Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 764

Search results for: Domestic water

764 Physicochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Source and Stored Domestic Water from Three Local Governments in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Authors: Mary A. Bisi-Johnson, Kehinde A. Adediran, Saheed A. Akinola, Hamzat A. Oyelade

Abstract:

Some of the main problems man contends with are the quantity (source and amount) and quality of water in Nigeria. Scarcity leads to water being obtained from various sources and microbiological contamination of the water may thus occur between the collection point and the point of usage. This study thus aims to assess the general and microbiological quality of domestic water sources and household stored water used within selected areas in Ile-Ife, South-Western part of Nigeria for microbial contaminants.             Physicochemical and microbiological examination were carried out on 45 source and stored water samples collected from well and spring in three different local government areas i.e. Ife east, Ife-south and Ife-north. Physicochemical analysis included pH value, temperature, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. Microbiology involved most probable number analysis, total coliform, heterotrophic plate, faecal coliform and streptococcus count.

The result of the physicochemical analysis of samples showed anomalies compared to acceptable standards with the pH value of 7.20-8.60 for stored and 6.50-7.80 for source samples. The total dissolved solids (TDS of stored 20-70mg/L, source 352-691mg/L), dissolved oxygen (DO of stored 1.60-9.60mg/L, source 1.60-4.80mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD stored 0.80-3.60mg/L, source 0.60-5.40mg/L). General microbiological quality indicated that both stored and source samples with the exception of a sample were not within acceptable range as indicated by analysis of the MPN/100ml which ranges between (stored 290-1100mg/L, source 9-1100mg/L). Apart from high counts, most samples did not meet the World Health Organization standard for drinking water with the presence of some pathogenic bacteria and fungi such as Salmonella and Aspergillus spp. To annul these constraints, standard treatment methods should be adopted to make water free from contaminants. This will help identify common and likely water related infection origin within the communities and thus help guide in terms of interventions required to prevent the general populace from such infections.

Keywords: Domestic, microbiology, physicochemical, quality, water.

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763 Experimental Investigation of Gas Bubble Behaviours in a Domestic Heat Pump Water Heating System

Authors: J. B. Qin, X. H. Jiang, Y. T. Ge

Abstract:

The growing awareness of global warming potential has internationally aroused interest and demand in reducing greenhouse gas emissions produced by human activity. Much national energy in the UK had been consumed in the residential sector mainly for space heating and domestic hot water production. Currently, gas boilers are mostly applied in the domestic water heating which contribute significantly to excessive CO2 emissions and consumption of primary energy resources. The issues can be solved by popularizing heat pump systems that are attributable to higher performance efficiency than those of traditional gas boilers. Even so, the heat pump system performance can be further enhanced if the dissolved gases in its hot water circuit can be efficiently discharged.  To achieve this target, the bubble behaviors in the heat pump water heating system need to be extensively investigated. In this paper, by varying different experimental conditions, the effects of various heat pump hot water side parameters on gas microbubble diameters were measured and analyzed. Correspondingly, the effect of each parameter has been investigated. These include varied system pressures, water flow rates, saturation ratios and heat outputs. The results measurement showed that the water flow rate is the most significant parameter to influence on gas microbubble productions. The research outcomes can significantly contribute to the understanding of gas bubble behaviors at domestic heat pump water heating systems and thus the efficient way for the discharging of the associated dissolved gases.  

Keywords: Dissolved gases in water, heat pump, domestic water heating system, microbubble formation.

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762 Water Budget in High Drought-Borne Area in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka during Dry Season

Authors: R. Kandiah, K. Miyamoto

Abstract:

In Sri Lanka, the Jaffna area is a high drought affected area and depends mainly on groundwater aquifers for water needs. Water for daily activities is extracted from wells. As households manually extract water from the wells, it is not drawn from mid evening to early morning. The water inflow at night provides the maximum water level that decreases during the daytime due to extraction. The storage volume of water in wells is limited or at its lowest level during the dry season. This study analyzes the domestic water budget during the dry season in the Jaffna area. In order to evaluate the water inflow rate into wells, storage volume and extraction volume from wells over time, water pressure is measured at the bottom of three wells, which are located in coastal area denoted as well A, in nonspecific area denoted as well B, and agricultural area denoted as well C. The water quality at the wells A, B, and C, are mostly fresh, modest fresh, and saline respectively. From the monitoring, we can find that the daily inflow amount of water into the wells and daily water extraction depend on each other, that is, higher extraction yields higher inflow. And, in the dry season, the daily inflow volume and the daily extraction volume of each well are almost in balance.

Keywords: Domestic water, water balance, water budget, ground water, shallow well.

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761 Improving Water Productivity of Chickpea by the Use of Deficit Irrigation with Treated Domestic Wastewater

Authors: Hirich A., Choukr-allah R., Jacobsen S-E., Hamdy A., El youssfi L., El Omari H.

Abstract:

An experiment was performed in the south of Morocco in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation by treated wastewater on chickpea production. We applied six irrigation treatments on a local variety of chickpea by supplying alternatively 50 or 100% of ETm in a completely randomized design. We found a highly significant difference between treatments in terms of biomass production. Drought stress during the vegetative period showed highest yield with 6.5 t/ha which was more than the yield obtained for the control (4.9 t/ha). The optimal crop stage in which deficit irrigation can be applied is the vegetative growth stage, as the crop has a chance to develop its root system, to be able to cover the plant needs for water and nutrient supply during the rest of cycle, and non stress conditions during the flowering and seed filling stages allow the plant to optimize its photosynthesis and carbon translocation, therefore increase its productivity.

Keywords: chickpea, crop stages, drought stress, water productivity

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760 Fluid Flow Analysis and Design of a Flow Distributor in a Domestic Gas Boiler Using a Commercial CFD Software

Authors: Lukasz Peronski, Roy Bratley, Derek B. Ingham, Lin Ma, Mohamed Pourkashanian, StephenTaylor

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to investigate the possible use of commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software in the design process of a domestic gas boiler. Because of the limited computational resources some simplifications had to be made in order to contribute to the design in a reasonable timescale. The porous media model was used in order to simulate the influence of the pressure drop characteristic of particular elements of a heat transfer system on the water-flow distribution in the system. Further, a combination of CFD analyses and spread sheet calculations was used in order to solve the flow distribution problem.

Keywords: CFD, domestic gas boilers, flow distribution, heatexchanger, porous media

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759 The Correlation of Economic Variables on Domestic Investment

Authors: Amirreza Attarzadeh

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between economic variables, e.g., inflation rate, interest rate, trade openness and the growth rate of GDP, with domestic investment. The present study also draws on conceptual economy related theories to verify the negative effect of interest rates on domestic investment. However, trade openness and growth rate had a positive correlation, and the inflation rate may have a positive or negative impact on domestic investment.

Keywords: Inflation rate, growth rate of GDP, interest rate, trade openness, domestic investment.

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758 Atmosphere Water Vapour As Main Sweet Water Resource in the Arid Zones of Central Asia

Authors: S.I.Nikolaeva, Yu.V. Petrov, L.Ye.Skipnikova

Abstract:

It has been shown that the solution of water shortage problem in Central Asia closely connected with inclusion of atmosphere water vapour into the system of response and water resources management. Some methods of water extraction from atmosphere have been discussed.

Keywords: potable water, water resources, water problems, water scarcity.

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757 Treatment of Mycotic Dermatitis in Domestic Animals with Poly Herbal Drug

Authors: U. Umadevi, T. Umakanthan

Abstract:

Globally, mycotic dermatitis is very common but there is no single proven specific allopathic treatment regimen. In this study, domestic animals with skin diseases of different age and breed from geographically varied regions of Tamil Nadu state, India were employed. Most of them have had previous treatment with native and allopathic medicines without success. Clinically, the skin lesions were found to be mild to severe. The trial animals were treated with poly herbal formulation (ointment) prepared using the indigenous medicinal plants – viz Andrographis paniculata, Lawsonia inermis and Madhuca longifolia. Allopathic antifungal drugs and ointments, povidone iodine and curabless (Terbinafine HCl, Ofloxacin, Ornidazole, Clobetasol propionate) were used in control. Comparatively, trial animals were found to have lesser course of treatment time and higher recovery rate than control. In Ethnoveterinary, this combination was tried for the first time. This herbal formulation is economical and an alternative for skin diseases.

Keywords: Allopathic drugs, dermatitis, domestic animals, poly herbal formulation.

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756 Evaluating the Effect of Domestic Price on Rice Production in an African Setting: A Typical Evidence of the Sierra Leone Case

Authors: Alhaji M. H. Conteh, Xiangbin Yan, Alfred V Gborie

Abstract:

Rice, which is the staple food in Sierra Leone, is consumed on a daily basis. It is the most imperative food crop extensively grown by farmers across all ecologies in the country. Though much attention is now given to rice grain production through the small holder commercialization programme (SHCP), however, no attention has been given in investigating the limitations faced by rice producers. This paper will contribute to attempts to overcome the development challenges caused by food insecurity. The objective of this paper is thus, to analysis the relationship between rice production and the domestic retail price of rice. The study employed a log linear model in which, the quantity of rice produced is the dependent variable, quantity of rice imported, price of imported rice and price of domestic rice as explanatory variables. Findings showed that, locally produced rice is even more expensive than the imported rice per ton, and almost all the inhabitants in the capital city which hosts about 65% of the entire population of the country favor imported rice, as it is free from stones with other impurities. On the other hand, to control price and simultaneously increase rice production, the government should purchase the rice from the farmers and then sell to private retailers.

Keywords: Domestic price of rice, Econometric model, Rice production, Sierra Leone.

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755 Effect of Domestic Treated Wastewater use on Three Varieties of Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) under Semi Arid Conditions

Authors: El Youssfi L., Choukr-Allah R., Zaafrani M., Mediouni T., Sarr F, Hirich A.

Abstract:

An experiment was implemented in a filed in the south of Morocco to evaluate the effects of domestic treated wastewater use for irrigation of amaranth crop under semi-arid conditions. Three varieties (A0020, A0057 & A211) were tested and irrigated using domestic treated wastewater EC1 (0,92 dS/m) as control, EC3 (3dS/m) and EC6 (6dS/m) obtained by adding sea water. In term of growth, an increase of the EC level of applied irrigation water reduced significantly the plant-s height, leaf area, fresh and dry weight measured at vegetative, flowering and maturity stage for all varieties. Even with the application of the EC6, yields were relatively higher in comparison with the once obtained in normal cultivation conditions. A significant accumulation of nitrate, chloride and sodium in soil layers during the crop cycle was noted. The use of treated waste water for its irrigation is proved to be possible. The variety A211 had showed to be less sensitive to salinity stress and it could be more promising its introduction to study area.

Keywords: Amaranth, salinity, semi-arid, treated waste water.

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754 Application of Feed-Forward Neural Networks Autoregressive Models with Genetic Algorithm in Gross Domestic Product Prediction

Authors: E. Giovanis

Abstract:

In this paper we present a Feed-Foward Neural Networks Autoregressive (FFNN-AR) model with genetic algorithms training optimization in order to predict the gross domestic product growth of six countries. Specifically we propose a kind of weighted regression, which can be used for econometric purposes, where the initial inputs are multiplied by the neural networks final optimum weights from input-hidden layer of the training process. The forecasts are compared with those of the ordinary autoregressive model and we conclude that the proposed regression-s forecasting results outperform significant those of autoregressive model. Moreover this technique can be used in Autoregressive-Moving Average models, with and without exogenous inputs, as also the training process with genetics algorithms optimization can be replaced by the error back-propagation algorithm.

Keywords: Autoregressive model, Feed-Forward neuralnetworks, Genetic Algorithms, Gross Domestic Product

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753 Integrated Water Management for Lafarge Cement-Jordan

Authors: Azzam Hamaideh, Abbas Al-Omari, Michael Sturm

Abstract:

This study aims at implementing integrated water resources management principles to the Lafarge Cement Jordan at Al-Fuhais plant. This was accomplished by conducting water audits at all water consuming units in the plant. Based on the findings of the water audit, an action plan to improve water use efficiency in the plant was proposed. The main elements of which are installing water saving devices, re-use of the treated wastewater, water harvesting, raising the awareness of the employees, and linking the plant to the water demand management unit at the Ministry of Water and Irrigation.

