Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1054

Search results for: Cellular fatty acid methyl esters

1054 An Advanced Approach Based on Artificial Neural Networks to Identify Environmental Bacteria

Authors: Mauro Giacomini, Stefania Bertone, Federico Caneva Soumetz, Carmelina Ruggiero

Abstract:

Environmental micro-organisms include a large number of taxa and some species that are generally considered nonpathogenic, but can represent a risk in certain conditions, especially for elderly people and immunocompromised individuals. Chemotaxonomic identification techniques are powerful tools for environmental micro-organisms, and cellular fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) content is a powerful fingerprinting identification technique. A system based on an unsupervised artificial neural network (ANN) was set up using the fatty acid profiles of standard bacterial strains, obtained by gas-chromatography, used as learning data. We analysed 45 certified strains belonging to Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Aquaspirillum, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Enterobacter, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Shewanella and Vibrio genera. A set of 79 bacteria isolated from a drinking water line (AMGA, the major water supply system in Genoa) were used as an example for identification compared to standard MIDI method. The resulting ANN output map was found to be a very powerful tool to identify these fresh isolates.

Keywords: Cellular fatty acid methyl esters, environmental bacteria, gas-chromatography, unsupervised ANN.

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1053 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid

Abstract:

This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: Tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentation.

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1052 Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Using an Oscillatory Baffled Reactor

Authors: Malee Santikunaporn, Tattep Techopittayakul, Channarong Asavatesanupap

Abstract:

Biofuel production especially that of biodiesel has gained tremendous attention during the last decade due to environmental concerns and shortage in petroleum oil reservoir. This research aims to investigate the influences of operating parameters, such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, and 9:1) and the amount of catalyst (1, 1.5, and 2 wt.%) on the trans esterification of refined palm oil (RPO) in a medium-scale oscillatory baffle reactor.  It has been shown that an increase in the methanol-to-oil ratio resulted in an increase in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content. The amount of catalyst has an insignificant effect on the FAMEs content. Engine testing was performed on B0 (100 v/v% diesel) and blended fuel or B50 (50 v/v% diesel). Combustion of B50 was found to give lower torque compared to pure diesel. Exhaust gas from B50 was found to contain lower concentration of CO and CO2.

Keywords: Biodiesel, oscillatory baffled reactor, palm oil, transesterification, fatty acid methyl esters.

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1051 Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

Authors: F. Halek, A. Kavousi, M. Banifatemi

Abstract:

There is growing interest in biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester or FAME) because of the similarity in its properties when compared to those of diesel fuels. Diesel engines operated on biodiesel have lower emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and air toxics than when operated on petroleum-based diesel fuel. Production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed (nonedible oil) fatty acid distillate having high free fatty acids (FFA) was investigated in this work. Conditions for esterification process of rapeseed oil were 1.8 % H2SO4 as catalyst, MeOH/oil of molar ratio 2 : 0.1 and reaction temperature 65 °C, for a period of 3h. The yield of methyl ester was > 90 % in 1 h. The amount of FFA was reduced from 93 wt % to less than 2 wt % at the end of the esterification process. The FAME was pureed by neutralization with 1 M sodium hydroxide in water solution at a reaction temperature of 62 °C. The final FAME product met with the biodiesel quality standard, and ASTM D 6751.

Keywords: Alternative Fuels, Biodiesel, Fatty Acid, MethylEster, Seed Oil, Transesterification.

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1050 Modeling the Vapor Pressure of Biodiesel Fuels

Authors: O. Castellanos Díaz, F. Schoeggl, H. W. Yarranton, M. A. Satyro, T. M. Lovestead, T. J. Bruno

Abstract:

The composition, vapour pressure, and heat capacity of nine biodiesel fuels from different sources were measured. The vapour pressure of the biodiesel fuels is modeled assuming an ideal liquid phase of the fatty acid methyl esters constituting the fuel. New methodologies to calculate the vapour pressure and ideal gas and liquid heat capacities of the biodiesel fuel constituents are proposed. Two alternative optimization scenarios are evaluated: 1) vapour pressure only; 2) vapour pressure constrained with liquid heat capacity. Without physical constraints, significant errors in liquid heat capacity predictions were found whereas the constrained correlation accurately fit both vapour pressure and liquid heat capacity.

Keywords: Biodiesel fuels, Fatty acid methyl ester, Heat capacity, Modeling, Vapour pressure

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1049 Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Crude Palm Oil Using Alumina-Doped Sulfated Tin Oxide as a Catalyst

Authors: Worawoot Prasitturattanachai, Kamchai Nuithitikul

Abstract:

The conventional production of biodiesel from crude palm oil which contains large amounts of free fatty acids in the presence of a homogeneous base catalyst confronts the problems of soap formation and very low yield of biodiesel. To overcome these problems, free fatty acids must be esterified to their esters in the presence of an acid catalyst prior to alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. Sulfated metal oxides are a promising group of catalysts due to their very high acidity. In this research, aluminadoped sulfated tin oxide (SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2) catalysts were prepared and used for esterification of free fatty acids in crude palm oil in a batch reactor. The SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2 catalysts were prepared from different Al precursors. The results showed that different Al precursors gave different activities of the SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2 catalysts. The esterification of free fatty acids in crude palm oil with methanol in the presence of SO4 2-/Al2O3-SnO2 catalysts followed first-order kinetics.

Keywords: Methyl ester, Biodiesel, Esterification, Sulfated tin oxide, Fatty acid.

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1048 Quality Evaluation of Grape Seed Oils of the Ionian Islands Based on GC-MS and Other Spectroscopic Techniques

Authors: I. Oikonomou, I. Lappa, D. Daferera, C. Kanakis, L. Kiokakis, K. Skordilis, A. Avramouli, E. Kalli, C. Pappas, P. A. Tarantilis, E. Skotti

Abstract:

Grape seeds are waste products of wineries and often referred to as an important agricultural and industrial waste product with the potential to be used in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. In this study, grape seed oil from traditional Ionian varieties was examined for the determination of the quality and the characteristics of each variety. Initially, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, after transesterification. Furthermore, other quality parameters of the grape seed oils were determined by Spectroscopy techniques, UV-Vis and Raman included. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured by 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and their antioxidant capacity expressed in Trolox equivalents. K and ΔΚ indices were measured in 232, 268, 270 nm, as an oil quality index. The results indicate that the air-dried grape seed total oil content ranged from 5.26 to 8.77% w/w, which is in accordance with the other grape seed varieties tested in similar studies. The composition of grape seed oil is predominated with linoleic and oleic fatty acids, with the linoleic fatty acid ranging from 53.68 to 69.95% and both the linoleic and oleic fatty acids totaling 78-82% of FAMEs, which is analogous to the fatty acid composition of safflower oil. The antioxidant assays ABTS and DPPH scored high, exhibiting that the oils have potential in the cosmetic and culinary businesses. Above that, our results demonstrate that Ionian grape seed oils have prospects that can go further than cosmetic or culinary use, into the pharmaceuticals industry. Finally, the reclamation of grape seeds from wineries waste stream is in accordance with the bio-economy strategic framework and contributes to environmental protection.

Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, fatty acid methyl esters, grape seed oil, GC-MS.

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1047 Biological Characterization of the New Invasive Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana in Tunisia: Sabkhet Halk El-Menzel

Authors: Hachem Ben Naceur, Amel Ben Rejeb Jenhani, Mohamed Salah Romdhane

Abstract:

Endemic Artemia franciscana populations can be found throughout the American continent and also as an introduced specie in several country all over the world, such as in the Mediterranean region where Artemia franciscana was identified as an invasive specie replacing native Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia salina. In the present study, the characterization of the new invasive Artemia franciscana reported from Sabkhet Halk El-Menzel (Tunisia) was done based on the cysts biometry, nauplii instar-I length, Adult sexual dimorphism and fatty acid profile. The mean value of the diameter of non-decapsulated and decapsulated cysts, chorion thickness and naupliar length is 235.8, 226.3, 4.75 and 426.8 μm, respectively. Sexual dimorphism for adults specimen showed that maximal distance between compound eyes, diameter for compound eyes, length of first antenna and the abdomen length compared to the total body length ratio, are the most important variables for males and females discrimination with a total contribution of 62.39 %. The analysis of fatty acid methyl esters profile of decapsulated cysts resulted in low levels of linolenic acid (LLA, C18:3n-3) and high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) with 3.11 and 11.10 %, respectively. Low quantity of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) was also observed with 0.17 mg.g-1 dry weight.

Keywords: Invasive Artemia franciscana, biometry, sexualdimorphism, fatty acid, Tunisia.

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1046 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama

Abstract:

Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLC.

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1045 Fatty Acid Profile of Meat from Lambs Fed on Diets Containing Mulberry Hay

Authors: A. G. Silva Sobrinho, L. G. A. Cirne, V. T. Santana

Abstract:

The aim of this trial was to evaluate fatty acid profile of meat from lambs fed on diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty-four feedlot Ile de France lambs (average weight of 15kg and average age of 60 days) were randomized to receive the different diets and slaughtered at 32kg body weight. Increases were observed in the concentrations of the saturated pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic and arachidic fatty acids; of the monounsaturated nervonic fatty acid and of the polyunsaturated α-linolenic, ɣ-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids. Increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was also found in the meat of lambs fed on 12.5% mulberry hay. In addition, the omega-3 composition was augmented, while the omega-3/omega-6 ratio was decreased in mulberry hay-fed animals. In conclusion, a more desirable fatty acid profile was observed in lamb meat following the substitution of mulberry hay in the concentrate of fed, resulting in improved nutritional characteristics of the meat.

Keywords: Alternative food, fatty acids, feedlot, sheep meat.

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1044 Effect of Castration on CLA in Meat Goats

Authors: P. Paengkoum, T. Phonmun, S. Paengkoum

Abstract:

Twenty four male Thai native × Anglo-Nubian crossbred goats were randomly allocated to receive four treatments. The experiment was conducted for four months and slaughtered that the Longissimus dorsi muscle was collected for fatty acid analysis. The results conclude that either castrated method or ages had no significantly different on monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (P>0.05) except erucic acid (C22:1n9). Interaction between castrated method and ages had significantly different in MUFA (P<0.01). Although the effect of castration method and age are not difference on fatty acid composition, it contributed to known that difference castration method and age (surgical and budizzo) no effect on accumulation fatty acid in meat goats.

Keywords: Castration, goat, CLA, meat.

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1043 Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. Living in Different Dam Lake, Turkey

Authors: O. B. Citil, V. Sariyel, M. Akoz

Abstract:

In this study, total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. living in Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake were determined using GC. During this study, for the summer season of July was taken from each region of the land and they were stored in deep-freeze set to -20 degrees until the analysis date. At the end of the analyses, 30 different fatty acids were found in the composition of Cyprinus carpio L. which lives in different lakes. Cyprinus carpio Suğla Dam Lake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were higher than other lakes. Cyprinus carpio L. was the highest in the major SFA palmitic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in all lakes, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all lakes. Palmitic acid was the major SFA in all lakes. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the most abundant in all lakes. ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the percentage of the percentage ω6 fatty acids in all lake. ω3/ω6 rates of Cyprinus carpio L. Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake, 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in Eğirdir and Burdur lakes, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in Altinapa and Suğla Dam Lakes. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by different lakes.

Keywords: Chromatography, Cyprinus carpio L., fatty acid composition.

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1042 Fatty Acids Derivatives and Steroidal Saponins: Abundance in the Resistant Date Palm to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, Causal Agent of Bayoud Disease

Authors: R. Gaceb-Terrak, F. Rahmania

Abstract:

Takerbucht is the only cultivar of date palm known as being resistant to the bayoud disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (F.o.a.). In the aim to understand more about the defense mechanisms implied, we realized phytochemical analyses of this cultivar leaflets and roots and this, for the first time, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The examination of our results shows that fifty-four molecules have been detected, fourteen of which are common to leaflets and roots. This study revealed also the organs' richness in derivatives fatty acids: both saturated and unsaturated are represented mainly by methyl esters of Hexadecanoic and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acids. 1-Dodecanethiol, derivative Dodecanoic acid is only present in roots. It’s of great interest to note that the screening revealed the steroidal saponins abundance, among which Yamogenin acetate and Diosgenin, exclusively detected in Takerbucht. They may play an essential role, in the date palm resistance to the bayoud disease.

Keywords: Analysis by GC-MS, leaflets and roots of resistant date palm to F.o.a., derivatives fatty acids, steroidal saponins.

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1041 Inventory and Characterization of Selected Deep Sea Fish Species as an Alternative Food Source from Southern Java Ocean and Western Sumatra Ocean, Indonesia

Authors: S.H. Suseno, T.A.Yang, W.N. Abdullah , N.A. Febrianto, W.N. Asti, B. Bahtiar, Hamidah, A. Suman, Desniar, A. Hartoyo

Abstract:

Sixteen selected deep-sea fish obtained from Southern Java Ocean and Western Sumatra Ocean was analyzed to determine its proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition. The moisture content was ranged from 64.38 to 86.04 %, ash from 0.17 to 0.69 %, the fat content was 1.54 – 13.30 % while the protein content varied from 15.84 to 23.60%. Among the fatty acids, oleic acid and palmitic acid was the dominant MUFA and SFA. Linoleic acid was the highest PUFA found at the selected deep-sea fish. Phospor was the highest macroelement concentration on selected deep-sea fish, followed by K, Ca, Mg and Iod, Fe and Zn among microelement. The trace concentration was found at Se microelement.

Keywords: deep-sea fish, fatty acid, microelement, macroelement, monounsaturated fatty acid, proximate, polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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1040 Determination of Myocardial Function Using Heart Accumulated Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: C. C. D. Kulathilake, M. Jayatilake, T. Takahashi

Abstract:

The myocardium is composed of specialized muscle which relies mainly on fatty acid and sugar metabolism and it is widely contribute to the heart functioning. The changes of the cardiac energy-producing system during heart failure have been proved using autoradiography techniques. This study focused on evaluating sugar and fatty acid metabolism in myocardium as cardiac energy getting system using heart-accumulated radiopharmaceuticals. Two sets of autoradiographs of heart cross sections of Lewis male rats were analyzed and the time- accumulation curve obtained with use of the MATLAB image processing software to evaluate fatty acid and sugar metabolic functions.

Keywords: Autoradiographs, fatty acid, radiopharmaceuticals and sugar.

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1039 Used Frying Oil for Biodiesel Production Over Kaolinite as Catalyst

Authors: Jorge Ramírez-Ortiz, Jorge Medina-Valtierra, Merced Martínez Rosales

Abstract:

Biodiesel production with used frying by transesterification reaction with methanol, using a commercial kaolinite thermally-activated solid acid catalyst was investigated. The surface area, the average pore diameter and pore volume of the kaolinite catalyst were 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm and 30 mm3/g, respectively. The optimal conditions for the transesterification reaction were determined to be oil/methanol, in a molar ratio 1:31, temperature 160 ºC and catalyst concentration of 3% (w/w). The yield of fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) was 92.4% after 2 h of reaction. This method of preparation of biodiesel can be a positive alternative for utilizing used frying corn oil for feedstock of biodiesel combined with the inexpensive catalyst.

Keywords: Biodiesel, frying corn oil, kaolinite, transesterification

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1038 Comparison of Physico-Chemical Properties And Fatty Acid Compostion of Elateriospermum Tapos (Buah Perah), Palm Oil And Soybean Oil

Authors: Siti Hamidah, Lee Nian Yian, Azizi Mohd

Abstract:

Elateriospermum tapos seed (buah perah) is the one of the rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It contains high percentage of oleic acid which is the important component to develop nervous system and also α-linolenic acid (ALA) which is the precursor of omega-3 fatty acids series to synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, there is less study about this valuable oilseed and exploit its potential. Therefore, this paper is to assess the comparison of physico-chemical properties and fatty composition of perah oil to palm oil and soybean oil. From the comparison, perah oil shows low peroxide value means it has good oxidative stability and also high iodine values shows that it can be used in paint industry. The study shown that perah oil is comparable to palm oil and soybean oil, so it has high potential to be exploited in the oleochemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and paint industries.

Keywords: α-linolenic acid, palm oil, perah oil, soybean oil

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1037 Intensification of Ethyl Esters Synthesis Using a Packed-Bed Tubular Reactor at Supercritical Conditions

Authors: Camila da Silva, Simone Belorte de Andrade, Vitor Augusto dos Santos Garcia, Vladimir Ferreira Cabral, J. Vladimir Oliveira Lúcio Cardozo-Filho

Abstract:

In the present study, the non-catalytic transesterification of soybean oil in continuous mode using supercritical ethanol were investigated. