Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1686

Search results for: Intelligent Electronic Device

1686 Smart Monitoring and Control of Tap Changer Using Intelligent Electronic Device

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, G. R. Manjunatha, R. Ramaprabha, V. Rajini, M. V. Gopalan

Abstract:

In this paper, monitoring and control of tap changer mechanism of a transformer implementation in an Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) is discussed. It has been a custom for decades to provide a separate panel for on load tap changer control for monitoring the tap position. However, this facility cannot either record or transfer the information to remote control centers. As there is a technology shift towards the smart grid protection and control standards, the need for implementing remote control and monitoring has necessitated the implementation of this feature in numerical relays. This paper deals with the programming, settings and logic implementation which is applicable to both IEC 61850 compatible and non-compatible IEDs thereby eliminating the need for separate tap changer control equipment. The monitoring mechanism has been implemented in a 28MVA, 110 /6.9kV transformer with 16 tap position with GE make T60 IED at Ultratech cement limited Gulbarga, Karnataka and is in successful service.

Keywords: Transformer protection, tap changer control, tap position monitoring, on load tap changer, intelligent electronic device (IED).

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1685 An Intelligent System for Knee and Ankle Rehabilitation

Authors: Dimitar Karastoyanov, Vladimir Monov

Abstract:

The paper is concerned with the state examination as well as the problems during the post surgical (orthopedic) rehabilitation of the knee and ankle joint. An observation of the current appliances for a passive rehabilitation devices is presented. The major necessary and basic features of the intelligent rehabilitation devices are considered. An approach for a new intelligent appliance is suggested. The main advantages of the device are: both active as well as passive rehabilitation of the patient based on the human - patient reactions and a real time feedback. The basic components: controller; electrical motor; encoder, force – torque sensor are discussed in details. The main modes of operation of the device are considered.

Keywords: Ankle, knee, rehabilitation, computer control.

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1684 Design of an Authentication Protocol for Secure Electronic Seals

Authors: Seongsoo Park, Mun-Kyu Lee, Dong Kyue Kim, Kunsoo Park, Yousung Kang, Sokjoon Lee, Howon Kim, Kyoil Chung

Abstract:

Electronic seal is an electronic device to check the authenticity and integrity of freight containers at the point of arrival. While RFID-based eSeals are gaining more acceptances and there are also some standardization processes for these devices, a recent research revealed that the current RFID-based eSeals are vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we provide a feasible solution to enhance the security of active RFID-based eSeals. Our approach is to use an authentication and key agreement protocol between eSeal and reader device, enabling data encryption and integrity check. Our protocol is based on the use of block cipher AES, which is reasonable since a block cipher can also be used for many other security purposes including data encryption and pseudo-random number generation. Our protocol is very simple, and it is applicable to low-end active RFID eSeals.

Keywords: Authentication, Container Security, Electronic seal, RFID

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1683 Design Aesthetics of Mobile Interface

Authors: Shafiq ur Rehman, Jane-Lisa Coughlan

Abstract:

Mobiles are considered to be the most frequently used electronic items in world after electricity. It is probably the only device that can be used by any gender with no age limits depending on its functionality. This paper present the interactive interface of Mobile and particularly aiming the use of advanced phones which are also called smart phones. With the changes in the trend where users are now moving from ordinary mobiles to the one with touch screens and facilities such as WiFi and internet browsing.

Keywords: interface design, functionality, intelligent system

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1682 Application of IED to Condition Based Maintenance of Medium Voltage GCB/VCB

Authors: Ming-Ta Yang, Jyh-Cherng Gu, Chun-Wei Huang, Jin-Lung Guan

Abstract:

Time base maintenance (TBM) is conventionally applied by the power utilities to maintain circuit breakers (CBs), transformers, bus bars and cables, which may result in under maintenance or over maintenance. As information and communication technology (ICT) industry develops, the maintenance policies of many power utilities have gradually changed from TBM to condition base maintenance (CBM) to improve system operating efficiency, operation cost and power supply reliability. This paper discusses the feasibility of using intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) to construct a CB CBM management platform. CBs in power substations can be monitored using IEDs with additional logic configuration and wire connections. The CB monitoring data can be sent through intranet to a control center and be analyzed and integrated by the Elipse Power Studio software. Finally, a human-machine interface (HMI) of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system can be designed to construct a CBM management platform to provide maintenance decision information for the maintenance personnel, management personnel and CB manufacturers.

Keywords: Circuit breaker, Condition base maintenance, Intelligent electronic device, Time base maintenance, SCADA.

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1681 Transformer Life Enhancement Using Dynamic Switching of Second Harmonic Feature in IEDs

Authors: K. N. Dinesh Babu, P. K. Gargava

Abstract:

Energization of a transformer results in sudden flow of current which is an effect of core magnetization. This current will be dominated by the presence of second harmonic, which in turn is used to segregate fault and inrush current, thus guaranteeing proper operation of the relay. This additional security in the relay sometimes obstructs or delays differential protection in a specific scenario, when the 2nd harmonic content was present during a genuine fault. This kind of scenario can result in isolation of the transformer by Buchholz and pressure release valve (PRV) protection, which is acted when fault creates more damage in transformer. Such delays involve a huge impact on the insulation failure, and chances of repairing or rectifying fault of problem at site become very dismal. Sometimes this delay can cause fire in the transformer, and this situation becomes havoc for a sub-station. Such occurrences have been observed in field also when differential relay operation was delayed by 10-15 ms by second harmonic blocking in some specific conditions. These incidences have led to the need for an alternative solution to eradicate such unwarranted delay in operation in future. Modern numerical relay, called as intelligent electronic device (IED), is embedded with advanced protection features which permit higher flexibility and better provisions for tuning of protection logic and settings. Such flexibility in transformer protection IEDs, enables incorporation of alternative methods such as dynamic switching of second harmonic feature for blocking the differential protection with additional security. The analysis and precautionary measures carried out in this case, have been simulated and discussed in this paper to ensure that similar solutions can be adopted to inhibit analogous issues in future.

Keywords: Differential protection, intelligent electronic device (IED), 2nd harmonic, inrush inhibit.

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1680 The Electronic and Computer-Aided Periodic Table Prepared for the Visually Impaired Individuals

Authors: Ayşe Eldem, Fatih Başçiftçi

Abstract:

Visually impaired individuals cannot lead their lives as comfortable as others. Therefore, new applications are being developed every passing day in order to make their lives easier. In this study, an electronic and computer-aided audio device was developed with the aim of making the learning of the periodic table easier for the visually impaired. In this device, a board includes buttons for each element of the periodic table. After pressing a button, the visually impaired individual not only hears the name of the element but also feels with his/her hands where that specific element is located.

Keywords: Periodic Table, PIC16F877, Serial port, Visually Impaired Individual.

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1679 A Systematic Approach for Design a Low-Cost Mobility Assistive Device for Elderly People

Authors: Omar Salah, Ahmed A. Ramadan, Salvatore Sessa, Ahmed A. Abo-Ismail

Abstract:

Walking and sit to stand are activities carried out by all the people many times during the day, but physical disabilities due to age and diseases create needs of assistive devices to help elderly people during their daily life. This study aims to study the different types and mechanisms of the assistive devices. We will analyze the limitations and the challenges faced by the researchers in this field. We will introduce the Assistive Device developed at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, named E-JUST Assistive Device (EJAD). EJAD will be a low cost intelligent assistive device to help elders in walking and sit-to-stand activities.

Keywords: Active walker, Assistive robotics, Standing Assistance, Walking Assistance

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1678 Applying Wavelet Transform to Ferroresonance Detection and Protection

Authors: Chun-Wei Huang, Jyh-Cherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang

Abstract:

Non-synchronous breakage or line failure in power systems with light or no loads can lead to core saturation in transformers or potential transformers. This can cause component and capacitance matching resulting in the formation of resonant circuits, which trigger ferroresonance. This study employed a wavelet transform for the detection of ferroresonance. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Keywords: Ferroresonance, Wavelet Transform, Intelligent Electronic Device, Transformer.

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1677 Authenticated Mobile Device Proxy Service

Authors: W. Adi, Khaled E. A. Negm, A. Mabrouk, H. Ghraieb

Abstract:

In the current study we present a system that is capable to deliver proxy based differentiated service. It will help the carrier service node to sell a prepaid service to clients and limit the use to a particular mobile device or devices for a certain time. The system includes software and hardware architecture for a mobile device with moderate computational power, and a secure protocol for communication between it and its carrier service node. On the carrier service node a proxy runs on a centralized server to be capable of implementing cryptographic algorithms, while the mobile device contains a simple embedded processor capable of executing simple algorithms. One prerequisite is needed for the system to run efficiently that is a presence of Global Trusted Verification Authority (GTVA) which is equivalent to certifying authority in IP networks. This system appears to be of great interest for many commercial transactions, business to business electronic and mobile commerce, and military applications.

