Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 937

Search results for: Interarrival times.

937 Some Application of Random Fuzzy Queueing System Based On Fuzzy Simulation

Authors: Behrouz Fathi-Vajargah, Sara Ghasemalipour

Abstract:

This paper studies a random fuzzy queueing system that the interarrival times of customers arriving at the server and the service times are independent and identically distributed random fuzzy variables. We match the random fuzzy queueing system with the random fuzzy alternating renewal process and we do not use from α-pessimistic and α-optimistic values to estimate the average chance of the event ”random fuzzy queueing system is busy at time t”, we employ the fuzzy simulation method in practical applications. Some theorem is proved and finally we solve a numerical example with fuzzy simulation method.

Keywords: Random fuzzy variables, Fuzzy simulation, Queueing system, Interarrival times.

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936 Stochastic Estimation of Wireless Traffic Parameters

Authors: Somenath Mukherjee, Raj Kumar Samanta, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Different services based on different switching techniques in wireless networks leads to drastic changes in the properties of network traffic. Because of these diversities in services, network traffic is expected to undergo qualitative and quantitative variations. Hence, assumption of traffic characteristics and the prediction of network events become more complex for the wireless networks. In this paper, the traffic characteristics have been studied by collecting traces from the mobile switching centre (MSC). The traces include initiation and termination time, originating node, home station id, foreign station id. Traffic parameters namely, call interarrival and holding times were estimated statistically. The results show that call inter-arrival and distribution time in this wireless network is heavy-tailed and follow gamma distributions. They are asymptotically long-range dependent. It is also found that the call holding times are best fitted with lognormal distribution. Based on these observations, an analytical model for performance estimation is also proposed.

Keywords: Wireless networks, traffic analysis, long-range dependence, heavy-tailed distribution.

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935 The Size Effects of Keyboards (Keycaps) on Computer Typing Tasks

Authors: Chih-Chun Lai, Jun-Yu Wang

Abstract:

Keyboard is the most important equipment for computer tasks. However, improper design of keyboard would cause some symptoms like ulnar and/or radial deviations. The research goal of this study was to investigate the optimal size(s) of keycaps to increase efficiency. As shown in the questionnaire pre-study with 49 participants aged from 20 to 44, the most commonly used keyboards were 101-key standard keyboards. Most of the keycap sizes (W×L) were 1.3×1.5 cm and 1.5×1.5 cm. The fingertip breadths of most participants were 1.2 cm. Therefore, in the main study with 18 participants, a standard keyboard with each set of the 3-sized (1.2×1.4 cm, 1.3×1.5 cm, and 1.5×1.5 cm) keycaps were used to investigate their typing efficiency, respectively. The results revealed that the differences between the operating times for using 1.3×1.5 cm and 1.2×1.4 cm keycaps was insignificant while operating times for using 1.5×1.5cm keycaps were significantly longer than for using 1.2×1.4 cm or 1.3×1.5 cm, respectively. As for typing error rate, there was no significant difference.

Keywords: Keyboard, Keycap size, Typing efficiency.

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934 Minimization Problems for Generalized Reflexive and Generalized Anti-Reflexive Matrices

Authors: Yongxin Yuan

Abstract:

Let R ∈ Cm×m and S ∈ Cn×n be nontrivial unitary involutions, i.e., RH = R = R−1 = ±Im and SH = S = S−1 = ±In. A ∈ Cm×n is said to be a generalized reflexive (anti-reflexive) matrix if RAS = A (RAS = −A). Let ρ be the set of m × n generalized reflexive (anti-reflexive) matrices. Given X ∈ Cn×p, Z ∈ Cm×p, Y ∈ Cm×q and W ∈ Cn×q, we characterize the matrices A in ρ that minimize AX−Z2+Y HA−WH2, and, given an arbitrary A˜ ∈ Cm×n, we find a unique matrix among the minimizers of AX − Z2 + Y HA − WH2 in ρ that minimizes A − A˜. We also obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for existence of A ∈ ρ such that AX = Z, Y HA = WH, and characterize the set of all such matrices A if the conditions are satisfied. These results are applied to solve a class of left and right inverse eigenproblems for generalized reflexive (anti-reflexive) matrices.