The analysis showed that by implementing the proposed action plan, it is expected that the industrial water demand can be satisfied from non-conventional resources including treated wastewater and harvested water. As a consequence, fresh water can be used to increase the supply to Al-Fuhais city which is expected to reflect positively on the relationship between the factory and the city. 

Keywords: Integrated water resources management, non-conventional water resources, water awareness, water demand management, water harvesting, water saving devices.

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752 Domestic Tourist Behaviours of the Tourism Place in Bangkok and Greater Area

Authors: Tanit P ruktara

Abstract:

This research aims to study the preferable tourism and the elements of choosing tourist destination from domestic tourist in Bangkok and the nearby areas in Thailand.The data were collected by using 1249 set of questionnaires, in mid-August 2012. The result illustrates that religious destinations are the most preferable places for the tourist. The average expense per travel is approximately 47 USD a time. Travellers travel based on the advertisement in the television and internet and their decisions is based on the reputation of the destinations. The result on a place dimension demonstrates the neatness and well managed location play a crucial role on tourist destination. Gender, age, marriage status and their origins are affecting their spending and travelling behaviour. The researcher reckon that providing the area of arcade, selling the souvenir and promoting tourism among a young professional group would be an important key follow the income distribution policy, including managing the destination to welcome the family group, which the result is to identified as the highest spending.

Keywords: Domestic Tourist, Tourism, Tourist Behaviours, Tourism Place.

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751 Application of Feed-Forward Neural Networks Autoregressive Models in Gross Domestic Product Prediction

Authors: Ε. Giovanis

Abstract:

In this paper we present an autoregressive model with neural networks modeling and standard error backpropagation algorithm training optimization in order to predict the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of four countries. Specifically we propose a kind of weighted regression, which can be used for econometric purposes, where the initial inputs are multiplied by the neural networks final optimum weights from input-hidden layer after the training process. The forecasts are compared with those of the ordinary autoregressive model and we conclude that the proposed regression-s forecasting results outperform significant those of autoregressive model in the out-of-sample period. The idea behind this approach is to propose a parametric regression with weighted variables in order to test for the statistical significance and the magnitude of the estimated autoregressive coefficients and simultaneously to estimate the forecasts.

Keywords: Autoregressive model, Error back-propagation Feed-Forward neural networks, , Gross Domestic Product

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750 A Study of Water Consumption in Two Malaysian Resorts

Authors: Fu E. Tang

Abstract:

In the effort to reduce water consumption for resorts, more water conservation practices need to be implemented. Hence water audits need to be performed to obtain a baseline of water consumption, before planning water conservation practices. In this study, a water audit framework specifically for resorts was created, and the audit was performed on two resorts: Resort A in Langkawi, Malaysia; and Resort B in Miri, Malaysia. From the audit, the total daily water consumption for Resorts A and B were estimated to be 180m3 and 330 m3 respectively, while the actual water consumption (based on water meter readings) were 175 m3 and 325 m3. This suggests that the audit framework is reasonably accurate and may be used to account for most of the water consumption sources in a resort. The daily water consumption per guest is about 500 litres. The water consumption of both resorts is poorly rated compared with established benchmarks. Water conservation measures were suggested for both resorts.

Keywords: water consumption patterns, water conservation practices, water audit, water audit framework.

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749 Non-Revenue Water Management in Palestine

Authors: Samah Jawad Jabari

Abstract:

Water is the most important and valuable resource not only for human life but also for all living things on the planet. The water supply utilities should fulfill the water requirement quantitatively and qualitatively. Drinking water systems are exposed to both natural (hurricanes and flood) and manmade hazards (risks) that are common in Palestine. Non-Revenue Water (NRW) is a manmade risk which remains a major concern in Palestine, as the NRW levels are estimated to be at a high level. In this research, Hebron city water distribution network was taken as a case study to estimate and audit the NRW levels. The research also investigated the state of the existing water distribution system in the study area by investigating the water losses and obtained more information on NRW prevention and management practices. Data and information have been collected from the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) and Hebron Municipality (HM) archive. In addition to that, a questionnaire has been designed and administered by the researcher in order to collect the necessary data for water auditing. The questionnaire also assessed the views of stakeholder in PWA and HM (staff) on the current status of the NRW in the Hebron water distribution system. The important result obtained by this research shows that NRW in Hebron city was high and in excess of 30%. The main factors that contribute to NRW were the inaccuracies in billing volumes, unauthorized consumption, and the method of estimating consumptions through faulty meters. Policy for NRW reduction is available in Palestine; however, it is clear that the number of qualified staff available to carry out the activities related to leak detection is low, and that there is a lack of appropriate technologies to reduce water losses and undertake sufficient system maintenance, which needs to be improved to enhance the performance of the network and decrease the level of NRW losses.

Keywords: Non-revenue water, water auditing, leak detection, water meters.

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748 Urban Waste Water Governance in South Africa: A Case Study of Stellenbosch

Authors: R. Malisa, E. Schwella, K. I. Theletsane

Abstract:

Due to climate change, population growth and rapid urbanization, the demand for water in South Africa is inevitably surpassing supply. To address similar challenges globally, there has been a paradigm shift from conventional urban waste water management “government” to a “governance” paradigm. From the governance paradigm, Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) principle emerged. This principle emphasizes efficient urban waste water treatment and production of high-quality recyclable effluent. In so doing mimicking natural water systems, in their processes of recycling water efficiently, and averting depletion of natural water resources.  The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of shifting the current urban waste water management approach from a “government” paradigm towards “governance”. The study was conducted through Interactive Management soft systems research methodology which follows a qualitative research design. A case study methodology was employed, guided by realism research philosophy. Qualitative data gathered were analyzed through interpretative structural modelling using Concept Star for Professionals Decision-Making tools (CSPDM) version 3.64.  The constructed model deduced that the main drivers in shifting the Stellenbosch municipal urban waste water management towards IUWM “governance” principles are mainly social elements characterized by overambitious expectations of the public on municipal water service delivery, mis-interpretation of the constitution on access to adequate clean water and sanitation as a human right and perceptions on recycling water by different communities. Inadequate public participation also emerged as a strong driver. However, disruptive events such as draught may play a positive role in raising an awareness on the value of water, resulting in a shift on the perceptions on recycled water. Once the social elements are addressed, the alignment of governance and administration elements towards IUWM are achievable. Hence, the point of departure for the desired paradigm shift is the change of water service authorities and serviced communities’ perceptions and behaviors towards shifting urban waste water management approaches from “government” to “governance” paradigm.

Keywords: Integrated urban water management, urban water system, waste water governance, waste water treatment works.

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747 Study on Practice of Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers by Diverting Clean Water

Authors: Manjie Li, Xiangju Cheng, Yongcan Chen

Abstract:

With rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, water environmental deterioration is widespread in majority of urban rivers, which seriously affects city image and life satisfaction of residents. As an emergency measure to improve water quality, clean water diversion is introduced for water environmental management. Lubao River and Southwest River, two urban rivers in typical plain tidal river network, are identified as technically and economically feasible for the application of clean water diversion. One-dimensional hydrodynamic-water quality model is developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of water level and water quality, with satisfactory accuracy. The mathematical model after calibration is applied to investigate hydrodynamic and water quality variations in rivers as well as determine the optimum operation scheme of water diversion. Assessment system is developed for evaluation of positive and negative effects of water diversion, demonstrating the effectiveness of clean water diversion and the necessity of pollution reduction.

Keywords: Assessment system, clean water diversion, hydrodynamic-water quality model, tidal river network, urban rivers, water environment improvement.

