Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 97

Search results for: Fars province

97 Study of Temperature Changes in Fars Province

Authors: A. Gandomkar, R. Dehghani

Abstract:

Climate change is a phenomenon has been based on the available evidence from a very long time ago and now its existence is very probable. The speed and nature of climate parameters changes at the middle of twentieth century has been different and its quickness more than the before and its trend changed to some extent comparing to the past. Climate change issue now regarded as not only one of the most common scientific topic but also a social political one, is not a new issue. Climate change is a complicated atmospheric oceanic phenomenon on a global scale and long-term. Precipitation pattern change, fast decrease of snowcovered resources and its rapid melting, increased evaporation, the occurrence of destroying floods, water shortage crisis, severe reduction at the rate of harvesting agricultural products and, so on are all the significant of climate change. To cope with this phenomenon, its consequences and events in which public instruction is the most important but it may be climate that no significant cant and effective action has been done so far. The present article is included a part of one surrey about climate change in Fars. The study area having annually mean temperature 14 and precipitation 320 mm .23 stations inside the basin with a common 37 year statistical period have been applied to the meteorology data (1974-2010). Man-kendal and change factor methods are two statistical methods, applying them, the trend of changes and the annual mean average temperature and the annual minimum mean temperature were studied by using them. Based on time series for each parameter, the annual mean average temperature and the mean of annual maximum temperature have a rising trend so that this trend is clearer to the mean of annual maximum temperature.

Keywords: Climate change, Coefficient Variation, Fars province, Man-Kendal method.

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96 An Assessment of Groundwater Crisis in Iran Case Study: Fars Province

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Hojjati , Fardin Boustani

Abstract:

Groundwater is one of the most important water resources in Fars province. Based on this study, 95 percent of the total annual water consumption in Fars is used for agriculture, whereas the percentages for domestic and industrial uses are 4 and 1 percent, respectively. Population growth, urban and industrial growth, and agricultural development in Fars have created a condition of water stress. In this province, farmers and other users are pumping groundwater faster than its natural replenishment rate, causing a continuous drop in groundwater tables and depletion of this resource. In this research variation of groundwater level , their effects and ways to help control groundwater levels in some plains of Fars were evaluated .Excessive exploitation of groundwater in Darab, Jahrom, Estahban, Arsanjan, Khir and Niriz plains of Fars caused the groundwater levels fall too fast or to unacceptable levels. The average drawdown of the water table in Arsanjan, Khir. Estahban and Niriz plain plains were 12,8, 9 and 6 meters during 16,11,11 and 13 years ago respectively. This not only reduces available water resources and well yields but also can saline water intrusion, reductions in river flow and in wetland areas , drying springs, and ground subsidence, considerable increase in pumping costs and a significant decline in crop yields as a result of the increasing salinity. Finally based on situation and condition of the aquifer some suggestions are recommended.

Keywords: Fars province , ground water overdraft , water table

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95 Studying the Trend of Drought in Fars Province (Iran) using SPI Method

Authors: A. Gandomkar, R. Dehghani

Abstract:

Drought is natural and climate phenomenon and in fact server as a part of climate in an area and also it has significant environmental, social ,and economic consequences .drought differs from the other natural disasters from this viewpoint that it s a creeping phenomenon meaning that it progresses little and its difficult to determine the time of its onset and termination .most of the drought definitions are on based on precipitation shortage and consequently ,the shortage of water some of the activities related to the water such as agriculture In this research ,drought condition in Fars province was evacuated using SPI method within a 37 year – statistical –period(1974-2010)and maps related to the drought were prepared for each of the statistical period years. According to the results obtained from this research, the years 1974, 1976, 1975, 1982 with SPI (-1.03, 0.39, -1.05, -1.49) respectively, were the doughiest years and 1996,1997,2000 with SPI (2.49, 1.49, 1.46, 1.04) respectively, the most humid within the studying time series and the rest are in more normal conditions in the term of drought.

Keywords: Fars Province, Drought, SPI Method, Time Series

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94 Investigating Climate Change Trend Based on Data Simulation and IPCC Scenario during 2010-2030 AD: Case Study of Fars Province

Authors: Leila Rashidian, Abbas Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The development of industrial activities, increase in fossil fuel consumption, vehicles, destruction of forests and grasslands, changes in land use, and population growth have caused to increase the amount of greenhouse gases especially CO2 in the atmosphere in recent decades. This has led to global warming and climate change. In the present paper, we have investigated the trend of climate change according to the data simulation during the time interval of 2010-2030 in the Fars province. In this research, the daily climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and number of sunny hours during the 1977-2008 time interval for synoptic stations of Shiraz and Abadeh and during 1995-2008 for Lar stations and also the output of HADCM3 model in 2010-2030 time interval have been used based on the A2 propagation scenario. The results of the model show that the average temperature will increase by about 1 degree centigrade and the amount of precipitation will increase by 23.9% compared to the observational data. In conclusion, according to the temperature increase in this province, the amount of precipitation in the form of snow will be reduced and precipitations often will occur in the form of rain. This 1-degree centigrade increase during the season will reduce production by 6 to 10% because of shortening the growing period of wheat.

Keywords: Climate change, Lars.WG, HADCM3 model, Fars province, climatic parameters, A2 scenario.

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93 Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Serpentinite-Derived Ni-Bearing Laterites from Fars Province, Iran: Implications for the Lateritization Process and Classification of Ni-Laterites

Authors: S. Rasti, M. A. Rajabzadeh

Abstract:

Nickel-bearing laterites occur as two parallel belts along Sedimentary Zagros Orogenic (SZO) and Metamorphic Sanandaj-Sirjan (MSS) petrostructural zones, Fars Province, south Iran. An undisturbed vertical profile of these laterites includes protolith, saprolite, clay, and oxide horizons from base to top. Highly serpentinized harzburgite with relicts of olivine and orthopyroxene is regarded as the source rock. The laterites are unusual in lacking a significant saprolite zone with little development of Ni-silicates. Hematite, saponite, dolomite, smectite and clinochlore increase, while calcite, olivine, lizardite and chrysotile decrease from saprolite to oxide zones. Smectite and clinochlore with minor calcite are the major minerals in clay zone. Contacts of different horizons in laterite profiles are gradual and characterized by a decrease in Mg concentration ranging from 18.1 to 9.3 wt.% in oxide and saprolite, respectively. The maximum Ni concentration is 0.34 wt.% (NiO) in the base of the oxide zone, and goethite is the major Ni-bearing phase. From saprolite to oxide horizons, Al2O3, K2O, TiO2, and CaO decrease, while SiO2, MnO, NiO, and Fe2O3 increase. Silica content reaches up to 45 wt.% in the upper part of the soil profile. There is a decrease in pH (8.44-8.17) and an increase in organic matter (0.28-0.59 wt.%) from base to top of the soils. The studied laterites are classified in the oxide clans which were derived from ophiolite ultramafic rocks under Mediterranean climate conditions.

Keywords: Iran, laterite, mineralogy, ophiolite.

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92 Molecular and Serological Diagnosis of Newcastle and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Broiler in Chicken in Fars Province, Iran

Authors: Mohammadjavad Mehrabanpour, Maryam Ranjbar Bushehri, Dorsa Mehrabanpour

Abstract:

Respiratory diseases are the most important problems in the country’s poultry industry, particularly when it comes to broiler flocks. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a species that causes poor performance in growth rate, egg production, and mortality. This pathogen causes a respiratory infection including pulmonary alveolar inflammation, and pneumonia of birds throughout the world. Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease in poultry, and also, it causes considerable losses to the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous occurrence of ORT and ND and NDV isolation by inoculation in embryonated eggs and confirmed by RT-PCR in broiler chicken flocks in Fars province. In this study, 318 blood and 85 tissue samples (brain, trachea, liver, and cecal tonsils) were collected from 15 broiler chicken farms. Survey serum antibody titers against ORT by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit performed. Evaluation of antibody titer against ND virus is performed by hemagglutination inhibition test. Virus isolation with chick embryo eggs 9-11 and RT-PCR method were carried out. A total of 318 serum samples, 135 samples (42.5%) were positive for antibodies to ORT and titer of HI antibodies against NDV in 122 serum samples (38/4%) were 7-10 (log2) and 61 serum samples (19/2%) had occurrence antibody titer against Newcastle virus and ORT. Results of the present study indicated that 20 tissue samples were positive in embryonated egg and in rapid hemagglutination (HA) test. HI test with specific ND positive serum confirmed that 6 of 20 samples. PCR confirmed that all six samples were positive and PCR products of samples indicated 535-base pair fragments in electrophrosis. Due to the great economic importance of these two diseases in the poultry industry, it is necessary to design and implement a comprehensive plan for prevention and control of these diseases.

Keywords: ELISA, Newcastle disease, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, seroprevalence.

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91 Vibration Analysis of Gas Turbine SIEMENS 162MW - V94.2 Related to Iran Power Plant Industry in Fars Province

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Vibration analysis of most critical equipment is considered as one of the most challenging activities in preventive maintenance. Utilities are heart of the process in big industrial plants like petrochemical zones. Vibration analysis methods and condition monitoring systems of these kinds of equipments are developed too much in recent years. On the other hand, there are too much operation factors like inlet and outlet pressures and temperatures that should be monitored. In this paper, some of the most effective concepts and techniques related to gas turbine vibration analysis are discussed. In addition, a gas turbine SIEMENS 162MW - V94.2 vibration case history related to Iran power industry in Fars province is explained. Vibration monitoring system and machinery technical specification are introduced. Besides, absolute and relative vibration trends, turbine and compressor orbits, Fast Fourier transform (FFT) in absolute vibrations, vibration modal analysis, turbine and compressor start up and shut down conditions, bode diagrams for relative vibrations, Nyquist diagrams and waterfall or three-dimensional FFT diagrams in startup and trip conditions are discussed with relative graphs. Furthermore, Split Resonance in gas turbines is discussed in details. Moreover, some updated vibration monitoring system, blade manufacturing technique and modern damping mechanism are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Gas turbine, turbine compressor, vibration data collector, utility, condition monitoring, non-contact probe, Relative Vibration, Absolute Vibration, Split Resonance, Time Wave Form (TWF), Fast Fourier transform (FFT).

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90 Marketing Mix for Tourism in the Chonburi Province

Authors: Pisit Potjanajaruwit

Abstract:

The objectives of the study were to determine the marketing mix factors that influencing tourist’s destination decision making for cultural tourism in the Chonburi province. Both quantitative and qualitative data were applied in this study. The samples of 400 cases for quantitative analysis were tourists (both Thai and foreign) who were interested in cultural tourism in the Chonburi province, and traveled to cultural sites in Chonburi and 14 representatives from provincial tourism committee of Chonburi and local tourism experts. Statistics utilized in this research included frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and multiple regression analysis. The study found that Thai and foreign tourists are influenced by different important marketing mix factors. The important factors for Thai respondents were physical evidence, price, people, and place at high importance level. For foreign respondents, physical evidence, price, people, and process were high importance level, whereas, product, place and promotion were moderate importance level.

Keywords: Chonburi Province, Decision Making for cultural tourism, Marketing Mixed.

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89 The Study of Using Mon Dance in Pathum Thani Province’s Tradition

Authors: Dusittorn Ngamying

Abstract:

This investigation is focused on using of Mon dance in Pathum Thani Province’s tradition and has the following objectives: 1) to study the background of Mon dance in Pathum Thani Province; 2) to study Mon dance in Pathum Thani Province; and 3) to study of using Mon dance in Pathum Thani province’s tradition. This qualitative research was conducted in Pathum Thani province (in the central of Thailand). Data was collected from documentary study and field data by means of observation, interview, and group discussion. Workshops were also held with a total of 100 attendees, comprised of 20 key informants, 40 casual informants and 40 general informants. Data was validated using the triangulation technique and the findings are presented using the descriptive analysis. The results of the study show that the historical background of Mon dance in Pathum Thani Province initiated during the war evacuation from Martaban (south of Burma) to settle down in Sam Khok, Pathum Thani Province in Ayutthaya period to Rattanakosin. The study found that Mon dance typically consists of 12-13 dancing process. The melodies have 12-13 songs. Piphat Mon (Mon traditional music ensemble) is used in the performance. Performers are dressed in Mon traditional costumes. The performers are 6-12 women and depending on the employer’s demands. Length of the performance varies from the duration of music orchestration. Rituals and customs performed are paying homage to teachers before the performance. The offerings are composed of flowers, incense sticks, candles, money gifts which are well arranged on a tray with pedestal, and also liquors, tobaccos and pure water for asking propitiousness. For the use of Mon dance in Pathum Thani Province’s tradition, it is found that the dance is commonly performed in the funeral ceremonial tradition at present because the physical postures of the performance are considered graceful and exquisite. In addition, as for its value, it has long been believed since the ancient times that Mon dance was a sacred thing considered as the dignity and glorification especially for funeral ceremonies of priest or royal hierarchy classes. However, Mon dance has continued to be used in the traditions associated with Mon people activities in Pathum Thani Province for instance customary welcome for honor guest and Songkran festival.

Keywords: Mon dance, traditions, Pathum Thani Province.

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88 Human Capital and the Innovation System – Case Study of the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

Authors: Maria E. Eggink

Abstract:

Innovation plays an important role in economic growth and development. Evolutionary economics has entrepreneurs at the centre of the innovation system, but includes all other participants as contributors to the performance of the innovation system. Education and training institutions, one of the participants in the innovation system, contributes in different ways to human capital. The gap in literature on the competence building as part of human capital in the analysis of innovation systems is addressed in this paper. The Mpumalanga Province of South Africa is used as a case study. It was found that the absence of a university, the level of education, the quality and performance in the education sector and the condition of the education infrastructure have not been conducive to learning.