Keywords: approximation, generalized reflexive matrix, generalized anti-reflexive matrix, inverse eigenvalue problem.

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933 The Inverse Problem of Nonsymmetric Matrices with a Submatrix Constraint and its Approximation

Authors: Yongxin Yuan, Hao Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we first give the representation of the general solution of the following least-squares problem (LSP): Given matrices X ∈ Rn×p, B ∈ Rp×p and A0 ∈ Rr×r, find a matrix A ∈ Rn×n such that XT AX − B = min, s. t. A([1, r]) = A0, where A([1, r]) is the r×r leading principal submatrix of the matrix A. We then consider a best approximation problem: given an n × n matrix A˜ with A˜([1, r]) = A0, find Aˆ ∈ SE such that A˜ − Aˆ = minA∈SE A˜ − A, where SE is the solution set of LSP. We show that the best approximation solution Aˆ is unique and derive an explicit formula for it. Keyw

Keywords: Inverse problem, Least-squares solution, model updating, Singular value decomposition (SVD), Optimal approximation.

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932 Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles

Authors: Hee-Chang Lim

Abstract:

The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.

Keywords: Rectangular bodies, wind direction, aspect ratio, surface pressure distribution, wind-tunnel measurement, k-ε model, DES model, CFD.

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931 Sustainable Development and Kish Island Environment Protection, using Wind Energy

Authors: Amir Gandomkar

Abstract:

Kish Islands in South of Iran is located in coastal water near Hormozgan Province. Based on the wind 3-hour statistics in Kish station, the mean annual windspeed in this Island is 8.6 knot (4.3 m/s). The maximum windspeed recorded in this stations 47 knot (23.5 m/s). In 45.7 percent of recorded times, windspeed has been Zero or less than 8 knot which is not suitable to use the wind energy. But in 54.3 percent of recorded times, windspeed has been more than 8 knot and suitable to use wind energy to run turbines. In 40.2 percent of recorded times, windspeed has been between 8 to 16 knot, in 13 percent of times between 16 to 24 knot and in 1 percent of times it has been higher than 24 knot. In this station, the direction of winds higher than 8 is west and wind direction in Kish station is stable in most times of the year.With regard to high – speed and stable direction winds during the year and also shallow coasts near this is land, it is possible to build offshore wind farms near Kish Island and utilize wind energy produce the electricity required in this Island during most of the year.

Keywords: Kish Island, Wind energy, Offshore wind farm, Windspeed, Wind direction

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930 A Prediction Method for Large-Size Event Occurrences in the Sandpile Model

Authors: S. Channgam, A. Sae-Tang, T. Termsaithong

Abstract:

In this research, the occurrences of large size events in various system sizes of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model are considered. The system sizes (square lattice) of model considered here are 25×25, 50×50, 75×75 and 100×100. The cross-correlation between the ratio of sites containing 3 grain time series and the large size event time series for these 4 system sizes are also analyzed. Moreover, a prediction method of the large-size event for the 50×50 system size is also introduced. Lastly, it can be shown that this prediction method provides a slightly higher efficiency than random predictions.

Keywords: Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model, avalanches, cross-correlation, prediction method.

