Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Iodine Value

30 Restriction of Iodine Release under Severe Accident Conditions at NPP MIR.1200

Authors: V. Bezlepkin, A. Frolov, L. Lebedev, E. Kharchenko

Abstract:

Iodine radionuclides in accident releases under severe accident conditions at NPP with VVER are the most radiationimportant with a view to population dose generation at the beginning of the accident. To decrease radiation consequences of severe accidents the technical solutions for severe accidents management have been proposed in MIR.1200 project, with consideration of the measures for suppression of volatile iodine forms generation in the containment. Behavior dynamics of different iodine forms in the containment under severe accident conditions has been analyzed for the purpose of these technical solutions justification.

Keywords: Iodine radionuclides, VVER, severe accident.

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29 Sterilisation of Hyponex Medium by Chemicals without Autoclaving and Growth of Phalaenopsis Protocorms

Authors: Chockpisit Thepsithar, Aree Thongpukdee

Abstract:

For sterilization of Phalaenopsis culture medium without autoclaving, selected single sterilizing agents and in combinations were added to a 25ml Hyponex medium in a 120ml glass container. Treated liquid and solid media, supplemented with sterilizing agents, were compared to a control medium, autoclaved at 121°C for 15min. It was found that 90(L of 10% povidone-iodine, 150(L of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 150(L of 2% mercurochrome, 90(L of 2.5% iodine + 2.5% potassium iodine in combination with 10% providone-iodine (1:3) and 30(L of 2.5% iodine + 2.5% potassium iodide in combination with 2% mercurochrome showed 100% sterile conditions in liquid medium but provided 75, 100, 50, 75 and 80% sterile conditions, respectively, in solid medium. For growth of Phalaenopsis protocorms, 90(L of 10% povidone-iodine in liquid Hyponex medium gave the comparable growth of protocorms to control medium while 150(L of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in solid medium provided the promising growth of protocorms. Growth of protocorms, whole fresh weight, numbers of leaf and root, root length and number of protocorm-like bodies, was discussed.

Keywords: Phalaenopsis, sterilizing agents, Hyponex medium, sterile medium without autoclaving.

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28 Formation of Volatile Iodine from Cesium Iodide Aerosols: A DFT Study

Authors: Houssam Hijazi, Laurent Cantrel, Jean-François Paul

Abstract:

Periodic DFT calculations were performed to study the chemistry of CsI particles and the possible release of volatile iodine from CsI surfaces for nuclear safety interest. The results show that water adsorbs at low temperature associatively on the (011) surface of CsI, while water desorbs at higher temperatures. On the other hand, removing iodine species from the surface requires oxidizing the surface one time for each removed iodide atom. The activation energy of removing I2 from the surface in the presence of two OH is 1,2 eV.

Keywords: Aerosols, CsI, reactivity, DFT, water adsorption.

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27 Application and Assessment of Artificial Neural Networks for Biodiesel Iodine Value Prediction

Authors: Raquel M. de Sousa, Sofiane Labidi, Allan Kardec D. Barros, Alex O. Barradas Filho, Aldalea L. B. Marques

Abstract:

Several parameters are established in order to measure biodiesel quality. One of them is the iodine value, which is an important parameter that measures the total unsaturation within a mixture of fatty acids. Limitation of unsaturated fatty acids is necessary since warming of higher quantity of these ones ends in either formation of deposits inside the motor or damage of lubricant. Determination of iodine value by official procedure tends to be very laborious, with high costs and toxicity of the reagents, this study uses artificial neural network (ANN) in order to predict the iodine value property as an alternative to these problems. The methodology of development of networks used 13 esters of fatty acids in the input with convergence algorithms of back propagation of back propagation type were optimized in order to get an architecture of prediction of iodine value. This study allowed us to demonstrate the neural networks’ ability to learn the correlation between biodiesel quality properties, in this caseiodine value, and the molecular structures that make it up. The model developed in the study reached a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.99 for both network validation and network simulation, with Levenberg-Maquardt algorithm.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Biodiesel, Iodine Value, Prediction.

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26 Hydrothermal Fabrication of Iodine Doped Titanium Oxide Films on Ti Substrate

Authors: M. P. Neupane, T. S. N. Sankara Narayanan, J. E. Park, Y. K. Kim, I. S. Park, K. Y. Song, T. S. Bae, M. H. Lee

Abstract:

Titanium oxide films with different morphologies have for the first time been fabricated through hydrothermal reactions between a titanium substrate and iodine powder in water or ethanol. SEM revealed that iodine supported titanium (Ti-I2) surface shows different morphologies with variable treatment conditions. The mean surface roughness (Ra) was increased in the different groups. Use of surfactant has a role to increase the roughness of the film. The surface roughness was in the range of 0.15 μm-0.42 μm. Furthermore, the electrochemical examinations showed that the Ti-I2 surface fabricated in alcoholic medium has high corrosion resistance than in aqueous medium.