Keywords: Education institutions, human capital, innovation systems, Mpumalanga Province.

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87 Geochemistry of Tektites from Maoming of Guandong Province, China

Authors: Yung-Tan Lee, Ren-Yi Huang, Jyh-Yi Shih, Meng-Lung Lin, Yen-Tsui Hu, Hsiao-Ling Yu, Chih-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

We measured the major and trace element contents and Rb-Sr isotopic compositions of 12 tektites from the Maoming area, Guandong province (south China). All the samples studied are splash-form tektites which show pitted or grooved surfaces with schlieren structures on some surfaces. The trace element ratios Ba/Rb (avg. 4.33), Th/Sm (avg. 2.31), Sm/Sc (avg. 0.44), Th/Sc (avg. 1.01) , La/Sc (avg. 2.86), Th/U (avg. 7.47), Zr/Hf (avg. 46.01) and the rare earth elements (REE) contents of tektites of this study are similar to the average upper continental crust. From the chemical composition, it is suggested that tektites in this study are derived from similar parental terrestrial sedimentary deposit which may be related to post-Archean upper crustal rocks. The tektites from the Maoming area have high positive εSr(0) values-ranging from 176.9~190.5 which indicate that the parental material for these tektites have similar Sr isotopic compositions to old terrestrial sedimentary rocks and they were not dominantly derived from recent young sediments (such as soil or loess). The Sr isotopic data obtained by the present study support the conclusion proposed by Blum et al. (1992)[1] that the depositional age of sedimentary target materials is close to 170Ma (Jurassic). Mixing calculations based on the model proposed by Ho and Chen (1996)[2] for various amounts and combinations of target rocks indicate that the best fit for tektites from the Maoming area is a mixture of 40% shale, 30% greywacke, 30% quartzite.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Guandong province, South China, Tektites

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86 Studying the Effect of Climate Change on the Conditions of Isfahan-s Province Tourism

Authors: A.Gandomkar, F. Khorasanizadeh

Abstract:

Tourism is a phenomenon respected by the human communities since a long time ago. It has been evoloving continually based on a variety of social and economic needs and with respect to increasingly development of communication and considerable increase of tourist-s number and resulted exchange income has attained much out come such as employment for the communities. or the purpose of tourism development in this zone suitable times and locations need to be specified in the zone for the tourist-s attendance. One of the most important needs of the tourists is the knowledge of climate conditions and suitable times for sightseeing. In this survey, the climate trend condition has been identified for attending the tourists in Isfahan province using the modified tourism climate index (TCI) as well as SPSS, GIS, excel, surfer softwares. This index evoluates systematically the climate conditions for tourism affairs and activities using the monthly maximum mean parameters of daily temperature, daily mean temperature, minimum relative humidity, daily mean relative humidity, precipitation (mm), total sunny hours, wind speed and dust. The results obtaind using kendal-s correlation test show that the months January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December are significant and have an increasing trend that indicates the best condition for attending the tourists. S, P, T mean , T max and dust are estimated from 1976-2005 and do kendal-s correlation test again to see which parameter has been effective. Based on the test, we also observed on the effective parameters that the rate of dust in February, March, April, May, June, July, August, October and November is decreasing and precipitation in September and January is increasing and also the radiation rate in May and August is increasing that indicate a better condition of convenience. Maximum temperature in June is also decreasing. Isfahan province has two spring and fall peaks and the best places for tourism are in the north and western areas.

Keywords: Climate, Tourism, Correlation Test, Tourism Climate Index, Isfahan Province

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85 Seasonal Variations in Surface Water Quality, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sivapan Choo-In, Chaisri Tharasawatpipat, Srisuwan Kaseamsawat, Tatsanawalai Utarasakul

Abstract:

The research aims to study the quality of surface water for consumer in Samut Songkram province. Water sample were collected from 217 sampling sites conclude 72 sampling sites in Amphawa, 67 sampling sites in Bangkhonthee and 65 sampling sites in Muang. Water sample were collected in December 2011 for winter, March 2012 for summer and August 2012 for rainy season. From the investigation of surface water quality in Mae Klong River, main and tributaries canals in Samut Songkram province, we found that water quality meet the type III of surface water quality standard issued by the National Environmental Quality Act B.E. 1992. Seasonal variations of pH, Temperature, nitrate, lead and cadmium have statistical differences between 3 seasons.

Keywords: Samut Songkram Province, Surface water quality.

