Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 127

Search results for: Transformer.

127 Power Transformer Risk-Based Maintenance by Optimization of Transformer Condition and Transformer Importance

Authors: Kitti Leangkrua

Abstract:

This paper presents a risk-based maintenance strategy of a power transformer in order to optimize operating and maintenance costs. The methodology involves the study and preparation of a database for the collection the technical data and test data of a power transformer. An evaluation of the overall condition of each transformer is performed by a program developed as a result of the measured results; in addition, the calculation of the main equipment separation to the overall condition of the transformer (% HI) and the criteria for evaluating the importance (% ImI) of each location where the transformer is installed. The condition assessment is performed by analysis test data such as electrical test, insulating oil test and visual inspection. The condition of the power transformer will be classified from very poor to very good condition. The importance is evaluated from load criticality, importance of load and failure consequence. The risk matrix is developed for evaluating the risk of each power transformer. The high risk power transformer will be focused firstly. The computerized program is developed for practical use, and the maintenance strategy of a power transformer can be effectively managed.

Keywords: Asset management, risk-based maintenance, power transformer, health index.

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126 Structure-vibration Analysis of a Power Transformer(154kV/60MVA/Single Phase)

Authors: Young-Dal Kim, Jae-Myung Shim, Woo-Yong Park, Sung-joong Kim, Dong Seok Hyun, Dae-Dong Lee

Abstract:

The most common cause of power transformer failures is mechanical defect brought about by excessive vibration, which is formed by the combination of multiples of a frequency of 120 Hz. In this paper, the types of mechanical exciting forces applied to the power transformer were classified, and the mechanical damage mechanism of the power transformer was identified using the vibration transfer route to the machine or structure. The general effects of 120 Hz-vibration on the enclosure, bushing, Buchholz relay, pressure release valve and tap changer of the transformer were also examined.

Keywords: Structure-Vibration, Transformer.

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125 A Novel Approach of Power Transformer Diagnostic Using 3D FEM Parametrical Model

Authors: M. Brandt, A. Peniak, J. Makarovič, P. Rafajdus

Abstract:

This paper deals with a novel approach of power transformers diagnostics. This approach identifies the exact location and the range of a fault in the transformer and helps to reduce operation costs related to handling of the faulty transformer, its disassembly and repair. The advantage of the approach is a possibility to simulate healthy transformer and also all faults, which can occur in transformer during its operation without its disassembling, which is very expensive in practice. The approach is based on creating frequency dependent impedance of the transformer by sweep frequency response analysis measurements and by 3D FE parametrical modeling of the fault in the transformer. The parameters of the 3D FE model are the position and the range of the axial short circuit. Then, by comparing the frequency dependent impedances of the parametrical models with the measured ones, the location and the range of the fault is identified. The approach was tested on a real transformer and showed high coincidence between the real fault and the simulated one.

Keywords: Fault, finite element method, parametrical model of transformer, sweep frequency response analysis, transformer.

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124 Voltage Sag Effect on Three Phase Five Leg Transformers

Authors: M. R. Dolatian, A. Jalilian

Abstract:

The behavior of three phase five leg transformer under voltage sag is studied in this paper. This paper proposes a simple, practical model of a three phase-five leg, saturated transformer with accurate performance. Transformer saturation is produced when the voltage sag is recovered and it causes inrush current in transformer. Effects of voltage sag depth, duration and initial point on wave have been analyzed in this paper. Initial point on wave can produce maximum inrush current in five leg transformers while comparing with three leg transformers. The magnetic circuit symmetry of five leg transformer produces the more symmetrical shape of inrush current curves versus initial point on wave and sag duration than three leg transformer. The simulations show that current peak has a periodical dependence on sag duration and linear dependence on sag depth. Inrush current that is produced in three phase five leg transformer is higher than three phase three leg transformer.

Keywords: Inrush current, three phase five leg transformer, saturation, voltage sag.

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123 A NonLinear Observer of an Electrical Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A , Israel Nuñez

Abstract:

A bond graph model of an electrical transformer including the nonlinear saturation is presented. A nonlinear observer for the transformer based on multivariable circle criterion in the physical domain is proposed. In order to show the saturation and hysteresis effects on the electrical transformer, simulation results are obtained. Finally, the paper describes that convergence of the estimates to the true states is achieved.

Keywords: Bond graph, nonlinear observer, electrical transformer, nonlinear saturation.

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122 Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Noise-Reduction Transformer

Authors: Toshiaki Yanada, Kazumi Ishikawa

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the analysis and development of noise-reduction transformer that has a filter function for conductive noise transmission. Two types of prototype noise-reduction transformers with two different output voltages are proposed. To determine an optimum design for the noise-reduction transformer, noise attenuation characteristics are discussed based on the experiments and the equivalent circuit analysis. The analysis gives a relation between the circuit parameters and the noise attenuation. High performance step-down noise-reduction transformer for direct power supply to electronics equipment is developed. The input voltage of the transformer is 100 V and the output voltage is 5 V. Frequency characteristics of noise attenuation are discussed, and prevention of pulse noise transmission is demonstrated. Normal mode noise attenuation of this transformer is –80 dB, and common mode exceeds –90 dB. The step-down noise-reduction transformer eliminates pulse noise efficiently.

Keywords: conductive noise, EMC, EMI, noise attenuation, transformer.

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121 Theoretical Study on a Thermal Model for Large Power Transformer Units

Authors: Traian Chiulan, Brandusa Pantelimon

Abstract:

The paper analyzes the large power transformer unit regimes, indicating the criteria for the management of the voltage operating conditions, as well as the change in the operating conditions with the load connected to the secondary winding of the transformer unit. Further, the paper presents the software application for the evaluation of the transformer unit operation under different conditions. The software application was developed by means of virtual instrumentation.

Keywords: Operating regimes, power transformer, overload, lifetime, virtual instrumentation.

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120 LabVIEW with Fuzzy Logic Controller Simulation Panel for Condition Monitoring of Oil and Dry Type Transformer

Authors: N. A. Muhamad, S.A.M. Ali

Abstract:

Condition monitoring of electrical power equipment has attracted considerable attention for many years. The aim of this paper is to use Labview with Fuzzy Logic controller to build a simulation system to diagnose transformer faults and monitor its condition. The front panel of the system was designed using LabVIEW to enable computer to act as customer-designed instrument. The dissolved gas-in-oil analysis (DGA) method was used as technique for oil type transformer diagnosis; meanwhile terminal voltages and currents analysis method was used for dry type transformer. Fuzzy Logic was used as expert system that assesses all information keyed in at the front panel to diagnose and predict the condition of the transformer. The outcome of the Fuzzy Logic interpretation will be displayed at front panel of LabVIEW to show the user the conditions of the transformer at any time.

Keywords: LabVIEW, Fuzzy Logic, condition monitoring, oiltransformer, dry transformer, DGA, terminal values.

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119 Simulation and Analytical Investigation of Different Combination of Single Phase Power Transformers

Authors: M. Salih Taci, N. Tayebi, I. Bozkır

Abstract:

In this paper, the equivalent circuit of the ideal single-phase power transformer with its appropriate voltage current measurement was presented. The calculated values of the voltages and currents of the different connections single phase normal transformer and the results of the simulation process are compared. As it can be seen, the calculated results are the same as the simulated results. This paper includes eight possible different transformer connections. Depending on the desired voltage level, step-down and step-up application transformer is considered. Modelling and analysis of a system consisting of an equivalent source, transformer (primary and secondary), and loads are performed to investigate the combinations. The obtained values are simulated in PSpice environment and then how the currents, voltages and phase angle are distributed between them is explained based on calculation.

Keywords: Transformer, simulation, equivalent model, parallel series combinations.

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118 Investigating the Transformer Operating Conditions for Evaluating the Dielectric Response

Authors: Jalal M. Abdallah

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental investigation of transformer dielectric response and solid insulation water content. The dielectric response was carried out on the base of Hybrid Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy and Polarization Current measurements method (FDS &PC). The calculation of the water content in paper is based on the water content in oil and the obtained equilibrium curves. A reference measurements were performed at equilibrium conditions for water content in oil and paper of transformer at different stable temperatures (25, 50, 60 and 70°C) to prepare references to evaluate the insulation behavior at the not equilibrium conditions. Some measurements performed at the different simulated normal working modes of transformer operation at the same temperature where the equilibrium conditions. The obtained results show that when transformer temperature is mach more than the its ambient temperature, the transformer temperature decreases immediately after disconnecting the transformer from the network and this temperature reduction influences the transformer insulation condition in the measuring process. In addition to the oil temperature at the near places to the sensors, the temperature uniformity in transformer which can be changed by a big change in the load of transformer before the measuring time will influence the result. The investigations have shown that the extremely influence of the time between disconnecting the transformer and beginning the measurements on the results. And the online monitoring for water content in paper measurements, on the basis of the oil water content on line monitoring and the obtained equilibrium curves. The measurements where performed continuously and for about 50 days without any disconnection in the prepared the adiabatic room.

Keywords: Conductivity, Moisture, Temperature, Oil-paperinsulation, Online monitoring, Water content in oil.

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117 Steady State Temperature Distribution of Cast-Resin Dry Type Transformer Based on New Thermal Model Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Magdy B. Eteiba, Essam A. Alzahab, Yomna O. Shaker

Abstract:

In this paper, a thermal model of cast- resin dry type transformer is proposed. The proposed thermal model is solved by finite element technique to get the temperature at any location of the transformer. The basic modes of heat transfer such as conduction; convection and radiation are used to get the steady state temperature distribution of the transformer. The predicted temperatures are compared with experimental results reported in this paper and it is found a good agreement between them. The effects of various parameters such as width of air duct, ambient temperature and emissivity of the outer surface were also studied.

Keywords: Convection, dry type transformer, finite-elementtechnique, thermal model.

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116 Circuit Breaker and Transformer Monitoring

Authors: M.Nafar, A.H.Gheisari, A.Alesaadi

Abstract:

Since large power transformers are the most expensive and strategically important components of any power generator and transmission system, their reliability is crucially important for the energy system operation. Also, Circuit breakers are very important elements in the power transmission line so monitoring the events gives a knowledgebase to determine time to the next maintenance. This paper deals with the introduction of the comparative method of the state estimation of transformers and Circuit breakers using continuous monitoring of voltage, current. This paper gives details a new method based on wavelet to apparatus insulation monitoring. In this paper to insulation monitoring of transformer, a new method based on wavelet transformation and neutral point analysis is proposed. Using the EMTP tools, fault in transformer winding and the detailed transformer winding model were simulated. The current of neutral point of winding was analyzed by wavelet transformation. It is shown that the neutral current of the transformer winding has useful information about fault in insulation of the transformer.

Keywords: Wavelet, Power Transformer, EMTP, CircuitBreaker, Monitoring

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115 Health Monitoring of Power Transformers by Dissolved Gas Analysis using Regression Method and Study the Effect of Filtration on Oil

Authors: Anjali Chatterjee, Nirmal Kumar Roy

Abstract:

Economically transformers constitute one of the largest investments in a Power system. For this reason, transformer condition assessment and management is a high priority task. If a transformer fails, it would have a significant negative impact on revenue and service reliability. Monitoring the state of health of power transformers has traditionally been carried out using laboratory Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) tests performed at periodic intervals on the oil sample, collected from the transformers. DGA of transformer oil is the single best indicator of a transformer-s overall condition and is a universal practice today, which started somewhere in the 1960s. Failure can occur in a transformer due to different reasons. Some failures can be limited or prevented by maintenance. Oil filtration is one of the methods to remove the dissolve gases and prevent the deterioration of the oil. In this paper we analysis the DGA data by regression method and predict the gas concentration in the oil in the future. We bring about a comparative study of different traditional methods of regression and the errors generated out of their predictions. With the help of these data we can deduce the health of the transformer by finding the type of fault if it has occurred or will occur in future. Additional in this paper effect of filtration on the transformer health is highlight by calculating the probability of failure of a transformer with and without oil filtrating.

Keywords: Power Transformers, Dissolve gas Analysis, Regression method, Filtration, oil.

