA), Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KPCA).

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8983 Optimal Feature Extraction Dimension in Finger Vein Recognition Using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Amir Hajian, Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared

Abstract:

In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.

Keywords: Biometrics, finger vein recognition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA).

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8982 Adaptive Kernel Principal Analysis for Online Feature Extraction

Authors: Mingtao Ding, Zheng Tian, Haixia Xu

Abstract:

The batch nature limits the standard kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) methods in numerous applications, especially for dynamic or large-scale data. In this paper, an efficient adaptive approach is presented for online extraction of the kernel principal components (KPC). The contribution of this paper may be divided into two parts. First, kernel covariance matrix is correctly updated to adapt to the changing characteristics of data. Second, KPC are recursively formulated to overcome the batch nature of standard KPCA.This formulation is derived from the recursive eigen-decomposition of kernel covariance matrix and indicates the KPC variation caused by the new data. The proposed method not only alleviates sub-optimality of the KPCA method for non-stationary data, but also maintains constant update speed and memory usage as the data-size increases. Experiments for simulation data and real applications demonstrate that our approach yields improvements in terms of both computational speed and approximation accuracy.

Keywords: adaptive method, kernel principal component analysis, online extraction, recursive algorithm

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8981 Face Recognition with PCA and KPCA using Elman Neural Network and SVM

Authors: Hossein Esbati, Jalil Shirazi

Abstract:

In this paper, in order to categorize ORL database face pictures, principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) methods by using Elman neural network and Support Vector Machine (SVM) categorization methods are used. Elman network as a recurrent neural network is proposed for modeling storage systems and also it is used for reviewing the effect of using PCA numbers on system categorization precision rate and database pictures categorization time. Categorization stages are conducted with various components numbers and the obtained results of both Elman neural network categorization and support vector machine are compared. In optimum manner 97.41% recognition accuracy is obtained.

Keywords: Face recognition, Principal Component Analysis, Kernel Principal Component Analysis, Neural network, Support Vector Machine.

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8980 An Optimal Feature Subset Selection for Leaf Analysis

Authors: N. Valliammal, S.N. Geethalakshmi

Abstract:

This paper describes an optimal approach for feature subset selection to classify the leaves based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Kernel Based Principle Component Analysis (KPCA). Due to high complexity in the selection of the optimal features, the classification has become a critical task to analyse the leaf image data. Initially the shape, texture and colour features are extracted from the leaf images. These extracted features are optimized through the separate functioning of GA and KPCA. This approach performs an intersection operation over the subsets obtained from the optimization process. Finally, the most common matching subset is forwarded to train the Support Vector Machine (SVM). Our experimental results successfully prove that the application of GA and KPCA for feature subset selection using SVM as a classifier is computationally effective and improves the accuracy of the classifier.

Keywords: Optimization, Feature extraction, Feature subset, Classification, GA, KPCA, SVM and Computation

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8979 Kurtosis, Renyi's Entropy and Independent Component Scalp Maps for the Automatic Artifact Rejection from EEG Data

Authors: Antonino Greco, Nadia Mammone, Francesco Carlo Morabito, Mario Versaci

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to improve the efficiency and the reliability of the automatic artifact rejection, in particular from the Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Artifact rejection is a key topic in signal processing. The artifacts are unwelcome signals that may occur during the signal acquisition and that may alter the analysis of the signals themselves. A technique for the automatic artifact rejection, based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the artifact extraction and on some high order statistics such as kurtosis and Shannon-s entropy, was proposed some years ago in literature. In this paper we enhance this technique introducing the Renyi-s entropy. The performance of our method was tested exploiting the Independent Component scalp maps and it was compared to the performance of the method in literature and it showed to outperform it.

Keywords: Artifact, EEG, Renyi's entropy, independent component analysis, kurtosis.