Keywords: Mobile Device Security, Identity Authentication, Mobile Commerce Security.

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1676 Identification of Individual Objects at the Intelligent Assembly Cell

Authors: Ružarovský, Roman, Danišová, Nina, Velíšek, Karol

Abstract:

In this contribution is presented a complex design of individual objects identification in the workplace of intelligent assembly cell. Intelligent assembly cell is situated at Institute of Manufacturing Systems and Applied Mechanics and is used for pneumatic actuator assembly. Pneumatic actuator components are pneumatic roller, cover, piston and spring. Two identification objects alternatives for assembly are designed in the workplace of industrial robot. In the contribution is evaluated and selected suitable alternative for identification – 2D codes reader. The complex design of individual object identification is going out of intelligent manufacturing systems knowledge. Intelligent assembly and manufacturing systems as systems of new generation are gradually loaded in to the mechanical production, when they are removeing human operation out of production process and they also short production times.

Keywords: system, cell, intelligent, mechanics, device

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1675 Interfacing and Replication of Electronic Machinery Using MATLAB / SIMULINK

Authors: Abdulatif Abdusalam, Mohamed Shaban

Abstract:

This paper introduces Interfacing and Replication of electronic tools based on the MATLAB/ SIMULINK mock-up package. Mock-up components contain dc-dc converters, power issue rectifiers, motivation machines, dc gear, synchronous gear, and more entire systems. The power issue rectifier model includes solid state device models. The tools provide clear-cut structures and mock-up of complex energy systems, connecting with power electronic machines.

Keywords: Power electronics, Machine, Matlab/Simulink.

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1674 Highly-Efficient Photoreaction Using Microfluidic Device

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Yukako Asano

Abstract:

We developed an effective microfluidic device for photoreactions with low reflectance and good heat conductance. The performance of this microfluidic device was tested by carrying out a photoreactive synthesis of benzopinacol and acetone from benzophenone and 2-propanol. The yield reached 36% with an irradiation time of 469.2 s and was improved by more than 30% when compared to the values obtained by the batch method. Therefore, the microfluidic device was found to be effective for improving the yields of photoreactions.

Keywords: Microfluidic device, Photoreaction, Benzophenone, Black Aluminum Oxide, Detection, Yield Improvement.

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1673 A Cascaded Fuzzy Inference System for Dynamic Online Portals Customization

Authors: Erika Martinez Ramirez, Rene V. Mayorga

Abstract:

In our modern world, more physical transactions are being substituted by electronic transactions (i.e. banking, shopping, and payments), many businesses and companies are performing most of their operations through the internet. Instead of having a physical commerce, internet visitors are now adapting to electronic commerce (e-Commerce). The ability of web users to reach products worldwide can be greatly benefited by creating friendly and personalized online business portals. Internet visitors will return to a particular website when they can find the information they need or want easily. Dealing with this human conceptualization brings the incorporation of Artificial/Computational Intelligence techniques in the creation of customized portals. From these techniques, Fuzzy-Set technologies can make many useful contributions to the development of such a human-centered endeavor as e-Commerce. The main objective of this paper is the implementation of a Paradigm for the Intelligent Design and Operation of Human-Computer interfaces. In particular, the paradigm is quite appropriate for the intelligent design and operation of software modules that display information (such Web Pages, graphic user interfaces GUIs, Multimedia modules) on a computer screen. The human conceptualization of the user personal information is analyzed throughout a Cascaded Fuzzy Inference (decision-making) System to generate the User Ascribe Qualities, which identify the user and that can be used to customize portals with proper Web links.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Internet, Electronic Commerce, Intelligent Portals, Electronic Shopping.

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1672 Vertical GAA Silicon Nanowire Transistor with Impact of Temperature on Device Parameters

Authors: N. Shen, Z. X. Chen, K.D. Buddharaju, H. M. Chua, X. Li, N. Singh, G.Q Lo, D.-L. Kwong

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a vertical wire NMOS device fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. The impact of temperature on various device parameters is investigated in view of usual increase in surrounding temperature with device density.

Keywords: Gate-all-around, temperature dependence, silicon nanowire

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1671 Electronic Tool that Helps in Learning How to Play a Flute

Authors: Galeano R. Katherine, Rincon L. David, Luengas C. Lely

Abstract:

This paper describes the development of an electronic instrument that looks like a flute, which is able to sense the basic musical notes being executed by a specific user. The principal function of the instrument is to teach how to play a flute. This device will generate a significant academic impact, in a field of virtual reality interactive that combine art and technology. With this example is expected to contribute in research and implementation of teaching devices around the world.

Keywords: Flute, Hardware, Learning, Virtual Reality.

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1670 The Adoption and Diffusion of Electronic Wallets

Authors: Jean-Michel Sahut

Abstract:

Despite the strong and consistent increase in the use of electronic payment methods worldwide, the diffusion of electronic wallets is still far from widespread. Analysis of the failure of electronic wallet uptake has either focused on technical issues or chosen to analyse a specific scheme. This article proposes a joint approach to analysing key factors affecting the adoption of e-wallets by using the ‘Technology Acceptance Model” [1] which we have expanded to take into account the cost of using e-wallets. We use this model to analyse Monéo, the only French electronic wallet still in operation.

Keywords: Electronic wallet, adoption, ICT, TAM, Monéo, electronic payment.

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1669 Development of User Interface for Multiple Devices Connecting Path Planning System for Bus Network

Authors: Takahiro Takayama, Takao Kawamura, Toshihiko Sasama, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

Recently, web services to access from many type devices are often used. We have developed the shortest path planning system called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as a web application to sustain the public transport. And it used the same user interface for both devices. To support both devices, the interface cannot use JavaScript and so on. Thus, we developed the method that use individual user interface for each device type to improve its convenience. To be concrete, we defined formats of condition input to the path planning system and result output from it and separate the system into the request processing part and user interface parts that depend on device types. By this method, we have also developed special device for Bus-Net named "Intelligent-Bus-Stop".

Keywords: Bus, Path planning, Public transport, User interface

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1668 Analysis of Gas Disturbance Characteristics in Lunar Sample Storage

Authors: Lv Shizeng, Han Xiao, Zhang Yi, Ding Wenjing

Abstract:

The lunar sample storage device is mainly used for the preparation of the lunar samples, observation, physical analysis and other work. The lunar samples and operating equipment are placed directly inside the storage device. The inside of the storage device is a high purity nitrogen environment to ensure that the sample is not contaminated by the Earth's environment. In order to ensure that the water and oxygen indicators in the storage device meet the sample requirements, a dynamic gas cycle is required between the storage device and the external purification equipment. However, the internal gas disturbance in the storage device can affect the operation of the sample. In this paper, the storage device model is established, and the tetrahedral mesh is established by Tetra/Mixed method. The influence of different inlet position and gas flow on the internal flow field disturbance is calculated, and the disturbed flow area should be avoided during the sampling operation.

Keywords: Lunar samples, gas disturbance, storage device, characteristic analysis.

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1667 Memristor-A Promising Candidate for Neural Circuits in Neuromorphic Computing Systems

Authors: Juhi Faridi, Mohd. Ajmal Kafeel

Abstract:

The advancements in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and technology has led to an evolution of an intelligent era. Neural networks, having the computational power and learning ability similar to the brain is one of the key AI technologies. Neuromorphic computing system (NCS) consists of the synaptic device, neuronal circuit, and neuromorphic architecture. Memristor are a promising candidate for neuromorphic computing systems, but when it comes to neuromorphic computing, the conductance behavior of the synaptic memristor or neuronal memristor needs to be studied thoroughly in order to fathom the neuroscience or computer science. Furthermore, there is a need of more simulation work for utilizing the existing device properties and providing guidance to the development of future devices for different performance requirements. Hence, development of NCS needs more simulation work to make use of existing device properties. This work aims to provide an insight to build neuronal circuits using memristors to achieve a Memristor based NCS.  Here we throw a light on the research conducted in the field of memristors for building analog and digital circuits in order to motivate the research in the field of NCS by building memristor based neural circuits for advanced AI applications. This literature is a step in the direction where we describe the various Key findings about memristors and its analog and digital circuits implemented over the years which can be further utilized in implementing the neuronal circuits in the NCS. This work aims to help the electronic circuit designers to understand how the research progressed in memristors and how these findings can be used in implementing the neuronal circuits meant for the recent progress in the NCS.

Keywords: Analog circuits, digital circuits, memristors, neuromorphic computing systems.

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1666 Nepros- An Innovated Crystal Necklace

Authors: Amir A. N, Fadzilan A. M, Baskaran G.

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed an invention of an accessory into a communication device that will help humans to be connected universally. Generally, this device will be made up of crystal and will combine many technologies that will enable the user to run various applications and software anywhere and everywhere. Bringing up the concept of from being user friendly, we had used the crystal as the main material of the device that will trap the surrounding lights to produce projection of its screen. This leads to a lesser energy consumption and allows smaller sized battery to be used, making the device less bulky. Additionally, we proposed the usage of micro batteries as our energy source. Thus, researches regarding crystal were made along with explanations in details of specification and function of the technology used in the device. Finally, we had also drawn several views of the invention from different sides to be visualized.

Keywords: Crystal, Communication Technology, Future concept device, Micro batteries.

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1665 Universal Qibla and Prayer Time Finder

Authors: M. Z. Ibrahim, M. Z. Norashikin

Abstract:

People nowadays love to travel around the world. Regardless of their location and time, they especially Muslims still need to perform their five times prayer. Normally for travelers, they need to bring maps, compass and for Muslim, they even have to bring Qibla pointer when they travel. It is slightly difficult to determine the Qibla direction and to know the time for each prayer. In this paper we present a new electronic device called Universal Qibla and Prayer Time Finder to locate the Qibla direction and to determine each prayer time based on the current user-s location. This device use PIC microcontroller equipped with digital compass and Global Positioning System (GPS) where it will display the exact Qibla direction and prayer time automatically at any place in the world. This device is reliable, user friendly and accurate in determining the Qibla direction and prayer time.

Keywords: Digital compass, embedded system, global position system, prayer time, qibla

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1664 Trust and Security in Electronic Payments: What We Have and Need to Know?

Authors: Theodosios Tsiakis, George Stephanides, George Pekos

Abstract:

The growth of open networks created the interest to commercialise it. The establishment of an electronic business mechanism must be accompanied by a digital-electronic payment system to transfer the value of transactions. Financial organizations are requested to offer a secure e-payment synthesis with equivalent levels of trust and security served in conventional paper-based payment transactions. The paper addresses the challenge of the first trade problem in e-commerce, provides a brief literature review on electronic payment and attempts to explain the underlying concept and method of trust in relevance to electronic payment.

Keywords: Electronic payment, security, trust, electronic business mechanism.

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1663 Design of Ultra Fast Polymer Electro-Optic waveguide Switch for Intelligent Optical Networks

Authors: S.Ponmalar, S.Sundaravadivelu

Abstract:

Traditional optical networks are gradually evolving towards intelligent optical networks due to the need for faster bandwidth provisioning, protection and restoration of the network that can be accomplished with devices like optical switch, add drop multiplexer and cross connects. Since dense wavelength multiplexing forms the physical layer for intelligent optical networking, the roll of high speed all optical switch is important. This paper analyzes such an ultra-high speed polymer electro-optic switch. The performances of the 2x2 optical waveguide switch with rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal grating profiles on various device parameters are analyzed. The simulation result shows that trapezoidal grating is the optimized structure which has the coupling length of 81μm and switching voltage of 11V for the operating wavelength of 1550nm. The switching time for this proposed switch is 0.47 picosecond. This makes the proposed switch to be an important element in the intelligent optical network.

Keywords: Intelligent optical network, optical switch, electrooptic effect, coupled mode theory, waveguide grating structures

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1662 Implementation of Terrain Rendering on Mobile Device

Authors: S.A.M. Isa, M.S.M. Rahim, M.D. Kasmuni, D. Daman

Abstract:

Recently, there are significant improvements in the capabilities of mobile devices; rendering large terrain is tedious because of the constraint in resources of mobile devices. This paper focuses on the implementation of terrain rendering on mobile device to observe some issues and current constraints occurred. Experiments are performed using two datasets with results based on rendering speed and appearance to ascertain both the issues and constraints. The result shows a downfall of frame rate performance because of the increase of triangles. Since the resolution between computer and mobile device is different, the terrain surface on mobile device looks more unrealistic compared to on a computer. Thus, more attention in the development of terrain rendering on mobile devices is required. The problems highlighted in this paper will be the focus of future research and will be a great importance for 3D visualization on mobile device.

Keywords: Mobile Device, Mobile Rendering, OpenGL ES, Terrain Rendering.

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1661 Mobile Qibla and Prayer Time Finder using PDA and External Digital Compass

Authors: M.Z. Ibrahim, M.Z. Norashikin

Abstract:

These days people love to travel around the world. Regardless of their location and time, they especially Muslims still need to perform their prayers. Normally for travelers, they need to bring maps, compass and for Muslim, they even have to bring Qibla pointer when they travel. It is slightly difficult to determine the Qibla direction and to know the time for each prayer. As the technology grows, many PDA equip with maps and GPS to locate their location. In this paper we present a new electronic device called Mobile Qibla and Prayer Time Finder to locate the Qibla direction and to determine each prayer time based on the current user-s location using PDA. This device use PIC microcontroller equipped with digital compass where it will communicate with PDA using Bluetooth technology and display the exact Qibla direction and prayer time automatically at any place in the world. This device is reliable and accurate in determining the Qibla direction and prayer time.

Keywords: Bluetooth, digital compass, PDA, prayer time, Qibla.

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1660 Tablet Computer as a User Interface: Intelligent Solutions for Multifunctional Hardcopy Devices

Authors: Jaakko Parviainen, Keijo Haataja, Antti Väänänen, Pekka Toivanen

Abstract:

Tablet computers and Multifunctional Hardcopy Devices (MHDs) are common devices in daily life. Though, many scientific studies have not been published. The tablet computers are straightforward to use whereas the MHDs are comparatively difficult to use. Thus, to assist different levels of users, we propose combining these two devices to achieve straightforward intelligent user interface (UI) and versatile What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) document management and production. Our approach to this issue is to design an intelligent user dependent UI for a MHD applying a tablet computer. Furthermore, we propose hardware interconnection and versatile intelligent software between these two devices. In this study, we first provide a state-of-the-art survey on MHDs and tablet computers, and their interconnections. Secondly we provide a comparative UI survey on two state-of-the-art MHDs with a proposal of a novel UI for the MHDs using Jakob Nielsen-s Ten Usability Heuristics Evaluation.

Keywords: Computational intelligence, hardcopy device, tablet computer, user interface.

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1659 Electrical Characteristics of SCR - based ESD Device for I/O and Power Rail Clamp in 0.35um Process

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Dong Su Kim, Byung Seok Lee, Won Suk Park, Bo Bea Song

Abstract:

This paper presents a SCR-based ESD protection devices for I/O clamp and power rail clamp, respectably. These devices have a low trigger voltage and high holding voltage characteristics than conventional SCR device. These devices are fabricated by using 0.35um BCD (Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS) processes. These devices were validated using a TLP system. From the experimental results, the device for I/O ESD clamp has a trigger voltage of 5.8V. Also, the device for power rail ESD clamp has a holding voltage of 7.7V.

Keywords: ESD (Electro-Static Discharge), ESD protection device, SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), Latch-up

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1658 Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji

Abstract:

This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.

Keywords: Sensors and actuators, MEMS/NEMS devices, fatigue and fracture nanomechanical testing device, static and cyclic nanomechanical testing device.

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1657 Introduction of an Approach of Complex Virtual Devices to Achieve Device Interoperability in Smart Building Systems

Authors: Thomas Meier

Abstract:

One of the major challenges for sustainable smart building systems is to support device interoperability, i.e. connecting sensor or actuator devices from different vendors, and present their functionality to the external applications. Furthermore, smart building systems are supposed to connect with devices that are not available yet, i.e. devices that become available on the market sometime later. It is of vital importance that a sustainable smart building platform provides an appropriate external interface that can be leveraged by external applications and smart services. An external platform interface must be stable and independent of specific devices and should support flexible and scalable usage scenarios. A typical approach applied in smart home systems is based on a generic device interface used within the smart building platform. Device functions, even of rather complex devices, are mapped to that generic base type interface by means of specific device drivers. Our new approach, presented in this work, extends that approach by using the smart building system’s rule engine to create complex virtual devices that can represent the most diverse properties of real devices. We examined and evaluated both approaches by means of a practical case study using a smart building system that we have developed. We show that the solution we present allows the highest degree of flexibility without affecting external application interface stability and scalability. In contrast to other systems our approach supports complex virtual device configuration on application layer (e.g. by administration users) instead of device configuration at platform layer (e.g. platform operators). Based on our work, we can show that our approach supports almost arbitrarily flexible use case scenarios without affecting the external application interface stability. However, the cost of this approach is additional appropriate configuration overhead and additional resource consumption at the IoT platform level that must be considered by platform operators. We conclude that the concept of complex virtual devices presented in this work can be applied to improve the usability and device interoperability of sustainable intelligent building systems significantly.

Keywords: Complex virtual devices, device integration, device interoperability, Internet of Things, smart building platform.

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