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114 Electrical and Magnetic Modelling of a Power Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Dunia Nuñez-P

Abstract:

Bond graph models of an electrical transformer including the nonlinear saturation are presented. The transformer using electrical and magnetic circuits are modelled. These models determine the relation between self and mutual inductances, and the leakage and magnetizing inductances of power transformers with two windings using the properties of a bond graph. The equivalence between electrical and magnetic variables is given. The modelling and analysis using this methodology to three phase power transformers can be extended.

Keywords: Bond graph, electrical transformer, magnetic circuits, nonlinear saturation.

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113 Prediction of the Characteristics of Transformer Oil under Different Operation Conditions

Authors: EL-Sayed M. M. EL-Refaie, Mohamed R. Salem, Wael A. Ahmed

Abstract:

Power systems and transformer are intrinsic apparatus, therefore its reliability and safe operation is important to determine their operation conditions, and the industry uses quality control tests in the insulation design of oil filled transformers. Hence the service period effect on AC dielectric strength is significant. The effect of aging on transformer oil physical, chemical and electrical properties was studied using the international testing methods for the evaluation of transformer oil quality. The study was carried out on six transformers operate in the field and for monitoring periods over twenty years. The properties which are strongly time dependent were specified and those which have a great impact on the transformer oil acidity, breakdown voltage and dissolved gas analysis were defined. Several tests on the transformers oil were studied to know the time of purifying or changing it, moreover prediction of the characteristics of it under different operation conditions.

Keywords: Dissolved Gas Analysis, Prediction, Purifying and Changing.

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112 An Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Technique for Prediction of the Power Transformer Faults

Authors: Omar M. Elmabrouk., Roaa Y. Taha., Najat M. Ebrahim, Sabbreen A. Mohammed

Abstract:

Power transformers are the most crucial part of power electrical system, distribution and transmission grid. This part is maintained using predictive or condition-based maintenance approach. The diagnosis of power transformer condition is performed based on Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). There are five main methods utilized for analyzing these gases. These methods are International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) gas ratio, Key Gas, Roger gas ratio, Doernenburg, and Duval Triangle. Moreover, due to the importance of the transformers, there is a need for an accurate technique to diagnose and hence predict the transformer condition. The main objective of this technique is to avoid the transformer faults and hence to maintain the power electrical system, distribution and transmission grid. In this paper, the DGA was utilized based on the data collected from the transformer records available in the General Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL) which is located in Benghazi-Libya. The Fuzzy Logic (FL) technique was implemented as a diagnostic approach based on IEC gas ratio method. The FL technique gave better results and approved to be used as an accurate prediction technique for power transformer faults. Also, this technique is approved to be a quite interesting for the readers and the concern researchers in the area of FL mathematics and power transformer.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, dissolved gas-in-oil analysis, DGA, prediction, power transformer.

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111 Research on Transformer Condition-based Maintenance System using the Method of Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

Authors: Po-Chun Lin, Jyh-Cherng Gu

Abstract:

This study adopted previous fault patterns, results of detection analysis, historical records and data, and experts- experiences to establish fuzzy principles and estimate the failure probability index of components of a power transformer. Considering that actual parameters and limiting conditions of parameters may differ, this study used the standard data of IEC, IEEE, and CIGRE as condition parameters. According to the characteristics of each condition parameter, relative degradation was introduced to reflect the degree of influence of the factors on the transformer condition. The method of fuzzy mathematics was adopted to determine the subordinate function of the transformer condition. The calculation used the Matlab Fuzzy Tool Box to select the condition parameters of coil winding, iron core, bushing, OLTC, insulating oil and other auxiliary components and factors (e.g., load records, performance history, and maintenance records) of the transformer to establish the fuzzy principles. Examples were presented to support the rationality and effectiveness of the evaluation method of power transformer performance conditions, as based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

Keywords: Fuzzy, relative degradation degree, condition-basedmaintenance, power transformer

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110 Detection of Near Failure Winding due to Deformation in 33/11kV Power Transformer by using Low Voltage Impulse (LVI) Test Method and Validated through Untanking

Authors: R. Samsudin, Yogendra, Hairil Satar, Y.Zaidey

Abstract:

Power transformer consists of components which are under consistent thermal and electrical stresses. The major component which degrades under these stresses is the paper insulation of the power transformer. At site, lightning impulses and cable faults may cause the winding deformation. In addition, the winding may deform due to impact during transportation. A deformed winding will excite more stress to its insulating paper thus will degrade it. Insulation degradation will shorten the life-span of the transformer. Currently there are two methods of detecting the winding deformation which are Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) and Low Voltage Impulse Test (LVI). The latter injects current pulses to the winding and capture the admittance plot. In this paper, a transformer which experienced overheating and arcing was identified, and both SFRA and LVI were performed. Next, the transformer was brought to the factory for untanking. The untanking results revealed that the LVI is more accurate than the SFRA method for this case study.

Keywords: Winding Deformation, Arcing, Dissolved GasAnalysis, Sweep Frequency Response Analysis, Low VoltageImpulse Method

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109 Suitability of Alternative Insulating Fluid for Power Transformer: A Laboratory Investigation

Authors: S. N. Deepa, A. D. Srinivasan, K. T. Veeramanju, R. Sandeep Kumar, Ashwini Mathapati

Abstract:

Power transformer is a vital element in a power system as it continuously regulates power flow, maintaining good voltage regulation. The working of transformer much depends on the oil insulation, the oil insulation also decides the aging of transformer and hence its reliability. The mineral oil based liquid insulation is globally accepted for power transformer insulation; however it is potentially hazardous due to its non-biodegradability. In this work efficient alternative biodegradable insulating fluid is presented as a replacement to conventional mineral oil. Dielectric tests are performed as distinct alternating fluid to evaluate the suitability for transformer insulation. The selection of the distinct natural esters for an insulation system is carried out by the laboratory investigation of Breakdown voltage, Oxidation stability, Dissipation factor, Permittivity, Viscosity, Flash and Fire point. It is proposed to study and characterize the properties of natural esters to be used in power transformer. Therefore for the investigation of the dielectric behavior rice bran oil, sesame oil, and sunflower oil are considered for the study. The investigated results have been compared with the mineral oil to validate the dielectric behavior of natural esters.

Keywords: Alternative insulating fluid, dielectric properties, natural esters, power transformers.

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108 Identification of Transformer Core Vibrations and the Effect of Third Harmonic in the Electricity Grid

Authors: Setareh Gorji Ghalamestani, Lieven Vandevelde, Jan Melkebeek

Abstract:

In this work, an experimental technique is applied for the measurements of the vibrations and deformation of a test transformer core. Since the grid voltage contains some higher harmonics, in addition to a purely sinusoidal magnetisation of the core the presence of third harmonic is also studied. The vibrations of the transformer core for points as well as the surface scan of the leg show more deformation in the corners of the leg than the middle of the leg. The influence of the higher harmonic of the magnetisation on the core deformation is also more significant in the corners of the leg. The core deformation shape under a sinusoidal magnetisation with a higher harmonic is more wavy and fluctuating than that under a purely sinusoidal magnetisation.

Keywords: Vibrations and noise, transformer, vibration measurements, laser vibrometer, higher harmonic.

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107 A ZVS Flyback DC-DC Converter using Multilayered Coreless Printed-Circuit Board(PCB) Step-down Power Transformer

Authors: Hari Babu Kotte, Radhika Ambatipudi, Dr. Kent Bertilsson

Abstract:

The experimental and theoretical results of a ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) isolated flyback DC-DC converter using multilayered coreless PCB step down 2:1 transformer are presented. The performance characteristics of the transformer are shown which are useful for the parameters extraction. The measured energy efficiency of the transformer is found to be more than 94% with the sinusoidal input voltage excitation. The designed flyback converter has been tested successfully upto the output power level of 10W, with a switching frequency in the range of 2.7MHz-4.3MHz. The input voltage of the converter is varied from 25V-40V DC. Frequency modulation technique is employed by maintaining constant off time to regulate the output voltage of the converter. The energy efficiency of the isolated flyback converter circuit under ZVS condition in the MHz frequency region is found to be approximately in the range of 72-84%. This paper gives the comparative results in terms of the energy efficiency of the hard switched and soft switched flyback converter in the MHz frequency region.