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8978 Semi-Automatic Artifact Rejection Procedure Based on Kurtosis, Renyi's Entropy and Independent Component Scalp Maps

Authors: Antonino Greco, Nadia Mammone, Francesco Carlo Morabito, Mario Versaci

Abstract:

Artifact rejection plays a key role in many signal processing applications. The artifacts are disturbance that can occur during the signal acquisition and that can alter the analysis of the signals themselves. Our aim is to automatically remove the artifacts, in particular from the Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A technique for the automatic artifact rejection, based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the artifact extraction and on some high order statistics such as kurtosis and Shannon-s entropy, was proposed some years ago in literature. In this paper we try to enhance this technique proposing a new method based on the Renyi-s entropy. The performance of our method was tested and compared to the performance of the method in literature and the former proved to outperform the latter.

Keywords: Artifact, EEG, Renyi's entropy, kurtosis, independent component analysis.

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8977 Dimensionality Reduction in Modal Analysis for Structural Health Monitoring

Authors: Elia Favarelli, Enrico Testi, Andrea Giorgetti

Abstract:

Autonomous structural health monitoring (SHM) of many structures and bridges became a topic of paramount importance for maintenance purposes and safety reasons. This paper proposes a set of machine learning (ML) tools to perform automatic feature selection and detection of anomalies in a bridge from vibrational data and compare different feature extraction schemes to increase the accuracy and reduce the amount of data collected. As a case study, the Z-24 bridge is considered because of the extensive database of accelerometric data in both standard and damaged conditions. The proposed framework starts from the first four fundamental frequencies extracted through operational modal analysis (OMA) and clustering, followed by time-domain filtering (tracking). The fundamental frequencies extracted are then fed to a dimensionality reduction block implemented through two different approaches: feature selection (intelligent multiplexer) that tries to estimate the most reliable frequencies based on the evaluation of some statistical features (i.e., entropy, variance, kurtosis), and feature extraction (auto-associative neural network (ANN)) that combine the fundamental frequencies to extract new damage sensitive features in a low dimensional feature space. Finally, one-class classification (OCC) algorithms perform anomaly detection, trained with standard condition points, and tested with normal and anomaly ones. In particular, principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and autoassociative neural network (ANN) are presented and their performance are compared. It is also shown that, by evaluating the correct features, the anomaly can be detected with accuracy and an F1 score greater than 95%.

Keywords: Anomaly detection, dimensionality reduction, frequencies selection, modal analysis, neural network, structural health monitoring, vibration measurement.

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8976 Assessing Complexity of Neuronal Multiunit Activity by Information Theoretic Measure

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This paper provides a quantitative measure of the time-varying multiunit neuronal spiking activity using an entropy based approach. To verify the status embedded in the neuronal activity of a population of neurons, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to isolate the inherent spiking activity of MUA. Due to the de-correlating property of DWT, the spiking activity would be preserved while reducing the non-spiking component. By evaluating the entropy of the wavelet coefficients of the de-noised MUA, a multiresolution Shannon entropy (MRSE) of the MUA signal is developed. The proposed entropy was tested in the analysis of both simulated noisy MUA and actual MUA recorded from cortex in rodent model. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the dynamics of a population can be quantified by using the proposed entropy.

Keywords: Discrete wavelet transform, Entropy, Multiresolution, Multiunit activity.

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8975 Analysis of EEG Signals Using Wavelet Entropy and Approximate Entropy: A Case Study on Depression Patients

Authors: Subha D. Puthankattil, Paul K. Joseph

Abstract:

Analyzing brain signals of the patients suffering from the state of depression may lead to interesting observations in the signal parameters that is quite different from a normal control. The present study adopts two different methods: Time frequency domain and nonlinear method for the analysis of EEG signals acquired from depression patients and age and sex matched normal controls. The time frequency domain analysis is realized using wavelet entropy and approximate entropy is employed for the nonlinear method of analysis. The ability of the signal processing technique and the nonlinear method in differentiating the physiological aspects of the brain state are revealed using Wavelet entropy and Approximate entropy.

Keywords: EEG, Depression, Wavelet entropy, Approximate entropy, Relative Wavelet energy, Multiresolution decomposition.