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746 Effects of Polluted Water on the Metallic Water Pipelines

Authors: Abdul-Khaliq M. Hussain, Bashir A. Tantosh, El-Sadeg A. Abdalla

Abstract:

Corrosion of metallic water pipelines buried below ground surface is a function of the nature of the surrounding soil and groundwater. This gives the importance of knowing the physical and chemical characteristics of the pipe-s surrounding environment. The corrosion of externally – unprotected metallic water pipelines, specially ductile iron pipes, in localities with aggressive soil conditions is becoming a significant problem. Anticorrosive protection for metallic water pipelines, their fittings and accessories is very important, because they may be attached by corrosion with time. The tendency of a metallic substrate to corrode is a function of the surface characteristics of the metal and of the metal/protective film interface, the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of the film, and the nature of the environment in which the pipelines system is placed. In this work the authors have looked at corrosion problems of water pipelines and their control. The corrosive properties of groundwater and soil environments are reviewed, and parameters affecting corrosion are discussed. The purpose of this work is to provide guidelines for materials selection in water and soil environments, and how the water pipelines can be protected against metallic corrosion.

Keywords: Corrosion, Drinking Water, Metallic WaterPipelines, Polluted Water.

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745 Optimal Water Allocation: Sustainable Management of Dam Reservoir

Authors: Afshin Jahangirzadeh, Shatirah Akib, Babak Kamali, Sadia Rahman

Abstract:

Scarcity of water resources and huge costs of establishing new hydraulic installations necessitate optimal exploitation from existing reservoirs. Sustainable management and efficient exploitation from existing finite water resources are important factors in water resource management, particularly in the periods of water insufficiency and in dry regions, and on account of competitive allocations in the view of exploitation management. This study aims to minimize reservoir water release from a determined rate of demand. A numerical model for water optimal exploitation has been developed using GAMS introduced by the World Bank and applied to the case of Meijaran dam, northern Iran. The results indicate that this model can optimize the function of reservoir exploitation while required water for lower parts of the region will be supplied. Further, allocating optimal water from reservoir, the optimal rate of water allocated to any group of the users were specified to increase benefits in curve dam exploitation.

Keywords: Water resource management, water reservoirs, water allocation, GAMS, Meijaran dam

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744 Water Management Scheme: Panacea to Development Using Nigeria’s University of Ibadan Water Supply Scheme as a Case Study

Authors: Sunday Olufemi Adesogan

Abstract:

The supply of potable water at least is a very important index in national development. Water tariffs depend on the treatment cost which carries the highest percentage of the total operation cost in any water supply scheme. In order to keep water tariffs as low as possible, treatment costs have to be minimized. The University of Ibadan, Nigeria, water supply scheme consists of a treatment plant with three distribution stations (Amina way, Kurumi and Lander) and two raw water supply sources (Awba dam and Eleyele dam). An operational study of the scheme was carried out to ascertain the efficiency of the supply of potable water on the campus to justify the need for water supply schemes in tertiary institutions. The study involved regular collection, processing and analysis of periodic operational data. Data collected include supply reading (water production on daily basis) and consumers metered reading for a period of 22 months (October 2013 - July 2015), and also collected, were the operating hours of both plants and human beings. Applying the required mathematical equations, total loss was determined for the distribution system, which was translated into monetary terms. Adequacies of the operational functions were also determined. The study revealed that water supply scheme is justified in tertiary institutions. It was also found that approximately 10.7 million Nigerian naira (N) is lost to leakages during the 22-month study period; the system’s storage capacity is no longer adequate, especially for peak water production. The capacity of the system as a whole is insufficient for the present university population and that the existing water supply system is not being operated in an optimal manner especially due to personnel, power and system ageing constraints.

Keywords: Operational, efficiency, production, supply, water treatment plant, water loss.

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743 Sources of Water Supply and Water Quality for Local Consumption: The Case Study of Eco-Tourism Village, Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality, Ampawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Paiboon Jeamponk, Tasanee Ponglaa, Patchapon Srisanguan

Abstract:

The aim of this research paper was based on an examination of sources of water supply and water quality for local consumption, conducted at eco- tourism villages of Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province. The study incorporated both questionnaire and field work of water testing as the research tool and method. The sample size of 288 households was based on the population of the district, whereas the selected sample water sources were from 60 households: 30 samples were ground water and another 30 were surface water. Degree of heavy metal contamination in the water including copper, iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium and lead was investigated utilizing the Atomic Absorption- Direct Aspiration method. The findings unveiled that 96.0 percent of household water consumption was based on water supply, while the rest on canal, river and rain water. The household behavior of consumption revealed that 47.2 percent of people routinely consumed water without boiling or filtering prior to consumption. The investigation of water supply quality found that the degree of heavy metal contamination including metal, lead, iron, copper, manganese and cadmium met the standards of the Department of Health.