Keywords: Corrosion, Hydrothermal, Surface roughness, Titanium oxide.

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25 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds

Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100g, Acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, Acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, Oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, Acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, iodine value, peroxide value, physicochemical.

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24 Influence of Synthetic Antioxidant in the Iodine Value and Acid Number of Jatropha Curcas Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono

Abstract:

Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels that promising for substituting petro diesel as energy source which is advantage on sustainability and ecofriendly. Due to the raw material that tend to decompose during storage, biodiesel also have the same characteristic that tend to decompose and formed higher acid value which is the result of oxidation to double bond on a chain of ester. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introduce a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. The quality degradation on biodiesel could evaluate by measuring iodine value and acid number of biodiesel. Biodiesel made from high fatty acid Jatropha curcas oil by using esterification and transesterification process will stand on the quality by introduce 90 ppm pyrogallol powder on the biodiesel, which could increase Induction period time from 2 hours to more than 6 hours in rancimat test evaluation.

Keywords: Acid value, antioxidant, biodiesel, iodine value.

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23 Bioconcentration Analysis of Iodine Species in Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) from Maluku Marine as Alternative Food Source

Authors: Yeanchon H. Dulanlebit, Nikmans Hattu, Gloria Bora

Abstract:

Seaweed is a type of macro algae which are good source of iodine and have been widely used as food and nutrition supplement. One of iodine species that found in ocean plant is iodate. Analysis of iodate in seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) from coastal area of Maluku has been done. The determination is done by using spectrophotometric method. Iodate in sample is reduced in excess of potassium iodide in the presence of acid solution, and then is reacted with starch to form blue complex. The study found out that the highest wavelength on determination of iodate species using spectrophotometer analysis method is 570 nm. Optimum value to yield maximum absorption is used in this research. Contents of iodate in seawater from coastal area of Ambon Island, Western Seram and Southeast Maluku are 0.2655, 0.2719 and 0.1760 mg/L, respectively. While in seaweeds from Ambon Island, Western Seram, Southeast Maluku-Taar, Ohoidertawun and Wab are 6.3122, 6.3293, 6.2333, 3.7406 and 4.4207 mg/kg in dry weight. Bioconcentration (enrichment) factor of iodate in seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) from the three samples (cluster) is different; in Coastal area of Ambon Island, Western Seram and Southeast Maluku respectively are 23.78, 23.28 and 27.26.

Keywords: Bioconcentration, Eucheuma cottonii, iodate, iodine, seaweed.

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22 Extracts of Cola acuminata, Lupinus arboreus and Bougainvillea spectabilis as Natural Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: M. L. Akinyemi, T. J. Abodurin, A. O. Boyo, J. A. O. Olugbuyiro

Abstract:

Organic dyes from Cola acuminata (C. acuminata), Lupinus arboreus (L. arboreus) and Bougainvillea spectabilis (B. spectabilis) leaves and their mixtures were used as sensitizers to manufacture dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Photoelectric measurements of C. acuminata showed a short circuit current (Jsc) of 0.027 mA/ cm2, 0.026 mA/ cm2 and 0.018 mA/ cm2 with a mixture of mercury chloride and iodine (Hgcl2 + I); potassium bromide and iodine (KBr + I); and potassium chloride and iodine (KCl + I) respectively. The open circuit voltage (Voc) was 24 mV, 25 mV and 20 mV for the three dyes respectively. L. arboreus had Jsc of 0.034 mA/ cm2, 0.021 mA/ cm2 and 0.013 mA/ cm2; and corresponding Voc of 28 mV, 14.2 mV and 15 mV for the three electrolytes respectively. B. spectabilis recorded Jsc 0.023 mA/ cm2, 0.026 mA/ cm2 and 0.015 mA/ cm2; and corresponding Voc values of 6.2 mV, 14.3 mV and 4.0 mV for the three electrolytes respectively. It was observed that the fill factor (FF) was 0.140 for C. acuminata, 0.3198 for L. arboreus and 0.1138 for B. spectabilis. Internal conversions of 0.096%, 0.056% and 0.063% were recorded for three dyes when combined with (KBr + I) electrolyte. The internal efficiency of C. acuminata DSSC was highest in value.

Keywords: Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, Organic dye, C. acuminate, L. arboreus, B. spectabilis, Dye Mixture.

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21 Synthesis of Activated Carbon Using Agricultural Wastes from Biodiesel Production

Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, V. Loryuenyong, E. Phakdeepataraphan, S. Watpathomsub, V. Kunakemakorn

Abstract:

In this research, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of activated carbon from biodiesel wastes such as palm shells (PS) and Jatropha curcas fruit shells (JS) by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent under nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. The effects of soaking in hydrofluoric acid (HF), impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time on adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and iodine (I2) solution were examined. The results showed that HF-treated activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities by eliminating ash residues, which might fill up the pores. In addition, the adsorption capacities of methylene blue and iodine solution were also significantly influenced by the types of raw materials, the activation temperature and the activation time. The highest adsorption capacity of methylene blue 257.07mg/g and iodine 847.58mg/g were obtained from Jatropha curcas wastes.

Keywords: Activated Carbon, Palm Shells (PS), Jatropha Curcas Fruit Shells (JS), Agricultural Wastes, Biodiesel Wastes, Optimum Conditions.

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20 Sterilisation of in vitro Culture Medium of Chrysanthemum by Plant Essential Oils without Autoclaving

Authors: Chockpisit Thepsithar, Aree Thongpukdee, Apichya Daorat

Abstract:

The alternative technique for sterilization of culture medium to replace autoclaving was carried out. For sterilization of culture medium without autoclaving, some commercial pure essential oils, bergamot oil, betel oil, cinnamon oil, lavender oil and turmeric oil, were tested alone or in combinations with some disinfectants, 10% povidone-iodine and 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide. Each essential oil or combination was added to 25-mL Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium before medium was solidified in a 120-mL container, kept for 2 weeks before evaluating sterile conditions. Treated media, supplemented with essential oils, were compared to control medium, autoclaved at 121 degree Celsius for 15 min. In vitro sterile conditions were found 20 – 100% from these treated media compared to 100% sterile condition from autoclaved medium. Treated media obtained 100% sterile conditions were chosen for culturing chrysanthemum shoots. It was found that 10% povidoneiodine in combination with cinnamon oil (3:1) and 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide in combination with lavender oil (1:3) at the concentration of 36 3L/25 mL medium provided the promising growth of shoot explants.

Keywords: Sterilizing agents, essential oils, disinfectants, MS medium, in vitro culture, chrysanthemum, sterilization of medium without autoclaving

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19 The Effects of Increasing Unsaturation in Palm Oil and Incorporation of Carbon Nanotubes on Resinous Properties

Authors: Muhammad R. Islam, Mohammad Dalour H. Beg, Saidatul S. Jamari

Abstract:

Considering palm oil as non-drying oil owing to its low iodine value, an attempt was taken to increase the unsaturation in the fatty acid chains of palm oil for the preparation of alkyds. To increase the unsaturation in the palm oil, sulphuric acid (SA) and para-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA) was used prior to alcoholysis for the dehydration process. The iodine number of the oil samples was checked for the unsaturation measurement by Wijs method. Alkyd resin was prepared using the dehydrated palm oil by following alcoholysis and esterification reaction. To improve the film properties 0.5wt.% multi-wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were used to manufacture polymeric film. The properties of the resins were characterized by various physico-chemical properties such as density, viscosity, iodine value, saponification value, etc. Structural elucidation was confirmed by Fourier transform of infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance; surfaces of the films were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscope. In addition, pencil hardness and chemical resistivity was also measured by using standard methods. The effect of enhancement of the unsaturation in the fatty acid chain found significant and motivational. The resin prepared with dehydrated palm oil showed improved properties regarding hardness and chemical resistivity testing. The incorporation of MWCNTs enhanced the thermal stability and hardness of the films as well.

Keywords: Alkyd resin, nano-coatings, dehydration, palm oil.

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18 Fabrication of Cesium Iodide Columns by Rapid Heating Method

Authors: Chien-Wan Hun, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen, Ker-Jer Huang

Abstract:

This study presents how to use a high-efficiency process for producing cesium iodide (CsI) crystal columns by rapid heating method. In the past, the heating rate of the resistance wire heating furnace was relatively slow and excessive iodine and CsI vapors were therefore generated during heating. Because much iodine and CsI vapors are produced during heating process, the composition of CsI crystal columns is not correct. In order to enhance the heating rate, making CsI material in the heating process can quickly reach the melting point temperature. This study replaced the traditional type of external resistance heating furnace with halogen-type quartz heater, and then, CsI material can quickly reach the melting point. Eventually, CsI melt can solidify in the anodic aluminum template forming CsI crystal columns.

