Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: Sajid Iqbal

61 Investigation of Chaotic Behavior in DC-DC Converters

Authors: Sajid Iqbal, Masood Ahmed, Suhail Aftab Qureshi

Abstract:

DC-DC converters are widely used in regulated switched mode power supplies and in DC motor drive applications. There are several sources of unwanted nonlinearity in practical power converters. In addition, their operation is characterized by switching that gives birth to a variety of nonlinear dynamics. DC-DC buck and boost converters controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) have been simulated. The voltage waveforms and attractors obtained from the circuit simulation have been studied. With the onset of instability, the phenomenon of subharmonic oscillations, quasi-periodicity, bifurcations, and chaos have been observed. This paper is mainly motivated by potential contributions of chaos theory in the design, analysis and control of power converters, in particular and power electronics circuits, in general.

Keywords: Buck converter, boost converter, period- doubling, chaos, bifurcation, strange attractor.

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60 Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Eimeria in Sheep of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: M.N. Khan, T. Rehman, Z Iqbal, M.S Sajid, M Ahmad, M Riaz

Abstract:

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, species characterization and associated risk factors with Eimeria (E.) in sheep of district Toba Tek Singh from April, 2009 to March, 2010. Of the total 486 faecal samples examined for Eimeria, 209 (43%) were found infected with five species of Eimeria. Amongst the identified species of Eimeria, E. ovinoidalis was the commonest one (48.32%), followed in order by E. ahsata, E. intricata, E. parva and E. faurei with prevalence of 45.45, 28.71, 24.40 and 19.14 percent respectively. Peak prevalence was observed in August. Wet season (rainy and post-rainy) was found to be favourable for Eimeria infection. Lambs had significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.05) of Eimeria than adults. Similarly higher prevalence of Eimeria was observed in female as compared to male. Among management and husbandry practices; watering system, housing system, floor type and herd size strongly influenced the prevalence of Eimeria. Coccidiosis was more prevalent in closed housing system, non-cemented floor type, pond watered animals and larger herds (P < 0.05) as compared to open housing system, partially cemented floor type, tap watered animals and smaller herds respectively. Feeding system, breed and body condition of animals were not found as risk factors (P>0.05) influencing prevalence of Eimeria.

Keywords: Eimeria, Pakistan prevalence, sheep.

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59 Satellite Sensing for Evaluation of an Irrigation System in Cotton - Wheat Zone

Authors: Sadia Iqbal, Faheem Iqbal, Furqan Iqbal

Abstract:

Efficient utilization of existing water is a pressing need for Pakistan. Due to rising population, reduction in present storage capacity and poor delivery efficiency of 30 to 40% from canal. A study to evaluate an irrigation system in the cotton-wheat zone of Pakistan, after the watercourse lining was conducted. The study is made on the basis of cropping pattern and salinity to evaluate the system. This study employed an index-based approach of using Geographic information system with field data. The satellite images of different years were use to examine the effective area. Several combinations of the ratio of signals received in different spectral bands were used for development of this index. Near Infrared and Thermal IR spectral bands proved to be most effective as this combination helped easy detection of salt affected area and cropping pattern of the study area. Result showed that 9.97% area under salinity in 1992, 9.17% in 2000 and it left 2.29% in year 2005. Similarly in 1992, 45% area is under vegetation it improves to 56% and 65% in 2000 and 2005 respectively. On the basis of these results evaluation is done 30% performance is increase after the watercourse improvement.

Keywords: Salinity, remote sensing index, salinity index, cropping pattern.

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58 Re-Visiting Rumi and Iqbal on Self-Enhancement for Social Responsibility

Authors: Javed Y. Uppal

Abstract:

The background of this study is the great degree of stress that the world is experiencing today, internationally among the countries, within a community among people, and even individually within one’s own self. The significance of the study is the attempt to find a solution of this stress in the philosophy of the olden times of Jalaluddin Rumi and comparatively recently of that of Allama Iqbal. The methodology adopted in this paper is firstly exploration of the perspectives of these philosophers that are being consolidated by a number of psychic and spiritual experts of today, who are being widely read but less followed. This paper further goes on presenting brief life sketches of Rumi and Iqbal. It expounds the key concepts proposed by them and the social change that was resulted in the times of the two above mentioned metaphysical philosophers. It is further amplified that with the recent advancements, in both metaphysics and the physical sciences, the gap between the two is closing down. Both Rumi and Iqbal emphasized their common essence. The old time's concepts, postulates, and philosophies are hence once again becoming valid. The findings of this paper are that the existence of human empathy, affection and mutual social attraction among humans is still valid. The positive inner belief system that dictates our thoughts and actions is vital. As a conclusion, empathy should enable us solving our problems collectively. We need to strengthen our inner communication system, to listen to the messages that come to our inner-selves. We need to get guidance and strength from them. We need to value common needs and purposes collectively to achieve results. Spiritual energy among us is to be harnessed and utilized. Connectivity is to be recognized to unify and strengthen ties among people. Mutual bonding at small and large group levels is to be employed for the survival of the disadvantaged, and sustainability of the empowering trends. With the above guidelines, hopefully, we can define a framework towards a brave and happy new humane world.

Keywords: Belief system, connectivity, human empathy, inner-self, mutual bonding, spiritual energy.

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57 Effectiveness of ICT Training Workshop for Tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Javid Qadir, Abdul Hameed

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of ICT training workshop of tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University Pakistan. The study was delimited to tutors of Multan region. The total sample comprised of 100 tutors. All the tutors who participated in ICT training workshop in Multan region were taken as sample in the study. A questionnaire having two parts, based on five point rating scale was developed by the researcher. Part one was about the competency level of computer skills while Part two was based on items related to training delivery, structure and content. Part One of questionnaire had five levels of competency about computer skills. The questionnaire was personally administered and collected back by the researcher himself on the last day of workshop. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Through this study it was found that majority of the tutors strongly agreed that training enhanced their computer skills. Majority of the respondents consider themselves to be generally competent in the use of computer. They also agreed that there was appropriate infrastructure and technical support in lab during training workshop. Moreover, it was found that the training imparted the knowledge of pedagogy of using computers for distance education.

Keywords: ICT, Tutors, AIOU.

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56 Application of Build-up and Wash-off Models for an East-Australian Catchment

Authors: Iqbal Hossain, Monzur Alam Imteaz, Mohammed Iqbal Hossain

Abstract:

Estimation of stormwater pollutants is a pre-requisite for the protection and improvement of the aquatic environment and for appropriate management options. The usual practice for the stormwater quality prediction is performed through water quality modeling. However, the accuracy of the prediction by the models depends on the proper estimation of model parameters. This paper presents the estimation of model parameters for a catchment water quality model developed for the continuous simulation of stormwater pollutants from a catchment to the catchment outlet. The model is capable of simulating the accumulation and transportation of the stormwater pollutants; suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from a particular catchment. Rainfall and water quality data were collected for the Hotham Creek Catchment (HTCC), Gold Coast, Australia. Runoff calculations from the developed model were compared with the calculated discharges from the widely used hydrological models, WBNM and DRAINS. Based on the measured water quality data, model water quality parameters were calibrated for the above-mentioned catchment. The calibrated parameters are expected to be helpful for the best management practices (BMPs) of the region. Sensitivity analyses of the estimated parameters were performed to assess the impacts of the model parameters on overall model estimations of runoff water quality.

Keywords: Calibration, Model Parameters, Suspended Solids, TotalNitrogen, Total Phosphorus.