Keywords: Sources of water supply, water quality, water supply.

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742 A Relationship between Expectation (Before) and Satisfaction (After) Receiving Services of Thai Consumers from Domestic Low-Cost Airlines

Authors: Sittichai Charoensettasilp, Chong Wu

Abstract:

This study employs sampling of 400 Thai people who live in Bangkok and have used air transportation to travel. A random convenience sampling technique is used to collect data. The results found that at 0.05 significance level the differences of means of Thai consumers’ expectations (before) and satisfaction (after) receiving services in the service marketing mix, the results of all aspects are different both in general and for each aspect of the service marketing mix. Average levels of expectations before receiving services are higher than satisfaction after receiving services in all aspects, as well. When analyzing further to the correlation between average means, the means of expectations before receiving services are higher than those of satisfaction after receiving services in general. As in all aspects of the service marketing mix, any aspect that has a big difference between expectations before receiving services and satisfaction after receiving services has low correlation.

Keywords: Domestic Low-Cost Airlines, Expectation Before Receiving Services, Relationship, Satisfaction After Receiving Services, Thai Consumers.

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741 Evaluation of Water Quality for the Kurtbogazi Dam Outlet and the Streams Feeding the Dam in Ankara, Turkey

Authors: G. Tozsin, F. Bakir, C. Acar, E. Koç

Abstract:

Kurtbogazi Dam has gained special meaning for Ankara, Turkey for the last decade due to the rapid depletion of nearby resources of drinking water. In this study, the results of the analyses of Kurtbogazi Dam outlet water and the rivers flowing into the Kurtbogazi Dam were discussed for the period of last five years between 2008 and 2012. Some physical and chemical properties (pH, temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrate, phosphate and chlorine) of these water resources were evaluated. They were classified according to the Council Directive (75/440/EEC). Moreover, the properties of these surface waters were assessed to determine the quality of water for drinking and irrigation purposes using Piper, US Salinity Laboratory and Wilcox diagrams. The results showed that all the water resources are acceptable level as surface water except for Pazar Stream in terms of ortho-phosphate and BOD5 concentration for 2008.

Keywords: Kurtbogazi dam, water quality assessment, Ankara water, water supply.

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740 Sweet Corn Water Productivity under Several Deficit Irrigation Regimes Applied during Vegetative Growth Stage using Treated Wastewater as Water Irrigation Source

Authors: Hirich A., Rami A., Laajaj K., Choukr-Allah R., Jacobsen S-E., El youssfi L., El Omari H.

Abstract:

Yield and Crop Water Productivity are crucial issues in sustainable agriculture, especially in high-demand resource crops such as sweet corn. This study was conducted to investigate agronomic responses such as plant growth, yield and soil parameters (EC and Nitrate accumulation) to several deficit irrigation treatments (100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of ETm) applied during vegetative growth stage, rainfed treatment was also tested. The finding of this research indicates that under deficit irrigation during vegetative growth stage applying 75% of ETm lead to increasing of 19.4% in terms of fresh ear yield, 9.4% in terms of dry grain yield, 10.5% in terms of number of ears per plant, 11.5% for the 1000 grains weight and 19% in terms of crop water productivity compared with fully irrigated treatment. While those parameters in addition to root, shoot and plant height has been affected by deficit irrigation during vegetative growth stage when increasing water stress degree more than 50% of ETm.

Keywords: Leaf area, yield, crop water productivity, water saving

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739 Assessment of Water Resources and Inculcation of Controlled Water Consumption System

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Vajha Neidze, Nana Kvirkvelia, Tamar Chichinadze

Abstract:

Deficiency of fresh water is a vital global problem today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia has signed the association agreement with Euro Union last year where the priority spheres of cooperation are the management of water resources, development of trans-boundary approach to the problem and active participation in the “Euro Union water initiative” component of “the East Europe, Caucasus and the Central Asia”. Fresh water resources are the main natural wealth of Georgia. According to the average water layer height, Georgia is behind such European countries only as Norway, Switzerland and Austria. The annual average water provision of Georgia is 4-8 times higher than in its neighbor countries Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite abundant water resources in Georgia, there is considerable discrepancy between their volume and use in some regions because of the uneven territorial distribution. In the East Georgia, water supply of the territory and population is four times less than in the West Georgia.