Keywords: Cesium iodide, high efficiency, vapor, rapid heating, crystal column.

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17 In vitro Culture Medium Sterilization by Chemicals and Essential Oils without Autoclaving and Growth of Chrysanthemum Nodes

Authors: Wittaya Deein, Chockpisit Thepsithar, Aree Thongpukdee

Abstract:

Plant tissue culture is an important in vitro technology applied for agricultural and industrial production. A sterile condition of culture medium is one of the main aspects. The alternative technique for medium sterilization to replace autoclaving was carried out. For sterilization of plant tissue culture medium without autoclaving, ten commercial pure essential oils and 5 disinfectants were tested. Each essential oil or disinfectant was added to a 20-mL Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium before medium was solidified in a 120-mL container, kept for 2 weeks before evaluating sterile conditions. Treated media, supplemented with essential oils or disinfectants, were compared to control medium, autoclaved at 121 degree Celsius for 15 min. Sterile conditions of MS medium were found 100% from betel oil or clove oil (18 mL/20 mL medium), cinnamon oil (36 mL/20 mL medium), lavender oil or holy basil oil (108 mL/20 mL medium), and lemon oil or tea tree oil or turmeric oil (252 mL/20 mL medium), compared to 100% sterile condition from autoclaved medium. For disinfectants, 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide, 2% merbromine solution, 10% povidone-iodine, 6% sodium hypochlorite or 0.1% thimerosal at 36 mL/20 mL medium provided 100% sterile conditions. Furthermore, growth of new shoots from chrysanthemum node explants on treated media (fresh weight, shoot length, root length and number of node) were also reported and discussed in the comparison of those on autoclaved medium.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum, disinfectants, essential oils, MS medium, sterilizing agents, sterilization of medium without autoclaving.

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16 Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, Y. Chiang

Abstract:

In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).

Keywords: RADionuclide, transport, removal, and dose estimation, RADTRAD, symbolic nuclear analysis package, SNAP, dose, PWR.

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15 Assessment of Aminopolyether on 18F-FDG Samples

Authors: Renata L. C. Leão, João E. Nascimento, Natalia C. E. S. Nascimento, Elaine S. Vasconcelos, Mércia L. Oliveira

Abstract:

The quality control procedures of a radiopharmaceutical include the assessment of its chemical purity. The method suggested by international pharmacopeias consists of a thin layer chromatographic run. In this paper, the method proposed by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is compared to a direct method to determine the final concentration of aminopolyether in Fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) preparations. The approach (no chromatographic run) was achieved by placing the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate directly on an iodine vapor chamber. Both methods were validated and they showed adequate results to determine the concentration of aminopolyether in 18F-FDG preparations. However, the direct method is more sensitive, faster and simpler when compared to the reference method (with chromatographic run), and it may be chosen for use in routine quality control of 18F-FDG.

Keywords: Chemical purity, Kryptofix 222, thin layer chromatography, validation.

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14 Biodiesel Production from High Iodine Number Candlenut Oil

Authors: Hary Sulistyo, Suprihastuti S. Rahayu, Gatot Winoto, I M. Suardjaja

Abstract:

Transesterification of candlenut (aleurites moluccana) oil with methanol using potassium hydroxide as catalyst was studied. The objective of the present investigation was to produce the methyl ester for use as biodiesel. The operation variables employed were methanol to oil molar ratio (3:1 – 9:1), catalyst concentration (0.50 – 1.5 %) and temperature (303 – 343K). Oil volume of 150 mL, reaction time of 75 min were fixed as common parameters in all the experiments. The concentration of methyl ester was evaluated by mass balance of free glycerol formed which was analyzed by using periodic acid. The optimal triglyceride conversion was attained by using methanol to oil ratio of 6:1, potassium hydroxide as catalyst was of 1%, at room temperature. Methyl ester formed was characterized by its density, viscosity, cloud and pour points. The biodiesel properties had properties similar to those of diesel oil, except for the viscosity that was higher.

Keywords: biodiesel, candlenut, methyl ester, transestrification

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13 X-Ray Fluorescence Molecular Imaging with Improved Sensitivity for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Guohua Cao, Xu Dong

Abstract:

X-ray Fluorescence Molecular Imaging (XFMI) holds great promise as a low-cost molecular imaging modality for biomedical applications with high chemical sensitivity. However, for in vivo biomedical applications, a key technical bottleneck is the relatively low chemical sensitivity of XFMI, especially at a reasonably low radiation dose. In laboratory x-ray source based XFMI, one of the main factors that limits the chemical sensitivity of XFMI is the scattered x-rays. We will present our latest findings on improving the chemical sensitivity of XFMI using excitation beam spectrum optimization. XFMI imaging experiments on two mouse-sized phantoms were conducted at three different excitation beam spectra. Our results show that the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of iodine can be readily increased by five times via excitation spectrum optimization. Findings from this investigation could find use for in vivo pre-clinical small-animal XFMI in the future.

Keywords: Molecular imaging, X-ray fluorescence, chemical sensitivity, X-ray scattering.

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12 The Effectiveness of Ultrasound Treatment on the Germination Stimulation of Barley Seed and its Alpha-Amylase Activity

Authors: M. Yaldagard, S.A. Mortazavi, F. Tabatabaie

Abstract:

In the present study, the effects of ultrasound as emerging technology were investigated on germination stimulation, amount of alpha-amylase activity on dry barley seeds before steeping stage of malting process. All experiments were carried out at 20 KHz on the ultrasonic generator in 3 different ultrasonic intensities (20, 60 and 100% setting from total power of device) and time (5, 10 and 15 min) at constant temperature (30C). For determining the effects of these parameters on enzyme the Fuwa method assay based on the decreased staining value of blue starch–iodine complexes employed for measurement an activity. The results of these assays were analyzed by Qualitek4 software using the Taguchi statistical method to evaluate the factor-s effects on enzyme activity. It has been found that when malting barley is irradiated with an ultrasonic power, a stimulating effect occurs as to the enzyme activity.

Keywords: ultrasound, alpha-amylase activity, stimulationand Taguchi statistical method.

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11 Comparison of Physico-Chemical Properties And Fatty Acid Compostion of Elateriospermum Tapos (Buah Perah), Palm Oil And Soybean Oil

Authors: Siti Hamidah, Lee Nian Yian, Azizi Mohd

Abstract:

Elateriospermum tapos seed (buah perah) is the one of the rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It contains high percentage of oleic acid which is the important component to develop nervous system and also α-linolenic acid (ALA) which is the precursor of omega-3 fatty acids series to synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, there is less study about this valuable oilseed and exploit its potential. Therefore, this paper is to assess the comparison of physico-chemical properties and fatty composition of perah oil to palm oil and soybean oil. From the comparison, perah oil shows low peroxide value means it has good oxidative stability and also high iodine values shows that it can be used in paint industry. The study shown that perah oil is comparable to palm oil and soybean oil, so it has high potential to be exploited in the oleochemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and paint industries.

Keywords: α-linolenic acid, palm oil, perah oil, soybean oil

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10 Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds on Activated Carbon DSAC36-24

Authors: Khaoula Hidouri, Ali Benhmidene, Bechir Chouachi, Dhananjay R. Mishra, Ammar Houas

Abstract:

Activated carbon DSAC36-24 iy is adsorbent materials, characterized by a specific surface area of 548.13 m²g⁻¹. Their manufacture uses the natural raw materials like the nucleus of dates. In this study the treatment is done in two stages: A chemical treatment by H3PO4 followed by a physical treatment under nitrogen for 1 hour then under stream of CO2 for 24 hours. A characterization of the various parameters was determined such as the measurement of the specific surface area, determination of pHPZC, bulk density, iodine value. The study of the adsorption of organic molecules (hydroquinone, paranitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol) indicates that the adsorption phenomena are essentially due to the van der Waals interaction. In the case of organic molecules carrying the polar substituents, the existence of hydrogen bonds is also proved by the donor-acceptor forces. The study of the pH effect was done with modeling by different models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson), a kinetic treatment is also followed by the application of Lagergren, Weber, Macky.

Keywords: DSAC36-24, organic molecule, adsoprtion ishoterms, adsorption kinetics.

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9 Treatment of Mycotic Dermatitis in Domestic Animals with Poly Herbal Drug

Authors: U. Umadevi, T. Umakanthan

Abstract:

Globally, mycotic dermatitis is very common but there is no single proven specific allopathic treatment regimen. In this study, domestic animals with skin diseases of different age and breed from geographically varied regions of Tamil Nadu state, India were employed. Most of them have had previous treatment with native and allopathic medicines without success. Clinically, the skin lesions were found to be mild to severe. The trial animals were treated with poly herbal formulation (ointment) prepared using the indigenous medicinal plants – viz Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis and Madhuca longifolia. Allopathic antifungal drugs and ointments, povidone iodine and curabless (Terbinafine HCl, Ofloxacin, Ornidazole, Clobetasol propionate) were used in control. Comparatively, trial animals were found to have lesser course of treatment time and higher recovery rate than control. In Ethnoveterinary, this combination was tried for the first time. This herbal formulation is economical and an alternative for skin diseases.