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55 Ziegler Nichols Based Integral Proportional Controller for Superheated Steam Temperature Control System

Authors: Amil Daraz, Suheel Abdullah Malik, Tahir Saleem, Sajid Ali Bhati

Abstract:

In this paper, Integral Proportional (I-P) controller is employed for superheated steam temperature control system. The Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) method is used for the tuning of I-P controller. The performance analysis of Z-N based I-P controller is assessed on superheated steam system of 500-MW boiler. The comparison of transient response parameters such as rise time, settling time, and overshoot is made with Z-N based Proportional Integral (PI) controller. It is observed from the results that Z-N based I-P controller completely eliminates the overshoot in the output response.

Keywords: Superheated steam, process reaction curve, PI and I-P controller, Ziegler-Nichols tuning.

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54 Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton

Authors: Tawakal Hasnain Baluch, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umer Izhar, Umar Shahbaz Khan

Abstract:

This paper will provide the kinematic and dynamic analysis of a lower limb exoskeleton. The forward and inverse kinematics of proposed exoskeleton is performed using Denevit and Hartenberg method. The torques required for the actuators will be calculated using Lagrangian formulation technique. This research can be used to design the control of the proposed exoskeleton.

Keywords: Dynamic Analysis, Exoskeleton, Kinematic Analysis, Lower Limb, Rehabilitation Robotics

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53 Optimal Path Planner for Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M. Imran Akram, Ahmed Pasha, Nabeel Iqbal

Abstract:

In this paper a real-time trajectory generation algorithm for computing 2-D optimal paths for autonomous aerial vehicles has been discussed. A dynamic programming approach is adopted to compute k-best paths by minimizing a cost function. Collision detection is implemented to detect intersection of the paths with obstacles. Our contribution is a novel approach to the problem of trajectory generation that is computationally efficient and offers considerable gain over existing techniques.

Keywords: dynamic programming, graph search, path planning.

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52 Design of High Torque Elbow Joint for Above Elbow Prosthesis

Authors: Irfan Hussain, Adnan Masood, Javaid Iqbal, Umar S. Khan

Abstract:

Above Elbow Prosthesis is one of the most commonly amputated or missing limbs. The research is done for modelling techniques of upper limb prosthesis and design of high torque, light weight and compact in size elbow actuator. The purposed actuator consists of a DC motor, planetary gear set and a harmonic drive. The calculations show that the actuator is good enough to be used in real life powered prosthetic upper limb or rehabilitation exoskeleton.

Keywords: Above Elbow prosthesis, Harmonic drive, Planetarygear set, Sagittal Plane

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51 A New Divide and Conquer Software Process Model

Authors: Hina Gull, Farooque Azam, Wasi Haider Butt, Sardar Zafar Iqbal

Abstract:

The software system goes through a number of stages during its life and a software process model gives a standard format for planning, organizing and running a project. The article presents a new software development process model named as “Divide and Conquer Process Model", based on the idea first it divides the things to make them simple and then gathered them to get the whole work done. The article begins with the backgrounds of different software process models and problems in these models. This is followed by a new divide and conquer process model, explanation of its different stages and at the end edge over other models is shown.

Keywords: Process Model, Waterfall, divide and conquer, Requirements.

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50 Effects of Data Correlation in a Sparse-View Compressive Sensing Based Image Reconstruction

Authors: Sajid Abbas, Joon Pyo Hong, Jung-Ryun Lee, Seungryong Cho

Abstract:

Computed tomography and laminography are heavily investigated in a compressive sensing based image reconstruction framework to reduce the dose to the patients as well as to the radiosensitive devices such as multilayer microelectronic circuit boards. Nowadays researchers are actively working on optimizing the compressive sensing based iterative image reconstruction algorithm to obtain better quality images. However, the effects of the sampled data’s properties on reconstructed the image’s quality, particularly in an insufficient sampled data conditions have not been explored in computed laminography. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two data properties i.e. sampling density and data incoherence on the reconstructed image obtained by conventional computed laminography and a recently proposed method called spherical sinusoidal scanning scheme. We have found that in a compressive sensing based image reconstruction framework, the image quality mainly depends upon the data incoherence when the data is uniformly sampled.

Keywords: Computed tomography, Computed laminography, Compressive sending, Low-dose.