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84 Geochemistry of Cenozoic Basaltic Rocksaround Liuhe National Geopark, Jiangsu Province, Eastern China: Petrogenesis and Mantle Source

Authors: Yung-Tan Lee, Ren-Yi Huang, Ju-Chin Chen, Jyh-Yi Shih, Meng-Lung Lin, Hsiao-Ling Yu, Yen-Tsui Hu, Chih-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Cenozoic basalts found in Jiangsu province of eastern China include tholeiites and alkali basalts. The present paper analyzed the major, trace elements, rare earth elements of these Cenozoic basalts and combined with Sr-Nd isotopic compositions proposed by Chen et al. (1990)[1] in the literatures to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts and the geochemical characteristics of the source mantle. Based on major, trace elements and fractional crystallization model established by Brooks and Nielsen (1982)[2] we suggest that the basaltic magma has experienced olivine + clinopyroxene fractionation during its evolution. The chemical compositions of basaltic rocks from Jiangsu province indicate that these basalts may belong to the same magmatic system. Spidergrams reveal that Cenozoic basalts from Jiangsu province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts(OIB). The slight positive Nb and Ti anomalies found in basaltic rocks of this study suggest the presence of Ti-bearing minerals in the mantle source and these Ti-bearing minerals had contributed to basaltic magma during partial melting, indicating a metasomatic event might have occurred before the partial melting. Based on the Sr vs. Nd isotopic ratio plots, we suggest that Jiangsu basalts may be derived from partial melting of mantle source which may represent two-end members mixing of DMM and EM-I. Some Jiangsu basaltic magma may be derived from partial melting of EM-I heated by the upwelling asthenospheric mantle or asthenospheric diapirism.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Jiangsu Province, Cenozoic basalts, Fractional crystallization.

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83 Model of Appropriate Science Teaching for Mathayomsuksa 3 (Grade 9) in Ang-Thong Province

Authors: Lertlop, W

Abstract:

This research aims to study the appropriate model of Science teaching for students, academic achievement and to survey students- attitudes toward using appropriate for students in Mathayomsuksa 3 in Ang-Thong province. The research results were as follows: 1. The appropriate model of Science teaching for Mathayomsuksa 3 students in Ang-Thong province including these following five steps: Step 1. The introduction of the lessons. Step 2. Setting the hypothesis. Step 3. Doing the experiment /survey. Step 4. Making conclusion. Step 5. Applying to daily life or other subjects. 2. There is no significant difference between using appropriate model teaching and regular teaching at 0.05 level significant difference. 3. There is a significant difference between before and after teaching using appropriate model of Science teaching at 0.05 level. 4. The satisfaction of students- attitudes to using the appropriate model of Science teaching for students was in intermediate level.

Keywords: Pedagogy, science teaching model, Ang-Thong province.

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82 The Current Situation of Ang Thong Province’s Court Doll Distribution

Authors: P. Waiyawuththanapoom

Abstract:

This research is objected to study the pattern and channel of distribution of Ang Thong’s court doll OTOP product and try to develop the quality of distribution of the court doll product. The population of this research is 50 court doll manufacturers of Ang Thong’s court doll. The data and information was collected by using the questionnaire and use percentage, mean and standard deviation as an analysis tools. The distribution channel of Ang Thong’s court doll can be separated into 3 channels which are direct distribution from the manufacturer, via the middleman and via the co-operated manufacturing group. In the direct distribution from the manufacturer channel, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to how they keep the inventory. In the distribution via the middleman channel, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to the distribution efficiency. But in the distribution via the co-operated manufacturing group, it was found that the manufacturer is given the highest rate of importance to the public relationship.

Keywords: Distribution, Court Doll, Ang Thong Province.

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81 Effects of Global Warming on Climate Change in Udon Thani Province in the Period in 60 Surrounding Years (A.D.1951-2010)

Authors: T. Santiboon

Abstract:

This research were investigated, determined, and analyzed of the climate characteristically change in the provincial Udon Thani in the period of 60 surrounding years from 1951 to 2010 A.D. that it-s transferred to effects of climatologically data for determining global warming. Statistically significant were not found for the 60 years- data (R2<0.81). Statistically significant were found after adapted data followed as the Sun Spot cycle in 11 year periods, at the level 0.001 (R2= 1.00). These results indicate the Udon Thani-s weather are affected change; temperatures and evaporation were increased, but rainfall and number days of rainfall, cyclone storm, wind speed, and humidity, forest assessment were decreased. The effects of thermal energy from the sun radiation energy and human activities that they-re followed as the sunspot cycle are able to be predicted from the last to the future of the uniformitarian-s the climate change and global warming effect of the world.

Keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, Udon Thani Province Weather

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80 Study of the Process of Climate Change According to Data Simulation Using LARS-WG Software during 2010-2030: Case Study of Semnan Province

Authors: Leila Rashidian

Abstract:

Temperature rise on Earth has had harmful effects on the Earth's surface and has led to change in precipitation patterns all around the world. The present research was aimed to study the process of climate change according to the data simulation in future and compare these parameters with current situation in the studied stations in Semnan province including Garmsar, Shahrood and Semnan. In this regard, LARS-WG software, HADCM3 model and A2 scenario were used for the 2010-2030 period. In this model, climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and radiation were used daily. The obtained results indicated that there will be a 4.4% increase in precipitation in Semnan province compared with the observed data, and in general, there will be a 1.9% increase in temperature. This temperature rise has significant impact on precipitation patterns. Most of precipitation will be raining (torrential rains in some cases). According to the results, from west to east, the country will experience more temperature rise and will be warmer.

Keywords: Climate change, Semnan province, LARS-WG model, climate parameters, HADCM3 model.

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79 Determining the Best Method of Stability Landslide by Using of DSS (Case Study: Landslide in Hasan Salaran, Kurdistan Province in Iran)

Authors: S. Kamyabi, M. Salari, H. Shahabi

Abstract:

One of the processes of slope that occurs every year in Iran and some parts of world and cause a lot of criminal and financial harms is called landslide. They are plenty of method to stability landslide in soil and rock slides. The use of the best method with the least cost and in the shortest time is important for researchers. In this research, determining the best method of stability is investigated by using of Decision Support systems. DSS is made for this purpose and was used (for Hasan Salaran area in Kurdistan). Field study data from topography, slope, geology, geometry of landslide and the related features was used. The related data entered decision making managements programs (DSS) (ALES).Analysis of mass stability indicated the instability potential at present. Research results show that surface and sub surface drainage the best method of stabilizing. Analysis of stability shows that acceptable increase in security coefficient is a consequence of drainage.

Keywords: Landslide, Decision Support systems, stability, Hasan Salaran landslide, Kurdistan province, Iran.

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78 A Narrative of Monks: Culture Heroes in Songkhla Province

Authors: Kuntalee Vaitayavanich

Abstract:

This study aimed to look into roles of culture heroes of monks in Buddhism in Songkhla province during the last 50 years. Qualitative study, in-depth interviews, participatory observation and non-participatory observation were employed for this study.

The results of the study indicated that culture heroes in Songkhla province would act as the followings. 1) For secular matters, monks would do something beneficial to the community. 2) For religious matters, monks would behave to follow Buddhism discipline strictly and unambitiously. At the same time, monks would not neglect to teach Buddhists to give respect to Lord Buddha by doing meditation and praying. However, when some of those culture heroes passed away, villagers in the community would show gratitude and appreciation by arranging a religious death anniversary ceremony, having icon, or having narrative to recognize those, continuously.

Keywords: Narrative of Monks, Culture Heroes, Songkhla Province.

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77 Fresh Vegetable Supply Chain in Nakorn Pathom Province for Exporting

Authors: P. Waiyawuththanapoom, P. Tirastittam

Abstract:

Thailand is the agriculture country as the weather and geography are suitable for agriculture environment. In 2011, the quantity of exported fresh vegetable was 126,069 tons which valued 117.1 million US dollars. Although the fresh vegetable has a high potential in exporting, there also have a lack of knowledge such as chemical usage, land usage, marketing and also the transportation and logistics. Nakorn Pathom province is the area which the farmer and manufacturer of fresh vegetable located. The objectives of this study are to study the basic information of the local fresh vegetable farmers in Nakorn Pathom province, to study the factor which effects the management of the fresh vegetable supply chain in Nakorn Pathom province and to study the problems and obstacle of the fresh vegetable supply chain in Nakorn Pathom province. This study is limited to the flow of the Nakorn Pathom province fresh vegetable from the farmers to the country which import the vegetable from Thailand. The populations of this study are 100 local farmers in Nakorn Pathom province. The result of this study shows that the key process of the fresh vegetable supply chain is in the supply sourcing process and manufacturing process.

Keywords: Exporting, Fresh Vegetable, Nakorn Pathom Province, Supply Chain.