Keywords: Allopathic drugs, dermatitis, domestic animals, poly herbal formulation.

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8 Physical and Chemical Properties Analysis of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for Industrial Applications

Authors: Bashar Mudhaffar Abdullah, Rahimi M. Yusop, Jumat Salimon, Emad Yousif, Nadia Salih

Abstract:

A study on the physicochemical properties of Jatropha curcas seed oil for industrial applications were carried out. Physicochemical properties of J. curcas seed oil (59.32% lipids) showed high content of LA (36.70%), iodine value (104.90 mg/g) and saponification value (203.36 mg/g). The present study shows that, J. curcas seed oil is rich in oleic and linoleic acids. The J. curcas seed oil with the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid) can find an application in surface coating industries and biolubricant base oil applications, whereas the high amount of monounsaturated fatty acid can find an application as a biodiesel feed stock. J. curcas seed oil contains major TAG of monounsaturated OLL, POL, SLL, PLL, OOL, OOO and POP followed by LLL. J. curcas seed oil can be classified as unsaturated oil with an unsaturated fat level of 80.42%. Hence the J. curcas seed oil has great potential for industrial applications such as in paint and surface coatings, production of biodiesel and biolubricant. Therefore, it is crucial to have more research on J. curcas seed oil in the future to explore its potential as a future industrial oilseed crop.

Keywords: Physical, chemical, Jatropha curcas seed oil, industrial applications.

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7 Quantum Modelling of AgHMoO4, CsHMoO4 and AgCsMoO4 Chemistry in the Field of Nuclear Power Plant Safety

Authors: Mohamad Saab, Sidi Souvi

Abstract:

In a major nuclear accident, the released fission products (FPs) and the structural materials are likely to influence the transport of iodine in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). So far, the thermodynamic data on cesium and silver species used to estimate the magnitude of FP release show some discrepancies, data are scarce and not reliable. For this reason, it is crucial to review the thermodynamic values related to cesium and silver materials. To this end, we have used state-of-the-art quantum chemical methods to compute the formation enthalpies and entropies of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄, and AgCsMoO₄ in the gas phase. Different quantum chemical methods have been investigated (DFT and CCSD(T)) in order to predict the geometrical parameters and the energetics including the correlation energy. The geometries were optimized with TPSSh-5%HF method, followed by a single point calculation of the total electronic energies using the CCSD(T) wave function method. We thus propose with a final uncertainty of about 2 kJmol⁻¹ standard enthalpies of formation of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄, and AgCsMoO₄.

Keywords: ASTEC, Accident Source Term Evaluation Code, quantum chemical methods, severe nuclear accident, thermochemical database.

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6 Modification of Palm Oil Structure to Cocoa Butter Equivalent by Carica papaya Lipase- Catalyzed Interesterification

Authors: P. Pinyaphong, S. Phutrakul

Abstract:

Palm oil could be converted to cocoa butter equivalent by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. The objective of this research was to investigate the structure modification of palm oil to cocoa butter equivalent using Carica papaya lipase –catalyzed interesterification. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction temperature and the amount of enzyme. Among three acyl donors tested (methyl stearate, ethyl stearate and stearic acid), methyl stearate appeared to be the best acyl donor for incorporation to palm oil structure. The best reaction conditions for cocoa butter equivalent production were : substrate ratio (palm oil : methyl stearate, mol/mol) at 1 : 4, water activity of enzyme at 0.11, reaction time at 4 h, reaction temperature at 45 ° C and 18% by weight of the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of cocoa butter equivalent were 9.75 ± 0.41% free fatty acid, 44.89 ± 0.84 iodine number, 193.19 ± 0.78 sponification value and melting point at 37-39 °C.

Keywords: Carica papaya lipase, cocoa butter equivalent, interesterification, palm oil.

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5 Effects of Process Parameters on the Yield of Oil from Coconut Fruit

Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Godian O. Mbah, Maxwel I. Onyiah, Callistus N. Ude

Abstract:

Analysis of the properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and its oil was evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The analyses carried out include proximate composition of the fruit, extraction of oil from the fruit using different process parameters and physicochemical analysis of the extracted oil. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content of the coconut as 7.59, 55.15, 5.65, 7.35 and 19.51 respectively. The oil from the coconut fruit was odourless and yellowish liquid at room temperature (30oC). The treatment combinations used (leaching time, leaching temperature and solute: solvent ratio) showed significant differences (P<0.05) in the yield of oil from coconut flour. The oil yield ranged between 36.25%-49.83%. Lipid indices of the coconut oil indicated the acid value (AV) as 10.05Na0H/g of oil, free fatty acid (FFA) as 5.03%, saponification values (SV) as 183.26mgKOH-1g of oil, iodine value (IV) as 81.00 I2/g of oil, peroxide value (PV) as 5.00 ml/ g of oil and viscosity (V) as 0.002. A standard statistical package minitab version 16.0 program was used in the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical software mentioned above was also used to generate various plots such as single effect plot, interactions effect plot and contour plot. The response or yield of oil from the coconut flour was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the yield to the process variables studied. The maximum conditions obtained that gave the highest yield of coconut oil were leaching time of 2hrs, leaching temperature of 50oC and solute/solvent ratio of 0.05g/ml.

Keywords: Coconut, oil-extraction, optimization, physicochemical, proximate.

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4 Comparative Study of the Effects of Process Parameters on the Yield of Oil from Melon Seed (Cococynthis citrullus) and Coconut Fruit (Cocos nucifera)

Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Patrick E. Amulu, Gordian O. Mbah, Callistus N. Ude

Abstract:

Comparative analysis of the properties of melon seed, coconut fruit and their oil yield were evaluated in this work using standard analytical technique AOAC. The results of the analysis carried out revealed that the moisture contents of the samples studied are 11.15% (melon) and 7.59% (coconut). The crude lipid content are 46.10% (melon) and 55.15% (coconut).The treatment combinations used (leaching time, leaching temperature and solute: solvent ratio) showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in yield between the samples, with melon oil seed flour having a higher percentage range of oil yield (41.30 – 52.90%) and coconut (36.25 – 49.83%). The physical characterization of the extracted oil was also carried out. The values gotten for refractive index are 1.487 (melon seed oil) and 1.361 (coconut oil) and viscosities are 0.008 (melon seed oil) and 0.002 (coconut oil). The chemical analysis of the extracted oils shows acid value of 1.00mg NaOH/g oil (melon oil), 10.050mg NaOH/g oil (coconut oil) and saponification value of 187.00mg/KOH (melon oil) and 183.26mg/KOH (coconut oil). The iodine value of the melon oil gave 75.00mg I2/g and 81.00mg I2/g for coconut oil. A standard statistical package Minitab version 16.0 was used in the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical software mentioned above was also used to optimize the leaching process. Both samples gave high oil yield at the same optimal conditions. The optimal conditions to obtain highest oil yield ≥ 52% (melon seed) and ≥ 48% (coconut seed) are solute - solvent ratio of 40g/ml, leaching time of 2hours and leaching temperature of 50oC. The two samples studied have potential of yielding oil with melon seed giving the higher yield.

Keywords: Coconut, melon, optimization, processing.

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3 Application of Interferometric Techniques for Quality Control of Oils Used in the Food Industry

Authors: Andres Piña, Amy Meléndez, Pablo Cano, Tomas Cahuich

Abstract:

The purpose of this project is to propose a quick and environmentally friendly alternative to measure the quality of oils used in food industry. There is evidence that repeated and indiscriminate use of oils in food processing cause physicochemical changes with formation of potentially toxic compounds that can affect the health of consumers and cause organoleptic changes. In order to assess the quality of oils, non-destructive optical techniques such as Interferometry offer a rapid alternative to the use of reagents, using only the interaction of light on the oil. Through this project, we used interferograms of samples of oil placed under different heating conditions to establish the changes in their quality. These interferograms were obtained by means of a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer using a beam of light from a HeNe laser of 10mW at 632.8nm. Each interferogram was captured, analyzed and measured full width at half-maximum (FWHM) using the software from Amcap and ImageJ. The total of FWHMs was organized in three groups. It was observed that the average obtained from each of the FWHMs of group A shows a behavior that is almost linear, therefore it is probable that the exposure time is not relevant when the oil is kept under constant temperature. Group B exhibits a slight exponential model when temperature raises between 373 K and 393 K. Results of the t-Student show a probability of 95% (0.05) of the existence of variation in the molecular composition of both samples. Furthermore, we found a correlation between the Iodine Indexes (Physicochemical Analysis) and the Interferograms (Optical Analysis) of group C. Based on these results, this project highlights the importance of the quality of the oils used in food industry and shows how Interferometry can be a useful tool for this purpose.

Keywords: Food industry, interferometric, oils, quality control.