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49 A Novel QoS Optimization Architecture for 4G Networks

Authors: Aaqif Afzaal Abbasi, Javaid Iqbal, Akhtar Nawaz Malik

Abstract:

4G Communication Networks provide heterogeneous wireless technologies to mobile subscribers through IP based networks and users can avail high speed access while roaming across multiple wireless channels; possible by an organized way to manage the Quality of Service (QoS) functionalities in these networks. This paper proposes the idea of developing a novel QoS optimization architecture that will judge the user requirements and knowing peak times of services utilization can save the bandwidth/cost factors. The proposed architecture can be customized according to the network usage priorities so as to considerably improve a network-s QoS performance.

Keywords: QoS, Network Coverage Boundary, ServicesArchives Units (SAU), Cumulative Services Archives Units (CSAU).

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48 A Coherent Relationship between EconomicGrowth and Unemployment: An Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

Authors: T. Hussain, M. W. Siddiqi, A. Iqbal

Abstract:

The study is aimed to test causal relationship between growth and unemployment, using time series data for Pakistan from 1972 to 2006. Growth is considered to be a pathway to decrease the level of unemployment. Unemployment is a social and political issue. It is a phenomenon where human resources are wasted leading to deacceleration in growth. Johanson Cointegration shows that there is long run relationship between growth and unemployment. For short run dynamics and causality, the study utilizes Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The results of VECM indicate that there is short and long run causal relation between growth and unemployment including capital, labor and human capital as explanatory variables.

Keywords: Economic Growth, Unemployment, Cointegrationand Causality.

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47 Impact of Foreign Aid and Levels of Education on Democracy in Pakistan

Authors: H. Mahmood, M. W. Siddiqi, A. Iqbal, M. A. Tabassum

Abstract:

This study examines the relationships between foreign aid, levels of schooling and democracy for Pakistan using the ARDL cointegration approach. The results of study provide strong evidence for fairly robust long run as well as short run relationships among these variables for the period 1973-2008. The results state that foreign aid and primary school enrollments have negative impact on democracy index and high school enrollments have positive impact on democracy index in Pakistan. The study suggests for promotion of education levels and relies on local resources instead of foreign aid for a good quality of political institutions in Pakistan.

Keywords: Cointegration, Democracy, Education, Foreign Aid

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46 Performance Evaluation of Content Based Image Retrieval Using Indexed Views

Authors: Tahir Iqbal, Mumtaz Ali, Syed Wajahat Kareem, Muhammad Harris

Abstract:

Digital information is expanding in exponential order in our life. Information that is residing online and offline are stored in huge repositories relating to every aspect of our lives. Getting the required information is a task of retrieval systems. Content based image retrieval (CBIR) is a retrieval system that retrieves the required information from repositories on the basis of the contents of the image. Time is a critical factor in retrieval system and using indexed views with CBIR system improves the time efficiency of retrieved results.

Keywords: Content based image retrieval (CBIR), Indexed view, Color, Image retrieval, Cross correlation.

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45 Danger Theory and Intelligent Data Processing

Authors: Anjum Iqbal, Mohd Aizaini Maarof

Abstract:

Artificial Immune System (AIS) is relatively naive paradigm for intelligent computations. The inspiration for AIS is derived from natural Immune System (IS). Classically it is believed that IS strives to discriminate between self and non-self. Most of the existing AIS research is based on this approach. Danger Theory (DT) argues this approach and proposes that IS fights against danger producing elements and tolerates others. We, the computational researchers, are not concerned with the arguments among immunologists but try to extract from it novel abstractions for intelligent computation. This paper aims to follow DT inspiration for intelligent data processing. The approach may introduce new avenue in intelligent processing. The data used is system calls data that is potentially significant in intrusion detection applications.

Keywords: artificial immune system, danger theory, intelligent processing, system calls

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44 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee, Farrah Salwani Abdullah

Abstract:

One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: Microwave Absorber, Reflection Loss, Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB), X- Band.