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8974 Comparative Studies of Support Vector Regression between Reproducing Kernel and Gaussian Kernel

Authors: Wei Zhang, Su-Yan Tang, Yi-Fan Zhu, Wei-Ping Wang

Abstract:

Support vector regression (SVR) has been regarded as a state-of-the-art method for approximation and regression. The importance of kernel function, which is so-called admissible support vector kernel (SV kernel) in SVR, has motivated many studies on its composition. The Gaussian kernel (RBF) is regarded as a “best" choice of SV kernel used by non-expert in SVR, whereas there is no evidence, except for its superior performance on some practical applications, to prove the statement. Its well-known that reproducing kernel (R.K) is also a SV kernel which possesses many important properties, e.g. positive definiteness, reproducing property and composing complex R.K by simpler ones. However, there are a limited number of R.Ks with explicit forms and consequently few quantitative comparison studies in practice. In this paper, two R.Ks, i.e. SV kernels, composed by the sum and product of a translation invariant kernel in a Sobolev space are proposed. An exploratory study on the performance of SVR based general R.K is presented through a systematic comparison to that of RBF using multiple criteria and synthetic problems. The results show that the R.K is an equivalent or even better SV kernel than RBF for the problems with more input variables (more than 5, especially more than 10) and higher nonlinearity.

Keywords: admissible support vector kernel, reproducing kernel, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, support vector regression.

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8973 On Generalized Exponential Fuzzy Entropy

Authors: Rajkumar Verma, Bhu Dev Sharma

Abstract:

In the present communication, the existing measures of fuzzy entropy are reviewed. A generalized parametric exponential fuzzy entropy is defined.Our study of the four essential and some other properties of the proposed measure, clearly establishes the validity of the measure as an entropy.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, exponential entropy, exponential fuzzy entropy.

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8972 Normalization and Constrained Optimization of Measures of Fuzzy Entropy

Authors: K.C. Deshmukh, P.G. Khot, Nikhil

Abstract:

In the literature of information theory, there is necessity for comparing the different measures of fuzzy entropy and this consequently, gives rise to the need for normalizing measures of fuzzy entropy. In this paper, we have discussed this need and hence developed some normalized measures of fuzzy entropy. It is also desirable to maximize entropy and to minimize directed divergence or distance. Keeping in mind this idea, we have explained the method of optimizing different measures of fuzzy entropy.

Keywords: Fuzzy set, Uncertainty, Fuzzy entropy, Normalization, Membership function

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8971 Adaptive Kernel Filtering Used in Video Processing

Authors: Rasmus Engholm, Eva B. Vedel Jensen, Henrik Karstoft

Abstract:

In this paper we present a noise reduction filter for video processing. It is based on the recently proposed two dimensional steering kernel, extended to three dimensions and further augmented to suit the spatial-temporal domain of video processing. Two alternative filters are proposed - the time symmetric kernel and the time asymmetric kernel. The first reduces the noise on single sequences, but to handle the problems at scene shift the asymmetric kernel is introduced. The performance of both are tested on simulated data and on a real video sequence together with the existing steering kernel. The proposed kernels improves the Rooted Mean Squared Error (RMSE) compared to the original steering kernel method on video material.

Keywords: Adaptive image filtering, noise reduction, kernel methods, video processing.

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8970 Extending the Quantum Entropy to Multidimensional Signal Processing

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

This paper treats different aspects of entropy measure in classical information theory and statistical quantum mechanics, it presents the possibility of extending the definition of Von Neumann entropy to image and array processing. In the first part, we generalize the quantum entropy using singular values of arbitrary rectangular matrices to measure the randomness and the quality of denoising operation, this new definition of entropy can be implemented to compare the performance analysis of filtering methods. In the second part, we apply the concept of pure state in quantum formalism to generalize the maximum entropy method for narrowband and farfield source localization problem. Several computer simulation results are illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

Keywords: Von Neumann entropy, Filtering, array, DoA, Maximum Entropy Method.

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8969 An Iterative Algorithm for KLDA Classifier

Authors: D.N. Zheng, J.X. Wang, Y.N. Zhao, Z.H. Yang

Abstract:

The Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) can be generalized into a nonlinear form - kernel LDA (KLDA) expediently by using the kernel functions. But KLDA is often referred to a general eigenvalue problem in singular case. To avoid this complication, this paper proposes an iterative algorithm for the two-class KLDA. The proposed KLDA is used as a nonlinear discriminant classifier, and the experiments show that it has a comparable performance with SVM.