Keywords: GIS, sociological survey, water consumption, water resources.

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738 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries

Authors: W. Mughees, M. Al-Ahmad, M. Naeem

Abstract:

This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.

Keywords: Minimization, Water Pinch, Water Management, Pollution Prevention.

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737 Quantifying the UK’s Future Thermal Electricity Generation Water Use: Regional Analysis

Authors: Daniel Murrant, Andrew Quinn, Lee Chapman

Abstract:

A growing population has led to increasing global water and energy demand. This demand, combined with the effects of climate change and an increasing need to maintain and protect the natural environment, represents a potentially severe threat to many national infrastructure systems. This has resulted in a considerable quantity of published material on the interdependencies that exist between the supply of water and the thermal generation of electricity, often known as the water-energy nexus. Focusing specifically on the UK, there is a growing concern that the future availability of water may at times constrain thermal electricity generation, and therefore hinder the UK in meeting its increasing demand for a secure, and affordable supply of low carbon electricity. To provide further information on the threat the water-energy nexus may pose to the UK’s energy system, this paper models the regional water demand of UK thermal electricity generation in 2030 and 2050. It uses the strategically important Energy Systems Modelling Environment model developed by the Energy Technologies Institute. Unlike previous research, this paper was able to use abstraction and consumption factors specific to UK power stations. It finds that by 2050 the South East, Yorkshire and Humber, the West Midlands and North West regions are those with the greatest freshwater demand and therefore most likely to suffer from a lack of resource. However, it finds that by 2050 it is the East, South West and East Midlands regions with the greatest total water (fresh, estuarine and seawater) demand and the most likely to be constrained by environmental standards.

Keywords: Water-energy nexus, water resources, abstraction, climate change, power station cooling.

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736 A Water Reuse System in Wetland Paddy Supports the Growing Industrial Water Needs

Authors: Yu-Chuan Chang, Chen Shi-Kai

Abstract:

A water reuse system in wetland paddy was simulated to supply water for industrial in this paper. A two-tank model was employed to represent the return flow of the wetland paddy.Historical data were performed for parameter estimation and model verification. With parameters estimated from the data, the model was then used to simulate a reasonable return flow rate from the wetland paddy. The simulation results show that the return flow ratio was 11.56% in the first crop season and 35.66% in the second crop season individually; the difference may result from the heavy rainfall in the second crop season. Under the existent pond with surplus active capacity, the water reuse ratio was 17.14%, and the water supplementary ratio was 21.56%. However, the pattern of rainfall, the active capacity of the pond, and the rate of water treatment limit the volume of reuse water. Increasing the irrigation water, dredging the depth of pond before rainy season and enlarging the scale of module are help to develop water reuse system to support for the industrial water use around wetland paddy.

Keywords: Return flow, water reuse, wetland paddy, return flow ratio (RR), water reuse ratio (WRR), water supplementary ratio(WSR)

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735 Conversion of Mechanical Water Pump to Electric Water Pump for a CI Engine

Authors: K. Arunachalam, P. Mannar Jawahar

Abstract:

Presently, engine cooling pump is driven by toothed belt. Therefore, the pump speed is dependent on engine speed which varies their output. At normal engine operating conditions (Higher RPM and low load, Higher RPM and high load), mechanical water pumps in existing engines are inevitably oversized and so the use of an electric water pump together with state-of-the-art thermal management of the combustion engine has measurable advantages. Demand-driven cooling, particularly in the cold-start phase, saves fuel (approx 3 percent) and leads to a corresponding reduction in emissions. The lack of dependence on a mechanical drive also results in considerable flexibility in component packaging within the engine compartment. This paper describes the testing and comparison of existing mechanical water pump with that of the electric water pump. When the existing mechanical water pump is replaced with the new electric water pump the percentage gain in system efficiency is also discussed.

Keywords: Cooling system, Electric water pump, Mechanical water pump.

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