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43 Event Information Extraction System (EIEE): FSM vs HMM

Authors: Shaukat Wasi, Zubair A. Shaikh, Sajid Qasmi, Hussain Sachwani, Rehman Lalani, Aamir Chagani

Abstract:

Automatic Extraction of Event information from social text stream (emails, social network sites, blogs etc) is a vital requirement for many applications like Event Planning and Management systems and security applications. The key information components needed from Event related text are Event title, location, participants, date and time. Emails have very unique distinctions over other social text streams from the perspective of layout and format and conversation style and are the most commonly used communication channel for broadcasting and planning events. Therefore we have chosen emails as our dataset. In our work, we have employed two statistical NLP methods, named as Finite State Machines (FSM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for the extraction of event related contextual information. An application has been developed providing a comparison among the two methods over the event extraction task. It comprises of two modules, one for each method, and works for both bulk as well as direct user input. The results are evaluated using Precision, Recall and F-Score. Experiments show that both methods produce high performance and accuracy, however HMM was good enough over Title extraction and FSM proved to be better for Venue, Date, and time.

Keywords: Emails, Event Extraction, Event Detection, Finite state machines, Hidden Markov Model.

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42 Moving From Problem Space to Solution Space

Authors: Bilal Saeed Raja, M. Ali Iqbal, Imran Ihsan

Abstract:

Extracting and elaborating software requirements and transforming them into viable software architecture are still an intricate task. This paper defines a solution architecture which is based on the blurred amalgamation of problem space and solution space. The dependencies between domain constraints, requirements and architecture and their importance are described that are to be considered collectively while evolving from problem space to solution space. This paper proposes a revised version of Twin Peaks Model named Win Peaks Model that reconciles software requirements and architecture in more consistent and adaptable manner. Further the conflict between stakeholders- win-requirements is resolved by proposed Voting methodology that is simple adaptation of win-win requirements negotiation model and QARCC.

Keywords: Functional Requirements, Non Functional Requirements, Twin Peaks Model, QARCC.

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41 A Frame Work for Query Results Refinement in Multimedia Databases

Authors: Humaira Liaquat, Nadeem Iftikhar, Shaukat Ali, Zohaib Zafar Iqbal

Abstract:

In the current age, retrieval of relevant information from massive amount of data is a challenging job. Over the years, precise and relevant retrieval of information has attained high significance. There is a growing need in the market to build systems, which can retrieve multimedia information that precisely meets the user's current needs. In this paper, we have introduced a framework for refining query results before showing it to the user, using ambient intelligence, user profile, group profile, user location, time, day, user device type and extracted features. A prototypic tool was also developed to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Context aware retrieval, Information retrieval, Ambient Intelligence, Multimedia databases, User and group profile.

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40 Synthesis of SnO Novel Cabbage Nanostructure and Its Electrochemical Property as an Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery

Authors: Yongkui Cui, Fengping Wang, Hailai Zhao, Muhammad Zubair Iqbal, Ziya Wang, Yan Li, Pengpeng L. V.

Abstract:

The novel 3D SnO cabbages self-assembled by nanosheets were successfully synthesized via template-free hydrothermal growth method under facile conditions. The XRD results manifest that the as-prepared SnO is tetragonal phase. The TEM and HRTEM results show that the cabbage nanosheets are polycrystalline structure consisted of considerable single-crystalline nanoparticles. Two typical Raman modes A1g=210 and Eg=112 cm-1 of SnO are observed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, galvanostatic cycling tests has been performed using the SnO cabbages as anode material of lithium ion battery and the electrochemical results suggest that the synthesized SnO cabbage structures are a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

Keywords: Hydrothermal process, lithium ion battery, Raman spectroscopy, stannous oxide.