Keywords: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), kernel LDA (KLDA), conjugate gradient algorithm, nonlinear discriminant classifier.

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8968 Sensor Monitoring of the Concentrations of Different Gases Present in Synthesis of Ammonia Based On Multi-Scale Entropy and Multivariate Statistics

Authors: S. Aouabdi, M. Taibi

Abstract:

This paper presents powerful techniques for the development of a new monitoring method based on multi-scale entropy (MSE) in order to characterize the behaviour of the concentrations of different gases present in the synthesis of Ammonia and soft-sensor based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

Keywords: Ammonia synthesis, concentrations of different gases, soft sensor, multi-scale entropy, multivariate statistics.

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8967 Application of Formal Methods for Designing a Separation Kernel for Embedded Systems

Authors: Kei Kawamorita, Ryouta Kasahara, Yuuki Mochizuki, Kenichiro Noguchi

Abstract:

A separation-kernel-based operating system (OS) has been designed for use in secure embedded systems by applying formal methods to the design of the separation-kernel part. The separation kernel is a small OS kernel that provides an abstract distributed environment on a single CPU. The design of the separation kernel was verified using two formal methods, the B method and the Spin model checker. A newly designed semi-formal method, the extended state transition method, was also applied. An OS comprising the separation-kernel part and additional OS services on top of the separation kernel was prototyped on the Intel IA-32 architecture. Developing and testing of a prototype embedded application, a point-of-sale application, on the prototype OS demonstrated that the proposed architecture and the use of formal methods to design its kernel part are effective for achieving a secure embedded system having a high-assurance separation kernel.

Keywords: B method, embedded systems, extended state transition, formal methods, separation kernel, Spin.

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8966 Application of Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis (MILCA) for Removal of Ocular Artifacts from Electroencephalogram

Authors: V Krishnaveni, S Jayaraman, K Ramadoss

Abstract:

The electrical potentials generated during eye movements and blinks are one of the main sources of artifacts in Electroencephalogram (EEG) recording and can propagate much across the scalp, masking and distorting brain signals. In recent times, signal separation algorithms are used widely for removing artifacts from the observed EEG data. In this paper, a recently introduced signal separation algorithm Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis (MILCA) is employed to separate ocular artifacts from EEG. The aim of MILCA is to minimize the Mutual Information (MI) between the independent components (estimated sources) under a pure rotation. Performance of this algorithm is compared with eleven popular algorithms (Infomax, Extended Infomax, Fast ICA, SOBI, TDSEP, JADE, OGWE, MS-ICA, SHIBBS, Kernel-ICA, and RADICAL) for the actual independence and uniqueness of the estimated source components obtained for different sets of EEG data with ocular artifacts by using a reliable MI Estimator. Results show that MILCA is best in separating the ocular artifacts and EEG and is recommended for further analysis.

Keywords: Electroencephalogram, Ocular Artifacts (OA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Mutual Information (MI), Mutual Information based Least dependent Component Analysis(MILCA)

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8965 Online Prediction of Nonlinear Signal Processing Problems Based Kernel Adaptive Filtering

Authors: Hamza Nejib, Okba Taouali

Abstract:

This paper presents two of the most knowing kernel adaptive filtering (KAF) approaches, the kernel least mean squares and the kernel recursive least squares, in order to predict a new output of nonlinear signal processing. Both of these methods implement a nonlinear transfer function using kernel methods in a particular space named reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) where the model is a linear combination of kernel functions applied to transform the observed data from the input space to a high dimensional feature space of vectors, this idea known as the kernel trick. Then KAF is the developing filters in RKHS. We use two nonlinear signal processing problems, Mackey Glass chaotic time series prediction and nonlinear channel equalization to figure the performance of the approaches presented and finally to result which of them is the adapted one.

Keywords: KLMS, online prediction, KAF, signal processing, RKHS, Kernel methods, KRLS, KLMS.