Keywords: Coreless PCB step down transformer, DC-DCconverter, Flyback, Hard Switched Converter, MHz frequencyregion, Multilayered PCB transformer, Zero Voltage Switching

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106 Observers Design for Systems Modelled by Bond Graphs with Multivariable Monotone Nonlinearities

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Gerardo Jaimes-A

Abstract:

A methodology to design a nonlinear observer in a bond graph approach is proposed. The class of nonlinear observer with multivariable nonlinearities is considered. A junction structure of the bond graph observer is proposed. The proposed methodology to an electrical transformer and a DC motor including the nonlinear saturation is applied. Nonlinear observers for the transformer and DC motor based on multivariable circle criterion in the physical domain are proposed. In order to show the saturation effects on the transformer and DC motor, simulation results are obtained. Finally, the paper describes that convergence of the estimates to the true states is achieved.

Keywords: Bond graph, nonlinear observer, electrical transformer, nonlinear saturation

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105 Analysis of an Electrical Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A

Abstract:

Bond graph models of an electrical transformer including the nonlinear saturation are presented. These models determine the relation between self and mutual inductances, and the leakage and magnetizing inductances of power transformers with two and three windings using the properties of a bond graph. The modelling and analysis using this methodology to three phase power transformers or transformers with internal incipient faults can be extended.

Keywords: Bond graph, electrical transformer, nonlinear saturation

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104 Weight Comparison of Oil and Dry Type Distribution Transformers

Authors: Murat Toren, Mehmet Çelebi

Abstract:

Reducing the weight of transformers while providing good performance, cost reduction and increased efficiency is important. Weight is one of the most significant factors in all electrical machines, and as such, many transformer design parameters are related to weight calculations. This study presents a comparison of the weight of oil type transformers and dry type transformer weight. Oil type transformers are mainly used in industry; however, dry type transformers are becoming more widespread in recent years. MATLAB is typically used for designing transformers and design parameters (rated voltages, core loss, etc.) along with design in ANSYS Maxwell. Similar to other studies, this study presented that the dry type transformer option is limited. Moreover, the commonly-used 50 kVA distribution transformers in the industry are oil type and dry type transformers are designed and considered in terms of weight. Currently, the preference for low-cost oil-type transformers would change if costs for dry-type transformer were more competitive. The aim of this study was to compare the weight of transformers, which is a substantial cost factor, and to provide an evaluation about increasing the use of dry type transformers.

Keywords: Weight, oil-type transformers, dry-type transformers.

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103 Solver for a Magnetic Equivalent Circuit and Modeling the Inrush Current of a 3-Phase Transformer

Authors: Markus G. Ortner, Christian Magele, Klaus Krischan

Abstract:

Knowledge about the magnetic quantities in a magnetic circuit is always of great interest. On the one hand, this information is needed for the simulation of a transformer. On the other hand, parameter studies are more reliable, if the magnetic quantities are derived from a well established model. One possibility to model the 3-phase transformer is by using a magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC). Though this is a well known system, it is often not an easy task to set up such a model for a large number of lumped elements which additionally includes the nonlinear characteristic of the magnetic material. Here we show the setup of a solver for a MEC and the results of the calculation in comparison to measurements taken. The equations of the MEC are based on a rearranged system of the nodal analysis. Thus it is possible to achieve a minimum number of equations, and a clear and simple structure. Hence, it is uncomplicated in its handling and it supports the iteration process. Additional helpful tasks are implemented within the solver to enhance the performance. The electric circuit is described by an electric equivalent circuit (EEC). Our results for the 3-phase transformer demonstrate the computational efficiency of the solver, and show the benefit of the application of a MEC.

Keywords: Inrush current, magnetic equivalent circuit, nonlinear behavior, transformer.

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102 Effects of Water Content on Dielectric Properties of Mineral Transformer Oil

Authors: Suwarno, M. Helmi Prakoso

Abstract:

Mineral oil is commonly used for high voltage transformer insulation. The insulation quality of mineral oil is affecting the operation process of high voltage transformer. There are many contaminations which could decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil. One of them is water. This research talks about the effect of water content on dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern on mineral oil. Samples were varied with 10 varieties of water content value. And then all samples would be tested to measure the dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern. The result of this research showed that an increment of water content value would decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil.

Keywords: Dielectric properties, high voltage transformer, mineral oil, water content.

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101 Loss Analysis by Loading Conditions of Distribution Transformers

Authors: A. Bozkurt, C. Kocatepe, R. Yumurtaci, İ. C. Tastan, G. Tulun

Abstract:

Efficient use of energy, the increase in demand of energy and also with the reduction of natural energy sources, has improved its importance in recent years. Most of the losses in the system from electricity produced until the point of consumption is mostly composed by the energy distribution system. In this study, analysis of the resulting loss in power distribution transformer and distribution power cable is realized which are most of the losses in the distribution system. Transformer losses in the real distribution system are analyzed by CYME Power Engineering Software program. These losses are disclosed for different voltage levels and different loading conditions.

Keywords: Distribution system, distribution transformer, power cable, technical losses.

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100 Knowledge Based Model for Power Transformer Life Cycle Management Using Knowledge Engineering

Authors: S. S. Bhandari, N. Chakpitak, K. Meksamoot, T. Chandarasupsang

Abstract:

Under the limitation of investment budget, a utility company is required to maximize the utilization of their existing assets during their life cycle satisfying both engineering and financial requirements. However, utility does not have knowledge about the status of each asset in the portfolio neither in terms of technical nor financial values. This paper presents a knowledge based model for the utility companies in order to make an optimal decision on power transformer with their utilization. CommonKADS methodology, a structured development for knowledge and expertise representation, is utilized for designing and developing knowledge based model. A case study of One MVA power transformer of Nepal Electricity Authority is presented. The results show that the reusable knowledge can be categorized, modeled and utilized within the utility company using the proposed methodologies. Moreover, the results depict that utility company can achieve both engineering and financial benefits from its utilization.

Keywords: CommonKADS, Knowledge Engineering, LifeCycle Management, Power Transformer.

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99 Magnetic Field Analysis for a Distribution Transformer with Unbalanced Load Conditions by using 3-D Finite Element Method

Authors: P. Meesuk, T. Kulworawanichpong, P. Pao-la-or

Abstract:

This paper proposes a set of quasi-static mathematical model of magnetic fields caused by high voltage conductors of distribution transformer by using a set of second-order partial differential equation. The modification for complex magnetic field analysis and time-harmonic simulation are also utilized. In this research, transformers were study in both balanced and unbalanced loading conditions. Computer-based simulation utilizing the threedimensional finite element method (3-D FEM) is exploited as a tool for visualizing magnetic fields distribution volume a distribution transformer. Finite Element Method (FEM) is one among popular numerical methods that is able to handle problem complexity in various forms. At present, the FEM has been widely applied in most engineering fields. Even for problems of magnetic field distribution, the FEM is able to estimate solutions of Maxwell-s equations governing the power transmission systems. The computer simulation based on the use of the FEM has been developed in MATLAB programming environment.

Keywords: Distribution Transformer, Magnetic Field, Load Unbalance, 3-D Finite Element Method (3-D FEM)

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98 Computer-Aided Teaching of Transformers for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Roopali Dogra, Puneet Aggarwal

Abstract:

In the era of technological advancement, use of computer technology has become inevitable. Hence it has become the need of the hour to integrate software methods in engineering curriculum as a part to boost pedagogy techniques. Simulations software is a great help to graduates of disciplines such as electrical engineering. Since electrical engineering deals with high voltages and heavy instruments, extra care must be taken while operating with them. The viable solution would be to have appropriate control. The appropriate control could be well designed if engineers have knowledge of kind of waveforms associated with the system. Though these waveforms can be plotted manually, but it consumes a lot of time. Hence aid of simulation helps to understand steady state of system and resulting in better performance. In this paper computer, aided teaching of transformer is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The test carried out on a transformer includes open circuit test and short circuit respectively. The respective parameters of transformer are then calculated using the values obtained from open circuit and short circuit test respectively using Simulink.

Keywords: Computer aided teaching, transformer, open circuit test, short circuit test, Simulink.

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