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76 The Behavior and Satisfaction of Tourists Affecting the Sustainable Tourism at the Amphawa Floating Market in Samut Songkhram Province

Authors: Chanpen Meenakorn

Abstract:

This research aims to study; (1) behavior of the tourists affecting the satisfaction level of tourism at the Amphawa floating market in Samut Songkhram province, (2) to study the satisfaction level of tourism at the Amphawa floating market. The research method will use quantitative research; data was collected by questionnaires distributed to the tourist who visits the Amphawa floating market for 480 samples. Data was analyzed by SPSS software to process descriptive statistic including frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic is t-test, F-test, and chi-square. The results showed that the behavior of tourists had known tourist attractions in the province comes from the mouth of relatives and friends suggested that he come here before and the reasons to visit is to want to pay homage to the various temples for the frequency to visit travel an average of 2-4 times and  the satisfaction of the tourists in the province found that the satisfaction level of tourists in the province at the significant level of the place, convenient  and services have a high level of satisfaction.

Keywords: Amphawa floating market behavior of the tourists, satisfaction level, sustainable tourism, Samut Songkhram province.

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75 High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy and Depositional Environment of Pabdeh Formation in Dashte – Arjan Area (Shiraz, Fars, Zagros, Iran)

Authors: Mirzaee Mahmoodabadi Reza, Afghah Massih, Saeedi Somaye

Abstract:

Pabdeh shaly formation (Paleocene-Oligomiocene) has been expanded in Fars, Khozestan and Lorestan. The lower lithostratigraphic limit of this formation in Shiraz area is distinguished from Gurpi formation by purple shale. Its upper limit is gradational and conformable with Asmari formation. In order to study sequence stratigraphy and microfacies of Pabdeh formation in Shiraz area, one stratigraphic section have been chosen (Zanjiran section). Petrographic studies resulted in the identification of 9 pelagic and calciturbidite microfacies. The calciturbidite microfacies have been formed when the sea level was high, the rate of carbonate deposition was high and it slumped into the deep marine. Sequence stratigraphy studies show that Pabdeh formation in the studied zone consists of two depositional sequences (DS) that the lower contact is erosional (purple shale - type one, SBI or type two, SB2) and the upper contact is correlative conformity (type two, SB2).

Keywords: Pabdeh formation, Shiraz, Microfacies, Purple Shale, Zanjiran Section, Sequence Stratigraphy

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74 The Quality of Working Life and the Organizational Commitment of Municipal Employee in Samut Sakhon Province

Authors: Mananya Meenakorn

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate: (1) Relationship between the quality of working life and organizational commitment of municipal employee in Samut Sakhon Province. (2) To compare the quality of working life and the organizational commitment of municipal employee in Samut Sakhon Province by the gender, age, education, official experience, position, division, and income. This study is a quantitative research; data was collected by questionnaires distributed to the municipal employee in Samut Sakhon province for 241 sample by stratified random sampling. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic including t-test, F-test and Pearson correlation for hypothesis testing. Finding showed that the quality of working life and the organizational commitment of municipal Employee in Samut Sakhon province in terms of compensation and fair has a positive correlation (r = 0.673) and the comparison of the quality of working life and organizational commitment of municipal employees in Samut Sakhon province by gender. We found that the overall difference was statistically significant at the 0.05 level and we also found stability and progress in career path and the characteristics are beneficial to society has a difference was statistically significant at the 0.01 level, and the participation and social acceptance has a difference was statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Keywords: Quality of working life, organizational commitment, municipal employee, Samut Sakhon province.

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73 Forecasting Rainfall in Thailand: A Case Study of Nakhon Ratchasima Province

Authors: N. Sopipan

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the rainfall using a time series for weather stations in Nakhon Ratchasima province in Thailand by various statistical methods to enable us to analyse the behaviour of rainfall in the study areas. Time-series analysis is an important tool in modelling and forecasting rainfall. The ARIMA and Holt-Winter models were built on the basis of exponential smoothing. All the models proved to be adequate. Therefore it is possible to give information that can help decision makers establish strategies for the proper planning of agriculture, drainage systems and other water resource applications in Nakhon Ratchasima province. We obtained the best performance from forecasting with the ARIMA Model(1,0,1)(1,0,1)12.

Keywords: ARIMA Models, Exponential Smoothing, Holt- Winter model.

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72 Analysis and Modeling of Stresses and Creeps Resulting from Soil Mechanics in Southern Plains of Kerman Province

Authors: Kourosh Nazarian

Abstract:

Many of the engineering materials, such as behavioral metals, have at least a certain level of linear behavior. It means that if the stresses are doubled, the deformations would be also doubled. In fact, these materials have linear elastic properties. Soils do not follow this law, for example, when compressed, soils become gradually tighter. On the surface of the ground, the sand can be easily deformed with a finger, but in high compressive stresses, they gain considerable hardness and strength. This is mainly due to the increase in the forces among the separate particles. Creeps also deform the soils under a constant load over time. Clay and peat soils have creep behavior. As a result of this phenomenon, structures constructed on such soils will continue their collapse over time. In this paper, the researchers analyzed and modeled the stresses and creeps in the southern plains of Kerman province in Iran through library-documentary, quantitative and software techniques, and field survey. The results of the modeling showed that these plains experienced severe stresses and had a collapse of about 26 cm in the last 15 years and also creep evidence was discovered in an area with a gradient of 3-6 degrees.