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929 Information System for Early Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnostics Based on Multiscale Texture Gradient Method

Authors: L. S. Godlevsky, N. V. Kresyun, V. P. Martsenyuk, K. S. Shakun, T. V. Tatarchuk, K. O. Prybolovets, L. F. Kalinichenko, M. Karpinski, T. Gancarczyk

Abstract:

Structures of eye bottom were extracted using multiscale texture gradient method and color characteristics of macular zone and vessels were verified in CIELAB scale. The difference of average values of L*, a* and b* coordinates of CIE (International Commision of Illumination) scale in patients with diabetes and healthy volunteers was compared. The average value of L* in diabetic patients exceeded such one in the group of practically healthy persons by 2.71 times (P < 0.05), while the value of a* index was reduced by 3.8 times when compared with control one (P < 0.05). b* index exceeded such one in the control group by 12.4 times (P < 0.05). The integrated index on color difference (ΔE) exceeded control value by 2.87 times (P < 0.05). More pronounced differences with ΔE were followed by a shorter period of MA appearance with a correlation level at -0.56 (P < 0.05). The specificity of diagnostics raised by 2.17 times (P < 0.05) and negative prognostic index exceeded such one determined with the expert method by 2.26 times (P < 0.05).

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, multiscale texture gradient, color spectrum analysis.

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928 Minimal Critical Sets of Inertias for Irreducible Zero-nonzero Patterns of Order 3

Authors: Ber-Lin Yu, Ting-Zhu Huang

Abstract:

If there exists a nonempty, proper subset S of the set of all (n + 1)(n + 2)/2 inertias such that S Ôèå i(A) is sufficient for any n × n zero-nonzero pattern A to be inertially arbitrary, then S is called a critical set of inertias for zero-nonzero patterns of order n. If no proper subset of S is a critical set, then S is called a minimal critical set of inertias. In [3], Kim, Olesky and Driessche identified all minimal critical sets of inertias for 2 × 2 zero-nonzero patterns. Identifying all minimal critical sets of inertias for n × n zero-nonzero patterns with n ≥ 3 is posed as an open question in [3]. In this paper, all minimal critical sets of inertias for 3 × 3 zero-nonzero patterns are identified. It is shown that the sets {(0, 0, 3), (3, 0, 0)}, {(0, 0, 3), (0, 3, 0)}, {(0, 0, 3), (0, 1, 2)}, {(0, 0, 3), (1, 0, 2)}, {(0, 0, 3), (2, 0, 1)} and {(0, 0, 3), (0, 2, 1)} are the only minimal critical sets of inertias for 3 × 3 irreducible zerononzero patterns.

Keywords: Permutation digraph, zero-nonzero pattern, irreducible pattern, critical set of inertias, inertially arbitrary.

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927 The Effect on Lead Times When Normalizing a Supply Chain Process

Authors: Bassam Istanbouli

Abstract:

Organizations are living in a very competitive and dynamic environment which is constantly changing. In order to achieve a high level of service, the products and processes of these organizations need to be flexible and evolvable. If the supply chains are not modular and well designed, changes can bring combinatorial effects to most areas of a company from its management, financial, documentation, logistics and its information structure. Applying the normalized system’s concept to segments of the supply chain may help in reducing those ripple effects, but it may also increase lead times. Lead times are important and can become a decisive element in gaining customers. Industries are always under the pressure in providing good quality products, at competitive prices, when and how the customer wants them. Most of the time, the customers want their orders now, if not yesterday. The above concept will be proven by examining lead times in a manufacturing example before and after applying normalized systems concept to that segment of the chain. We will then show that although we can minimize the combinatorial effects when changes occur, the lead times will be increased.

Keywords: Supply chain, lead time, normalization, modular.

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926 Experiment Study on the Plasma Parameters Measurement in Backflow Region of Ion Thruster

Authors: Tian Kai, Yang Sheng-sheng, Li De-tian, Miao Yu-jun, Xue Yu-xiong Wang Yi, Yan Ze-dong, Ma Ya-li, ZHuang Jian-hong

Abstract:

The charge-exchange xenon (CEX) ion generated by ion thruster can backflow to the surface of spacecraft and threaten to the safety of spacecraft operation. In order to evaluate the effects of the induced plasma environment in backflow regions on the spacecraft, we designed a spherical single Langmuir probe of 5.8cm in diameter for measuring low-density plasma parameters in backflow region of ion thruster. In practice, the tests are performed in a two-dimensional array (40cm×60cm) composed of 20 sites. The experiment results illustrate that the electron temperature ranges from 3.71eV to 3.96eV, with the mean value of 3.82eV and the standard deviation of 0.064eV. The electron density ranges from 8.30×1012/m3 to 1.66×1013/m3, with the mean value of 1.30×1013/m3 and the standard deviation of 2.15×1012/m3. All data is analyzed according to the “ideal" plasma conditions of Maxwellian distributions.

