Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32579
X-Ray Fluorescence Molecular Imaging with Improved Sensitivity for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Guohua Cao, Xu Dong


X-ray Fluorescence Molecular Imaging (XFMI) holds great promise as a low-cost molecular imaging modality for biomedical applications with high chemical sensitivity. However, for in vivo biomedical applications, a key technical bottleneck is the relatively low chemical sensitivity of XFMI, especially at a reasonably low radiation dose. In laboratory x-ray source based XFMI, one of the main factors that limits the chemical sensitivity of XFMI is the scattered x-rays. We will present our latest findings on improving the chemical sensitivity of XFMI using excitation beam spectrum optimization. XFMI imaging experiments on two mouse-sized phantoms were conducted at three different excitation beam spectra. Our results show that the minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of iodine can be readily increased by five times via excitation spectrum optimization. Findings from this investigation could find use for in vivo pre-clinical small-animal XFMI in the future.

Keywords: Molecular imaging, X-ray fluorescence, chemical sensitivity, X-ray scattering.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 788


[1] Jones, B. L., et al., Experimental demonstration of benchtop x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (xfct) of gold nanoparticle-loaded objects using lead- and tin-filtered polychromatic cone-beams. Phys Med Biol, 2012. 57(23): p. N457-67.
[2] Kuang, Y., et al., First demonstration of multiplexed x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (xfct) imaging. IEEE transactions on medical imaging, 2013. 32(2): p. 262-267.
[3] Ren, L., et al., Three-dimensional x-ray fluorescence mapping of a gold nanoparticle-loaded phantom. Med Phys, 2014. 41(3): p. 031902.
[4] Yoon, C., Y. Kim, and W. Lee, 3d non-destructive fluorescent x-ray computed tomography with a cdte array. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2016. 63(3): p. 1844-1853.
[5] Bazalova, M., et al., L-shell x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (xfct) imaging of cisplatin. Phys. Med. Biol, 2014. 59(1): p. 219-232.
[6] Bazalova-Carter, M., et al., Experimental validation of l-shell x-ray fluorescence computed tomography imaging: Phantom study. Journal of Medical Imaging, 2015. 2(4): p. 043501-043501.
[7] Manohar, N., F.J. Reynoso, and S.H. Cho, Experimental demonstration of direct l‐shell x‐ray fluorescence imaging of gold nanoparticles using a benchtop x‐ray source. Medical physics, 2013. 40(8).
[8] Cong, W., H. Shen, and G. Wang, Spectrally resolving and scattering-compensated x-ray luminescence/fluorescence computed tomography. Journal of biomedical optics, 2011. 16(6): p. 066014-066014-7.
[9] Ricketts, K., et al., A quantitative x-ray detection system for gold nanoparticle tumour biomarkers. Phys Med Biol, 2012. 57(17): p. 5543-55.
[10] Ahmad, M., et al., Order of magnitude sensitivity increase in x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (xfct) imaging with an optimized spectro-spatial detector configuration: Theory and simulation. IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 2014. 33(5): p. 1119-28.
[11] Ahmad, M., et al., Optimized detector angular configuration increases the sensitivity of x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (xfct). IEEE Trans Med Imaging, 2015. 34(5): p. 1140-7.
[12] Wu, D., et al. Measurements of gold nanoparticle concentration with k-shell x-ray fluorescence spectrum. in Proc. of SPIE Vol. 2017.
[13] Cao, G., J. Lu, and O. Zhou. X-ray fluorescence molecular imaging with high sensitivity: Feasibility study in phantoms. in SPIE Medical Imaging. 2012. International Society for Optics and Photonics.
[14] Takeda, T., et al., Iodine imaging in thyroid by fluorescent x-ray ct with 0.05 mm spatial resolution. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 2001. 467: p. 1318-1321.
[15] Wu, D., et al., A method of measuring gold nanoparticle concentrations by x‐ray fluorescence for biomedical applications. Medical physics, 2013. 40(5).
[16] Larsson, J. C., et al. High-spatial-resolution nanoparticle x-ray fluorescence tomography. in Medical Imaging 2016: Physics of Medical Imaging. 2016. International Society for Optics and Photonics.
[17] Shilo, M., et al., Nanoparticles as computed tomography contrast agents: Current status and future perspectives. Nanomedicine, 2012. 7(2): p. 257-269.
[18] Ricketts, K., et al., A bench-top k x-ray fluorescence system for quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticles for biological sample diagnostics. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 2016. 816: p. 25-32.
[19] Takeda, T., et al. Fluorescent x-ray computed tomography with synchrotron radiation using fan collimator. in Proc. SPIE. 1996.