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39 Dynamic Load Balancing in PVM Using Intelligent Application

Authors: Kashif Bilal, Tassawar Iqbal, Asad Ali Safi, Nadeem Daudpota

Abstract:

This paper deals with dynamic load balancing using PVM. In distributed environment Load Balancing and Heterogeneity are very critical issues and needed to drill down in order to achieve the optimal results and efficiency. Various techniques are being used in order to distribute the load dynamically among different nodes and to deal with heterogeneity. These techniques are using different approaches where Process Migration is basic concept with different optimal flavors. But Process Migration is not an easy job, it impose lot of burden and processing effort in order to track each process in nodes. We will propose a dynamic load balancing technique in which application will intelligently balance the load among different nodes, resulting in efficient use of system and have no overheads of process migration. It would also provide a simple solution to problem of load balancing in heterogeneous environment.

Keywords: PVM, load balancing, task allocation, intelligent application.

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38 Object Identification with Color, Texture, and Object-Correlation in CBIR System

Authors: Awais Adnan, Muhammad Nawaz, Sajid Anwar, Tamleek Ali, Muhammad Ali

Abstract:

Needs of an efficient information retrieval in recent years in increased more then ever because of the frequent use of digital information in our life. We see a lot of work in the area of textual information but in multimedia information, we cannot find much progress. In text based information, new technology of data mining and data marts are now in working that were started from the basic concept of database some where in 1960. In image search and especially in image identification, computerized system at very initial stages. Even in the area of image search we cannot see much progress as in the case of text based search techniques. One main reason for this is the wide spread roots of image search where many area like artificial intelligence, statistics, image processing, pattern recognition play their role. Even human psychology and perception and cultural diversity also have their share for the design of a good and efficient image recognition and retrieval system. A new object based search technique is presented in this paper where object in the image are identified on the basis of their geometrical shapes and other features like color and texture where object-co-relation augments this search process. To be more focused on objects identification, simple images are selected for the work to reduce the role of segmentation in overall process however same technique can also be applied for other images.

Keywords: Object correlation, Geometrical shape, Color, texture, features, contents.

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37 Effect of Herbicides on Narrow Leaved Weeds and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Authors: M. Yasin, A. Tanveer, Z. Iqbal, A. Ali

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of five herbicides on narrow leaved weeds and growth and yield of wheat. An experiment was conducted at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block designee (RCBD) with three replications. Treatments studied were clodinafop (Topic-15 WG) at 37 g a.i. ha-1, clodinafop (Topaz-15 WG) at 45 g a.i. ha-1, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (Puma Super-75 EW) at 45 g a.i. ha-1, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (Gramicide-6.9 EW) at 85 g a.i. ha-1, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (Chinlima-6.9 EW) at 85 g a.i. ha-1 and weedy check. Plots treated with fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (Puma Super-75 EW) at 45 g a.i. ha-1 produced relatively less weed biomass, more plant height, number of spike bearing tillers, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield (4.20 t ha-1).

Keywords: clodinafop, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, weeds, wheat

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36 Growth, Population, Exports and Wagner's Law: A Case Study of Pakistan (1972-2007)

Authors: T. Hussain, A. Iqbal, M. W. Siddiqi

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the validity of Wagner-s law and relationship between economic growth, population and export for Pakistan. The ARDL Bounds cointegration and ECM are utilized for long and short run equilibrium for the period of 1972-2007. Population has considerable role in an economy and exports are the main source to raise the GDP. With the increase in GDP, the government expenditures may or may not increase. The empirical results indicate that the Wagner-s Law does hold, as economic growth is significantly and positively correlated with government expenditures. However, population and exports have also significant and positive impact on government expenditures both in short and long run. The significant and negative coefficient of error correction term in ECM indicates that after a shock, the long rum equilibrium will again converge towards equilibrium about 70.82 percent within a year.

Keywords: ARDL Cointegration, Growth, Pakistan, Wagner's law.