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8964 Entropy Generation Analysis of Free Convection Film Condensation on a Vertical Ellipsoid with Variable Wall Temperature

Authors: Sheng-An Yang, Ren-Yi Hung, Ying-Yi Ho

Abstract:

This paper aims to perform the second law analysis of thermodynamics on the laminar film condensation of pure saturated vapor flowing in the direction of gravity on an ellipsoid with variable wall temperature. The analysis provides us understanding how the geometric parameter- ellipticity and non-isothermal wall temperature variation amplitude “A." affect entropy generation during film-wise condensation heat transfer process. To understand of which irreversibility involved in this condensation process, we derived an expression for the entropy generation number in terms of ellipticity and A. The result indicates that entropy generation increases with ellipticity. Furthermore, the irreversibility due to finite temperature difference heat transfer dominates over that due to condensate film flow friction and the local entropy generation rate decreases with increasing A in the upper half of ellipsoid. Meanwhile, the local entropy generation rate enhances with A around the rear lower half of ellipsoid.

Keywords: Free convection; Non-isothermal; Thermodynamic second law; Entropy, Ellipsoid.

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8963 A New Composition Method of Admissible Support Vector Kernel Based on Reproducing Kernel

Authors: Wei Zhang, Xin Zhao, Yi-Fan Zhu, Xin-Jian Zhang

Abstract:

Kernel function, which allows the formulation of nonlinear variants of any algorithm that can be cast in terms of dot products, makes the Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been successfully applied in many fields, e.g. classification and regression. The importance of kernel has motivated many studies on its composition. It-s well-known that reproducing kernel (R.K) is a useful kernel function which possesses many properties, e.g. positive definiteness, reproducing property and composing complex R.K by simple operation. There are two popular ways to compute the R.K with explicit form. One is to construct and solve a specific differential equation with boundary value whose handicap is incapable of obtaining a unified form of R.K. The other is using a piecewise integral of the Green function associated with a differential operator L. The latter benefits the computation of a R.K with a unified explicit form and theoretical analysis, whereas there are relatively later studies and fewer practical computations. In this paper, a new algorithm for computing a R.K is presented. It can obtain the unified explicit form of R.K in general reproducing kernel Hilbert space. It avoids constructing and solving the complex differential equations manually and benefits an automatic, flexible and rigorous computation for more general RKHS. In order to validate that the R.K computed by the algorithm can be used in SVM well, some illustrative examples and a comparison between R.K and Gaussian kernel (RBF) in support vector regression are presented. The result shows that the performance of R.K is close or slightly superior to that of RBF.

Keywords: admissible support vector kernel, reproducing kernel, reproducing kernel Hilbert space, Green function, support vectorregression

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8962 Entropy Generation for Natural Convection in a Darcy – Brinkman Porous Cavity

Authors: Ali Mchirgui, Nejib Hidouri, Mourad Magherbi, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

The paper provides a numerical investigation of the entropy generation analysis due to natural convection in an inclined square porous cavity. The coupled equations of mass, momentum, energy and species conservation are solved using the Control Volume Finite-Element Method. Effect of medium permeability and inclination angle on entropy generation is analysed. It was found that according to the Darcy number and the porous thermal Raleigh number values, the entropy generation could be mainly due to heat transfer or to fluid friction irreversibility and that entropy generation reaches extremum values for specific inclination angles.

Keywords: Porous media, entropy generation, convection, numerical method.

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8961 Entropy Measures on Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Application in Multi Attribute Decision Making

Authors: I. Arockiarani

Abstract:

The focus of the paper is to furnish the entropy measure for a neutrosophic set and neutrosophic soft set which is a measure of uncertainty and it permeates discourse and system. Various characterization of entropy measures are derived. Further we exemplify this concept by applying entropy in various real time decision making problems.

Keywords: Entropy measure, Hausdorff distance, neutrosophic set, soft set.

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8960 Color Image Segmentation and Multi-Level Thresholding by Maximization of Conditional Entropy

Authors: R.Sukesh Kumar, Abhisek Verma, Jasprit Singh

Abstract:

In this work a novel approach for color image segmentation using higher order entropy as a textural feature for determination of thresholds over a two dimensional image histogram is discussed. A similar approach is applied to achieve multi-level thresholding in both grayscale and color images. The paper discusses two methods of color image segmentation using RGB space as the standard processing space. The threshold for segmentation is decided by the maximization of conditional entropy in the two dimensional histogram of the color image separated into three grayscale images of R, G and B. The features are first developed independently for the three ( R, G, B ) spaces, and combined to get different color component segmentation. By considering local maxima instead of the maximum of conditional entropy yields multiple thresholds for the same image which forms the basis for multilevel thresholding.