Keywords: Stress, creep, surface runoff.

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71 A Development of OTOP Web Application: In Case of Samut Songkhram Province

Authors: Satien Janpla, Kunyanuth Kularbphettong

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the development of a web‑based system to serve the need of selling OTOP products in Samut Songkhram, Thailand. This system was designed to promote and sell OTOP products on Web site. We describe the design approaches and functional components of this system. The system was developed by PHP and JavaScript and MySQL database System. To evaluate the system performance, questionnaires were used to measure user satisfaction with system usability by specialists and users. The results were satisfactory as followed: Means for specialists and users were 4.05 and 3.97, and standard deviation for specialists and users were 0.563 and 0.644 respectively. Further analysis showed that the quality of One Tambon One Product (OTOP) Website was also at a good level as well.

Keywords: Web-based system, OTOP, product.

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70 The Innovation of English Materials to Communicate the Identity of Bangpoo, Samut Prakan Province, for Ecotourism

Authors: Kitda Praraththajariya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research was to study how to communicate the identity of the Bangpoo, Samu tPrakan province for ecotourism. The qualitative data was collected through studying related materials, exploring the area, in-depth interviews with three groups of people: three directly responsible officers who were key informants of the district, twenty foreign tourists and five Thai tourist guides. A content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. The two main findings of the study were as follows:

  1. The identity of Bangpoo, Samut Prakan province. This establishment was near the Mouth of the Gulf of Thailand for normal people and tourists, consisting of rest accommodations. There are restaurants where food and drinks are served, rich mangrove forests, Banpoo seaside resort and mangrove trees. Bangpoo seaside resort is characterized by muddy beacheswhere the greatest number of seagulls can be seen from March to May each year.
  2. The communication of the identity of Bangpoo, Samut Prakan province which the researcher could find and design to present in English materials can be summed up in 3 items: 1) The history of Bangpoo, Samut Prakan province 2) The Learning center of Ecotourism: Seagulls and Mangrove forest 3) How to keep Banpoo, Samut Prakran province for ecotourism.

Keywords: Foreigner tourists, signified, semiotics, ecotourism.

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69 Some Biological and Molecular Characterization of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus Isolated from Soybean in Tehran Province, Iran

Authors: F. S. Abtahi, M. Koohi Hbibi, M. Khodaei Motlagh

Abstract:

Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is a potyvirus with a worldwide distribution. This virus causes serious economic losses in Iran in many leguminoses. During 20008, samples were collected from soybeans fields in Tehran Province. Four isolates (S1, S2 and S3) were inoculated on 15 species of Cucurbitaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Solanacae and Leguminosae. Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor. Did not developed any symptoms.all isolates caused mosaic symptoms on Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Kidney and P. vulgaris cv. Bountiful. The molecular weights of coat protein using SDS-PAGE and western blotting were estimated at 33 kDa. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using one primer pairs designed by L. XU et al. An approximately 920 bp fragment was amplified with a specific primer.

Keywords: ELISA, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE, BCMNV.

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68 Production Offset Inks, Solvent Base with Coconut Oil of Samut Songkhram Province for the Environment

Authors: Krairop Charoensopa, Weera Chotethammaporn

Abstract:

This research aimed to produce offset printing inks from Samut Songkram’s coconut oil and to test properties of the printing inks comparing with commercial offset printing inks. One of the ingredients in the process of mixing varnish is coconut oil – used to produce black offset printing inks which were the subject of testing issues in order to compare with commercial offset printing inks. Based on the results of research, the best formula for mixing varnish was 50% of coconut oil, 36% of phenolic resin, and 14% of solvent oil. At the same time, the best formula in producing black offset inks was mixing varnish with 20% of coconut oil 20%. Consequently, the result of testing of properties of coconut oil based solvent offset printing inks regarding viscosity, tack and ink flow, showed that offset printing inks with oil based solvent had the properties less than commercial offset printing ink. Additionally, the result of testing also indicate that the rate of properties in aspects of ink spread and setting time of coconut oil based solvent offset printing were higher than that of commercial offset printing inks.

Keywords: Offset Printing Inks, Varnish Oil.

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