Keywords: Langmuir Probe, Plasma parameters, Ion thruster, Backflow region.

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925 The Effect of Correlated Service and Inter-arrival Times on System Performance

Authors: Gang Uk Hwang

Abstract:

In communication networks where communication nodes are connected with finite capacity transmission links, the packet inter-arrival times are strongly correlated with the packet length and the link capacity (or the packet service time). Such correlation affects the system performance significantly, but little attention has been paid to this issue. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework to study the impact of the correlation between the packet service times and the packet inter-arrival times on system performance. With our mathematical model, we analyze the system performance, e.g., the unfinished work of the system, and show that the correlation affects the system performance significantly. Some numerical examples are also provided.

Keywords: Performance analysis, Correlated queueing system, Unfinished work, PH-type distribution, Communicationsystem.

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924 Designing a Low Speed Wind Tunnel for Investigating Effects of Blockage Ratio on Heat Transfer of a Non-Circular Tube

Authors: Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Taher Maarefdoost

Abstract:

Effect of blockage ratio on heat transfer from non-circular tube is studied experimentally. For doing this experiment a suction type low speed wind tunnel with test section dimension of 14×14×40 and velocity in rage of 7-20 m/s was designed. The blockage ratios varied between 1.5 to 7 and Reynolds number based on equivalent diameter varies in range of 7.5×103 to 17.5×103. The results show that by increasing blockage ratio from 1.5 to 7, drag coefficient of the cam shaped tube decreased about 55 percent. By increasing Reynolds number, Nusselt number of the cam shaped tube increases about 40 to 48 percent in all ranges of blockage ratios.

Keywords: Wind tunnel, non-circular tube, blockage ratio, experimental heat transfer, cross-flow.

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923 Design of Low-Area HEVC Core Transform Architecture

Authors: Seung-Mok Han, Woo-Jin Nam, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes and implements an core transform architecture, which is one of the major processes in HEVC video compression standard. The proposed core transform architecture is implemented with only adders and shifters instead of area-consuming multipliers. Shifters in the proposed core transform architecture are implemented in wires and multiplexers, which significantly reduces chip area. Also, it can process from 4×4 to 16×16 blocks with common hardware by reusing processing elements. Designed core transform architecture in 0.13um technology can process a 16×16 block with 2-D transform in 130 cycles, and its gate count is 101,015 gates.

Keywords: HEVC, Core transform, Low area, Shift-and-add, PE reuse

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922 Metal-Based Anticancer Agents: In vitro DNA Binding, Cleavage and Cytotoxicity

Authors: Mala Nath, Nagamani Kompelli, Partha Roy, Snehasish Das

Abstract:

Two new metal-based anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, [(Ph2Sn)2(HGuO)2(phen)Cl2] 1 and [(Ph3Sn)(HGuO)(phen)]- Cl.CH3OH.H2O 2, were designed, prepared and characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, ESI-Mass, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR) techniques. The proposed geometry of Sn(IV) in 1 and 2 is distorted octahedral and distorted trigonal-bipyramidal, respectively. Both 1 and 2 exhibit potential cytotoxicity in vitro against MCF-7, HepG-2 and DU-145 cell lines. The intrinsic binding constant (Kb) values of 1 (2.33 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.46 × 105 M-1) evaluated from UV-Visible absorption studies suggest non-classical electrostatic mode of interaction via phosphate backbone of DNA double helix. The Stern- Volmer quenching constant (Ksv) of 1 (9.74 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.9 × 106 M-1) determined by fluorescence studies suggests the groove binding and intercalation mode for 1 and 2, respectively. Effective cleavage of pBR322 DNA is induced by 1.Their interaction with DNA of cancer cells may account for potency.

Keywords: Anticancer agents, DNA binding studies, NMR spectroscopy, organotin.

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921 Solution Approaches for Some Scheduling Problems with Learning Effect and Job Dependent Delivery Times

Authors: M. Duran Toksarı, B. Uçarkuş

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose two algorithms to optimally solve makespan and total completion time scheduling problems with learning effect and job dependent delivery times in a single machine environment. The delivery time is the extra time to eliminate adverse effect between the main processing and delivery to the customer. In this paper, we introduce the job dependent delivery times for some single machine scheduling problems with position dependent learning effect, which are makespan are total completion. The results with respect to two algorithms proposed for solving of the each problem are compared with LINGO solutions for 50-jobs, 100-jobs and 150- jobs problems. The proposed algorithms can find the same results in shorter time.

Keywords: Delivery times, learning effect, makespan, scheduling, total completion time.

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920 A Semi-Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Color Image Authentication

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a semi-fragile watermarking scheme is proposed for color image authentication. In this particular scheme, the color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space, suitable for watermarking the color media. Each channel is divided into 4×4 non-overlapping blocks and its each 2×2 sub-block is selected. The embedding space is created by setting the two LSBs of selected sub-block to zero, which will hold the authentication and recovery information. For verification of work authentication and parity bits denoted by 'a' & 'p' are computed for each 2×2 subblock. For recovery, intensity mean of each 2×2 sub-block is computed and encoded upto six to eight bits depending upon the channel selection. The size of sub-block is important for correct localization and fast computation. For watermark distribution 2DTorus Automorphism is implemented using a private key to have a secure mapping of blocks. The perceptibility of watermarked image is quite reasonable both subjectively and objectively. Our scheme is oblivious, correctly localizes the tampering and able to recovery the original work with probability of near one.

Keywords: Image Authentication, YST Color Space, Intensity Mean, LSBs, PSNR.

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919 Design and Construction of the Semi-Automatic Sliced Ginger Machine

Authors: J. Chatthong, W. Boonchouytan, R. Burapa

Abstract:

The purpose of study was to design and construction the semi-automatic sliced ginger machine for reduce production times in sheet and slice ginger procedure furthermore, reduced amount of labor of slides and cutting method. Take consider into clean and safety of workers and consumers. The principle of machines, used 1 horsepower motor, rotation speed of sliced blade 967 rpm, the diameter of sliced dish 310 mm, consists of 2 blades for sheet cutting ginger and the power from motor which transfer to rotate the sliced blade roller, rotation speed 440 rpm. The slice cutter roller was sliced ginger from sheet ginger to line ginger. The conveyer could adjustment level of motors, used to the beginning area that sheet ginger was transference to the roller for sheet and sliced cutting in next process. The cover of sliced cutting had channel for 1 tuber of ginger. The semi-automatic sliced ginger machine could produced sheet ginger 81.8 kg/h (6.2 times of labor) and line ginger 17.9 kg/h (2.5 times of labor) compare with, labor work could produced sheet ginger 13.2 kg/h and line ginger 7.1 kg/h, and when timekeeper, the total times of semi auto machine 30.86 kg/h and labor 4.6 kg/h, there for the semi auto machine was 6.7 times of labor. The semiautomatic sliced ginger machine convenient, easy for use and maintain, in addition to reduce fatigue of body and seriousness from works; must be used high skill, and protection accident in slicing procedure. Beside, machine could used with other vegetables for example potato, carrot .etc

Keywords: Sliced Machine, Sliced Ginger, Line Ginger

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918 Influences of Thermal Relaxation Times on Generalized Thermoelastic Longitudinal Waves in Circular Cylinder