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2 Production, Characterisation and Assessment of Biomixture Fuels for Compression Ignition Engine Application

Authors: K. Masera, A. K. Hossain

Abstract:

Hardly any neat biodiesel satisfies the European EN14214 standard for compression ignition engine application. To satisfy the EN14214 standard, various additives are doped into biodiesel; however, biodiesel additives might cause other problems such as increase in the particular emission and increased specific fuel consumption. In addition, the additives could be expensive. Considering the increasing level of greenhouse gas GHG emissions and fossil fuel depletion, it is forecasted that the use of biodiesel will be higher in the near future. Hence, the negative aspects of the biodiesel additives will likely to gain much more importance and need to be replaced with better solutions. This study aims to satisfy the European standard EN14214 by blending the biodiesels derived from sustainable feedstocks. Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) and Animal Fat Oil (AFO) are two sustainable feedstocks in the EU (including the UK) for producing biodiesels. In the first stage of the study, these oils were transesterified separately and neat biodiesels (W100 & A100) were produced. Secondly, the biodiesels were blended together in various ratios: 80% WCO biodiesel and 20% AFO biodiesel (W80A20), 60% WCO biodiesel and 40% AFO biodiesel (W60A40), 50% WCO biodiesel and 50% AFO biodiesel (W50A50), 30% WCO biodiesel and 70% AFO biodiesel (W30A70), 10% WCO biodiesel and 90% AFO biodiesel (W10A90). The prepared samples were analysed using Thermo Scientific Trace 1300 Gas Chromatograph and ISQ LT Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The GS-MS analysis gave Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) breakdowns of the fuel samples. It was found that total saturation degree of the samples was linearly increasing (from 15% for W100 to 54% for A100) as the percentage of the AFO biodiesel was increased. Furthermore, it was found that WCO biodiesel was mainly (82%) composed of polyunsaturated FAMEs. Cetane numbers, iodine numbers, calorific values, lower heating values and the densities (at 15 oC) of the samples were estimated by using the mass percentages data of the FAMEs. Besides, kinematic viscosities (at 40 °C and 20 °C), densities (at 15 °C), heating values and flash point temperatures of the biomixture samples were measured in the lab. It was found that estimated and measured characterisation results were comparable. The current study concluded that biomixture fuel samples W60A40 and W50A50 were perfectly satisfying the European EN 14214 norms without any need of additives. Investigation on engine performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics will be conducted to assess the full feasibility of the proposed biomixture fuels.

Keywords: Biodiesel, blending, characterisation, CI Engine.

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1 Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) after Incubation Eggshell in Andaman Sea, Thailand Study: Microanalysis on Ultrastructure and Elemental Composition

Authors: M. Areekijseree, M. Pumipaiboon, S. Nuamsukon, K. Kittiwattanawong, C. Thongchai, S. Sikiwat, T. Chuen-Im

Abstract:

There are few studies on eggshell of leatherback turtle which is endangered species in Thailand. This study was focusing on the ultrastructure and elemental composition of leatherback turtle eggshells collected from Andaman Sea Shore, Thailand during the nesting season using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three eggshell layers of leatherback turtle; the outer cuticle layer or calcareous layer, the middle layer or middle multistrata layer and the inner fibrous layer were recognized. The outer calcareous layer was thick and porosity which consisted of loose nodular units of various crystal shapes and sizes. The loose attachment between these units resulted in numerous spaces and openings. The middle layer was compact thick with several multistrata and contained numerous openings connecting to both outer cuticle layer and inner fibrous layer. The inner fibrous layer was compact and thin, and composed of numerous reticular fibers. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis detector revealed energy spectrum of X-rays character emitted from all elements on each layer. The percentages of all elements were found in the following order: carbon (C) > oxygen (O) > calcium (Ca) > sulfur (S) > potassium (K) > aluminum (Al) > iodine (I) > silicon (Si) > chlorine (Cl) > sodium (Na) > fluorine (F) > phosphorus (P) > magnesium (Mg). Each layer consisted of high percentage of CaCO3 (approximately 98%) implying that it was essential for turtle embryonic development. A significant difference was found in the percentages of Ca and Mo in the 3layers. Moreover, transition metal, metal and toxic non-metal contaminations were found in leatherback turtle eggshell samples. These were palladium (Pd), molybdenum (Mo), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), lead (Pb), and bromine (Br). The contamination elements were seen in the outer layers except for Mo. All elements were readily observed and mapped using Smiling program. X-ray images which mapped the location of all elements were showed. Calcium containing in the eggshell appeared in high contents and was widely distributing in clusters of the outer cuticle layer to form CaCO3 structure. Moreover, the accumulation of Na and Cl was observed to form NaCl which was widely distributing in 3 eggshell layers. The results from this study would be valuable on assessing the emergent success in this endangered species.

Keywords: Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), SEM (SEI/EDX), turtle eggshell.

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