Modification of Palm Oil Structure to Cocoa Butter Equivalent by Carica papaya Lipase- Catalyzed Interesterification
Palm oil could be converted to cocoa butter equivalent by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. The objective of this research was to investigate the structure modification of palm oil to cocoa butter equivalent using Carica papaya lipase –catalyzed interesterification. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction temperature and the amount of enzyme. Among three acyl donors tested (methyl stearate, ethyl stearate and stearic acid), methyl stearate appeared to be the best acyl donor for incorporation to palm oil structure. The best reaction conditions for cocoa butter equivalent production were : substrate ratio (palm oil : methyl stearate, mol/mol) at 1 : 4, water activity of enzyme at 0.11, reaction time at 4 h, reaction temperature at 45 ° C and 18% by weight of the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of cocoa butter equivalent were 9.75 ± 0.41% free fatty acid, 44.89 ± 0.84 iodine number, 193.19 ± 0.78 sponification value and melting point at 37-39 °C.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1077056Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2981
 D. Undurraga, A. Markouits and S. Erazo, "Cocoa butter equivalent through enzymic interesterification of palm oil midfraction," Process Biochem, vol. 36, pp. 933-939, Octo. 2001.
 M. Lipp, C. Simoneau, F. Ulberth, E. Anklam, C. Crews, P. Prereton, W. Greyt, W. Schwack and C. Wiedmaier, "Composition of genuine cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalents," J. Food Compos. Anal., vol. 14, pp. 399-408, Mar. 2001.
 K. J. Liu, H. M. Chang and K. M. Liu, "Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter analog through interesterification of lard and tristearin in supercritical carbon dioxide by lipase," Food Chem., vol. 100, pp. 1303- 1311, Dec. 2007.
 V. K. S. Shukla, Confectionery fats. Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow, 1996, pp. 66-94.
 F. Padley, F. Gunstone, J. Harwood, "Occurrence and characteristics of oils and fats," Chapman and Hall, London, 1986, pp. 49-170.
 H. X. Wang, H. Wu, C. T. Ho and X. C. Weng, "Cocoa butter equivalent from enzymatic interesterification of tea seed oil and fatty acid methyl esters," Food Chemistry., vol. 97, pp. 661-665, Apr. 2006.
 M. K. Chang, G. Abraham and V. T. John, "Production of cocoa butterlike fat from interesterification of vegetable oils," J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 67, pp. 832-834, Aug. 1990.
 A. R. Macrae, "Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of oils and fats," J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 60, pp. 291-294, Feb. 1983.
 R. Sridhar, G. Lakshminarayana and T. N. B. Kaimal, "Modification of selected Indian vegetable fats into cocoa butter substitutes by lipasecatalyzed ester interchange," J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 68, pp. 726- 730, June. 1991.
 R. A. Wisdom, P. Dunnil and M. D. Lilly, "Enzymatic interesterification of fats : laboratory and pilot-scale studies with immobilized lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus," Biotechnol. Bioeng., vol. 29, pp. 1081-1085, Dec. 1986.
 P. Villeneuve, A. Skarbek, M. Pina, J. Graille and T. A. Foglia, "Catalytic behavior of Carica papaya latex in transesterification reactions," Biotech. Tech., vol. 11, pp. 637-639, May. 1997.
 J. M. Graille, D. M. Pina and J. M. Muderwha, "Making value-added products from palm oil by 1-3 regioselectivity enzymatic interesterification," Elaeis., vol. 41, pp. 10-13, Jan. 1991.
 T. A. Foglia and P. Villeneuve, "Carica papaya latex lipase-catalyzed synthesis of structured triacylglycerols," J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc., vol. 74, pp. 1447-1450, Nov. 1997.
 D. Y. Kwon and J. S. Rhee, "A simple and rapid colorimetric method for determination of free fatty acids for lipase assay," J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc., vol. 63, pp. 89-92, Jan. 1986.
 R. Giordani, A. Moulin and R. Verger, "Tributyroylglycerol hydrolase activity in Carica papaya and other lattices," Phytochemistry, vol. 30, pp. 1069-1072, May. 1991.
 L. W. Khumalo, L. Majoko, J. S. Read and I. Ncube, "Characterisation of some underutilized vegetable oils and their evaluation as starting materials for lipase-catalysed production of cocoa butter equivalents," Ind. Crops Products, vol. 16., pp. 237-244., Aug. 2002.
 S. Bloomer, P. Adlercreatz and B. Mattiasson, "Triglyceride interesterification by lipase. 1. Cocoa butter equivalents from a fraction of palm oil," J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., vol. 67, pp. 519-524, Aug. 1990.
 L. Mojovic, S. Siler-Marinkovic, G. Kukic and G. Vunjak-Novakovic, "Rhizopus arrhizus lipase-catalyzed interesterification of the mid fraction of palm oil to a cocoa butter equivalent fat," Enzyme Microb. Technol., vol. 15, pp. 438-443, May. 1993.
 H-X. Wang, H. Wu, C-T. Ho and X-C. Weng, "Cocoa butter equivalent from enzymatic interesterification of tea seed oil and fatty acid methyl esters," Food Chemistry, vol. 97, pp. 661-665, Apr. 2006.
 H. L. Goderis, "Lipase-catalyzed ester exchange reaction in organic media with controlled humidity," Biotechnol. Bioeng., vol. 130, pp. 256- 265, Apr. 1990.