Keywords: conditional entropy, multi-level thresholding, segmentation, two dimensional image histogram

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8959 Complexity of Multivalued Maps

Authors: David Sherwell, Vivien Visaya

Abstract:

We consider the topological entropy of maps that in general, cannot be described by one-dimensional dynamics. In particular, we show that for a multivalued map F generated by singlevalued maps, the topological entropy of any of the single-value map bounds the topological entropy of F from below.

Keywords: Multivalued maps, Topological entropy, Selectors

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8958 Information Theoretical Analysis of Neural Spiking Activity with Temperature Modulation

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This work assesses the cortical and the sub-cortical neural activity recorded from rodents using entropy and mutual information based approaches to study how hypothermia affects neural activity. By applying the multi-scale entropy and Shannon entropy, we quantify the degree of the regularity embedded in the cortical and sub-cortical neurons and characterize the dependency of entropy of these regions on temperature. We study also the degree of the mutual information on thalamocortical pathway depending on temperature. The latter is most likely an indicator of coupling between these highly connected structures in response to temperature manipulation leading to arousal after global cerebral ischemia.

Keywords: Spiking activity, entropy, mutual information, temperature modulation.

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8957 Non-negative Principal Component Analysis for Face Recognition

Authors: Zhang Yan, Yu Bin

Abstract:

Principle component analysis is often combined with the state-of-art classification algorithms to recognize human faces. However, principle component analysis can only capture these features contributing to the global characteristics of data because it is a global feature selection algorithm. It misses those features contributing to the local characteristics of data because each principal component only contains some levels of global characteristics of data. In this study, we present a novel face recognition approach using non-negative principal component analysis which is added with the constraint of non-negative to improve data locality and contribute to elucidating latent data structures. Experiments are performed on the Cambridge ORL face database. We demonstrate the strong performances of the algorithm in recognizing human faces in comparison with PCA and NREMF approaches.

Keywords: classification, face recognition, non-negativeprinciple component analysis (NPCA)

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8956 Generalized Maximum Entropy Method for Cosmic Source Localization

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

The Maximum entropy principle in spectral analysis was used as an estimator of Direction of Arrival (DoA) of electromagnetic or acoustic sources impinging on an array of sensors, indeed the maximum entropy operator is very efficient when the signals of the radiating sources are ergodic and complex zero mean random processes which is the case for cosmic sources. In this paper, we present basic review of the maximum entropy method (MEM) which consists of rank one operator but not a projector, and we elaborate a new operator which is full rank and sum of all possible projectors. Two dimensional Simulation results based on Monte Carlo trials prove the resolution power of the new operator where the MEM presents some erroneous fluctuations.

Keywords: Maximum entropy, Cosmic source, Localization, operator, projector, azimuth, elevation, DoA, circular array.

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8955 A Bayesian Kernel for the Prediction of Protein- Protein Interactions

Authors: Hany Alashwal, Safaai Deris, Razib M. Othman

Abstract:

Understanding proteins functions is a major goal in the post-genomic era. Proteins usually work in context of other proteins and rarely function alone. Therefore, it is highly relevant to study the interaction partners of a protein in order to understand its function. Machine learning techniques have been widely applied to predict protein-protein interactions. Kernel functions play an important role for a successful machine learning technique. Choosing the appropriate kernel function can lead to a better accuracy in a binary classifier such as the support vector machines. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian kernel for the support vector machine to predict protein-protein interactions. The use of Bayesian kernel can improve the classifier performance by incorporating the probability characteristic of the available experimental protein-protein interactions data that were compiled from different sources. In addition, the probabilistic output from the Bayesian kernel can assist biologists to conduct more research on the highly predicted interactions. The results show that the accuracy of the classifier has been improved using the Bayesian kernel compared to the standard SVM kernels. These results imply that protein-protein interaction can be predicted using Bayesian kernel with better accuracy compared to the standard SVM kernels.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Protein-protein interactions, Bayesian Kernel, Support Vector Machines.

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