Authors: Fatimah A. Alshaikh

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with propagation of thermoelastic longitudinal vibrations of an infinite circular cylinder, in the context of the linear theory of generalized thermoelasticity with two relaxation time parameters (Green and Lindsay theory). Three displacement potential functions are introduced to uncouple the equations of motion. The frequency equation, by using the traction free boundary conditions, is given in the form of a determinant involving Bessel functions. The roots of the frequency equation give the value of the characteristic circular frequency as function of the wave number. These roots, which correspond to various modes, are numerically computed and presented graphically for different values of the thermal relaxation times. It is found that the influences of the thermal relaxation times on the amplitudes of the elastic and thermal waves are remarkable. Also, it is shown in this study that the propagation of thermoelastic longitudinal vibrations based on the generalized thermoelasticity can differ significantly compared with the results under the classical formulation. A comparison of the results for the case with no thermal effects shows well agreement with some of the corresponding earlier results.

Keywords: Wave propagation, longitudinal vibrations, circular cylinder, generalized thermoelasticity, Thermal relaxation times.

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917 Distributed 2-Vertex Connectivity Test of Graphs Using Local Knowledge

Authors: Brahim Hamid, Bertrand Le Saec, Mohamed Mosbah

Abstract:

The vertex connectivity of a graph is the smallest number of vertices whose deletion separates the graph or makes it trivial. This work is devoted to the problem of vertex connectivity test of graphs in a distributed environment based on a general and a constructive approach. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, using a preconstructed spanning tree of the considered graph, we present a protocol to test whether a given graph is 2-connected using only local knowledge. Second, we present an encoding of this protocol using graph relabeling systems. The last contribution is the implementation of this protocol in the message passing model. For a given graph G, where M is the number of its edges, N the number of its nodes and Δ is its degree, our algorithms need the following requirements: The first one uses O(Δ×N2) steps and O(Δ×logΔ) bits per node. The second one uses O(Δ×N2) messages, O(N2) time and O(Δ × logΔ) bits per node. Furthermore, the studied network is semi-anonymous: Only the root of the pre-constructed spanning tree needs to be identified.

Keywords: Distributed computing, fault-tolerance, graph relabeling systems, local computations, local knowledge, message passing system, networks, vertex connectivity.

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916 Nonlinear Equations with N-dimensional Telegraph Operator Iterated K-times

Authors: Jessada Tariboon

Abstract:

In this article, using distribution kernel, we study the nonlinear equations with n-dimensional telegraph operator iterated k-times.

Keywords: Telegraph operator, Elementary solution, Distribution kernel.

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915 Using Discrete Event Simulation Approach to Reduce Waiting Times in Computed Tomography Radiology Department

Authors: Mwafak Shakoor

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to reduce patient waiting times, improve system throughput and improve resources utilization in radiology department. A discrete event simulation model was developed using Arena simulation software to investigate different alternatives to improve the overall system delivery based on adding resource scenarios due to the linkage between patient waiting times and resource availability. The study revealed that there is no addition investment need to procure additional scanner but hospital management deploy managerial tactics to enhance machine utilization and reduce the long waiting time in the department.

Keywords: Arena, Computed Tomography (CT), Discrete event simulation, Healthcare modeling, Radiology department, Waiting time.

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914 A New Construction of 16-QAM Codewords with Low Peak Power

Authors: Jiaxiang Zhao

Abstract:

We present a novel construction of 16-QAM codewords of length n = 2k . The number of constructed codewords is 162×[4k-1×k-k+1] . When these constructed codewords are utilized as a code in OFDM systems, their peak-to-mean envelope power ratios (PMEPR) are bounded above by 3.6 . The principle of our scheme is illustrated with a four subcarrier example.