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35 Application of Life Data Analysis for the Reliability Assessment of Numerical Overcurrent Relays

Authors: Mohd Iqbal Ridwan, Kerk Lee Yen, Aminuddin Musa, Bahisham Yunus

Abstract:

Protective relays are components of a protection system in a power system domain that provides decision making element for correct protection and fault clearing operations. Failure of the protection devices may reduce the integrity and reliability of the power system protection that will impact the overall performance of the power system. Hence it is imperative for power utilities to assess the reliability of protective relays to assure it will perform its intended function without failure. This paper will discuss the application of reliability analysis using statistical method called Life Data Analysis in Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), a government linked power utility company in Malaysia, namely Transmission Division, to assess and evaluate the reliability of numerical overcurrent protective relays from two different manufacturers.

Keywords: Life data analysis, Protective relays, Reliability, Weibull Distribution.

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34 Shielding Effectiveness of Rice Husk and CNT Composites in X-Band Frequency

Authors: Y. S. Lee, F. Malek, E. M. Cheng, W. W. Liu, F. H. Wee, M. N. Iqbal, Z. Liyana, B. S. Yew, F. S. Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of rice husk and carbon nanotubes (RHCNTs) composites in the X-band region (8.2-12.4 GHz). The difference weight ratio of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were mix with the rice husk. The rectangular waveguide technique was used to measure the complex permittivity of the RHCNTs composites materials. The complex permittivity is represented in terms of both the real and imaginary parts of permittivity in X-band frequency. The conductivity of RHCNTs shows increasing when the ratio of CNTs mixture increases. The composites materials were simulated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio simulation software. The shielding effectiveness of RHCNTs and pure rice husk was compared. The highest EMI SE of 30 dB is obtained for RHCNTs composites of 10 wt % CNTs with 10mm thickness.

Keywords: EMI Shielding effectiveness, Carbon nanotube, Composite materials, Waveguide, X-band.

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33 Analyzing the Impact of Spatio-Temporal Climate Variations on the Rice Crop Calendar in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Iqra Basit, Mobushir Riaz Khan, Sajid Rasheed Ahmad

Abstract:

The present study investigates the space-time impact of climate change on the rice crop calendar in tropical Gujranwala, Pakistan. The climate change impact was quantified through the climatic variables, whereas the existing calendar of the rice crop was compared with the phonological stages of the crop, depicted through the time series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat data for the decade 2005-2015. Local maxima were applied on the time series of NDVI to compute the rice phonological stages. Panel models with fixed and cross-section fixed effects were used to establish the relation between the climatic parameters and the time-series of NDVI across villages and across rice growing periods. Results show that the climatic parameters have significant impact on the rice crop calendar. Moreover, the fixed effect model is a significant improvement over cross-sectional fixed effect models (R-squared equal to 0.673 vs. 0.0338). We conclude that high inter-annual variability of climatic variables cause high variability of NDVI, and thus, a shift in the rice crop calendar. Moreover, inter-annual (temporal) variability of the rice crop calendar is high compared to the inter-village (spatial) variability. We suggest the local rice farmers to adapt this change in the rice crop calendar.

Keywords: Landsat NDVI, panel models, temperature, rainfall.

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32 Coverage and Connectivity Problem in Sensor Networks

Authors: Meenakshi Bansal, Iqbal Singh, Parvinder S. Sandhu

Abstract:

In over deployed sensor networks, one approach to Conserve energy is to keep only a small subset of sensors active at Any instant. For the coverage problems, the monitoring area in a set of points that require sensing, called demand points, and consider that the node coverage area is a circle of range R, where R is the sensing range, If the Distance between a demand point and a sensor node is less than R, the node is able to cover this point. We consider a wireless sensor network consisting of a set of sensors deployed randomly. A point in the monitored area is covered if it is within the sensing range of a sensor. In some applications, when the network is sufficiently dense, area coverage can be approximated by guaranteeing point coverage. In this case, all the points of wireless devices could be used to represent the whole area, and the working sensors are supposed to cover all the sensors. We also introduce Hybrid Algorithm and challenges related to coverage in sensor networks.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, network coverage, Energy conservation, Hybrid Algorithms.

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