Keywords: Extended Rudin-Shapiro construction, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), peak-to-mean envelope power ratio (PMEPR)

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913 Study on Compressive Strength and Setting Times of Fly Ash Concrete after Slump Recovery Using Superplasticizer

Authors: Chaiyakrit Raoupatham, Ram Hari Dhakal, Chalermchai Wanichlamlert

Abstract:

Fresh concrete has one of dynamic properties known as slump. Slump of concrete is design to compatible with placing method. Due to hydration reaction of cement, the slump of concrete is loss through time. Therefore, delayed concrete probably get reject because slump is unacceptable. In order to recover the slump of delayed concrete the second dose of superplasticizer (naphthalene based type F) is added into the system, the slump recovery can be done as long as the concrete is not setting. By adding superplasticizer as solution for recover unusable slump loss concrete may affects other concrete properties. Therefore, this paper was observed setting times and compressive strength of concrete after being re-dose with chemical admixture type F (superplasticizer, naphthalene based) for slump recovery. The concrete used in this study was fly ash concrete with fly ash replacement of 0%, 30% and 50% respectively. Concrete mix designed for test specimen was prepared with paste content (ratio of volume of cement to volume of void in the aggregate) of 1.2 and 1.3, water-to-binder ratio (w/b) range of 0.3 to 0.58, initial dose of superplasticizer (SP) range from 0.5 to 1.6%. The setting times of concrete were tested both before and after re-dosed with different amount of second dose and time of dosing. The research was concluded that addition of second dose of superplasticizer would increase both initial and final setting times accordingly to dosage of addition. As for fly ash concrete, the prolongation effect was higher as the replacement of fly ash increase. The prolongation effect can reach up to maximum about 4 hours. In case of compressive strength, the re-dosed concrete has strength fluctuation within acceptable range of ±10%.

Keywords: Compressive strength, Fly ash concrete, Second dose of superplasticizer, Slump recovery, Setting times.

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912 Detection and Quantification of Ozone in Screen Printing Facilities

Authors: Kiurski J., Adamović S., Oros I., Krstić J., Đogo M.

Abstract:

Most often the contaminants are not taken seriously into consideration, and this behavior comes out directly from the lack of monitoring and professional reporting about pollution in the printing facilities in Serbia. The goal of planned and systematic ozone measurements in ambient air of the screen printing facilities in Novi Sad is to examine of its impact on the employees health, and to track trends in concentration. In this study, ozone concentrations were determined by using discontinuous and continuous method during the automatic and manual screen printing process. Obtained results indicates that the average concentrations of ozone measured during the automatic process were almost 3 to 28 times higher for discontinuous and 10 times higher for continuous method (1.028 ppm) compared to the values prescribed by OSHA. In the manual process, average concentrations of ozone were within prescribed values for discontinuous and almost 3 times higher for continuous method (0.299 ppm).

Keywords: indoor pollution, ozone, screen printing

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911 Comparative Analysis of Pit Composting and Vermicomposting in a Tropical Environment

Authors: E. Ewemoje Oluseyi, T. A. Ewemoje, A. A. Adedeji

Abstract:

Biodegradable solid waste disposal and management has been a major problem in Nigeria and indiscriminate dumping of this waste either into watercourses or drains has led to environmental hazards affecting public health. The study investigated the nutrients level of pit composting and vermicomposting. Wooden bins 60 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm3 in size were constructed and bedding materials (sawdust, egg shell, paper and grasses) and red worms (Eisenia fetida) introduced to facilitate the free movement and protection of the worms against harsh weather. A pit of 100 cm × 100 cm × 100 cm3 was dug and worms were introduced into the pit, which was turned every two weeks. Food waste was fed to the red worms in the bin and pit, respectively. The composts were harvested after 100 days and analysed. The analyses gave: nitrogen has average value 0.87 % and 1.29 %; phosphorus 0.66 % and 1.78 %; potassium 4.35 % and 6.27 % for the pit and vermicomposting, respectively. Higher nutrient status of vermicomposting over pit composting may be attributed to the secretions in the intestinal tracts of worms which are more readily available for plant growth. However, iron and aluminium were more in the pit compost than the vermin compost and this may be attributed to the iron and aluminium already present in the soil before the composting took place. Other nutrients in ppm concentrations were aluminium 4,999.50 and 3,989.33; iron 2,131.83 and 633.40 for the pit and vermicomposting, respectively. These nutrients are only needed by plants in small quantities. Hence, vermicomposting has the higher concentration of essential nutrients necessary for healthy plant growth.

Keywords: Food wastes, pit composting, plant nutrient status, tropical environment, vermicomposting.

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910 A Note on the Minimum Cardinality of Critical Sets of Inertias for Irreducible Zero-nonzero Patterns of Order 4

Authors: Ber-Lin Yu, Ting-Zhu Huang

Abstract:

If there exists a nonempty, proper subset S of the set of all (n+1)(n+2)/2 inertias such that S Ôèå i(A) is sufficient for any n×n zero-nonzero pattern A to be inertially arbitrary, then S is called a critical set of inertias for zero-nonzero patterns of order n. If no proper subset of S is a critical set, then S is called a minimal critical set of inertias. In [Kim, Olesky and Driessche, Critical sets of inertias for matrix patterns, Linear and Multilinear Algebra, 57 (3) (2009) 293-306], identifying all minimal critical sets of inertias for n×n zero-nonzero patterns with n ≥ 3 and the minimum cardinality of such a set are posed as two open questions by Kim, Olesky and Driessche. In this note, the minimum cardinality of all critical sets of inertias for 4 × 4 irreducible zero-nonzero patterns is identified.

Keywords: Zero-nonzero pattern, inertia, critical set of inertias, inertially arbitrary.

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909 The Effects of Eight-Week Pilates Training on Limits of Stability and Abdominal Muscle Strength in Young Dancers

Authors: Yen-Ting Wang, Pao-Cheng Lin, Chen-Fu Huang, Lung-Ching Liang, Alex J.Y. Lee

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of 8-week Pilates training program on limits of stability (LOS) and abdominal muscle strength in young dancers. Twenty-four female volunteered and randomly assigned as experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). All subjects received the same dance lessons but the EG underwent an extra Pilates mat exercises for 40 minutes, three times a week, for 8 weeks. LOS was evaluated by the Biodex Balance System and the abdominal strength was measured by 30/60 seconds sit-ups test. One factor ANCOVA was used to examine the differences between groups after training. The results showed that the overall LOS scores at levels 2/8 and the 30/60 seconds sit-ups for the EG group pre- and post-training were changed from 22/38 % to 31/51 % and 20/33 times to 24/42 times, respectively. The study demonstrated that 8-week Pilates training can improve the LOS performance and abdominal strength in young dancers.

Keywords: Balance, Core Strength Exercise Training, and Posture Stability.

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908 Embedded Semi-Fragile Signature Based Scheme for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication with Recovery

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication by deploying Cryptography & Digital Watermarking. The color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space exclusively designed for watermarking. Followed by color space transformation, each channel is divided into 4×4 non-overlapping blocks with selection of central 2×2 sub-blocks. Depending upon the channel selected two to three LSBs of each central 2×2 sub-block are set to zero to hold the ownership, authentication and recovery information. The size & position of sub-block is important for correct localization, enhanced security & fast computation. As YS ÔèÑ T so it is suitable to embed the recovery information apart from the ownership and authentication information, therefore 4×4 block of T channel along with ownership information is then deployed by SHA160 to compute the content based hash that is unique and invulnerable to birthday attack or hash collision instead of using MD5 that may raise the condition i.e. H(m)=H(m'). For recovery, intensity mean of 4x4 block of each channel is computed and encoded upto eight bits. For watermark embedding, key based mapping of blocks is performed using 2DTorus Automorphism. Our scheme is oblivious, generates highly imperceptible images with correct localization of tampering within reasonable time and has the ability to recover the original work with probability of near one.

Keywords: Hash Collision, LSB, MD5, PSNR, SHA160

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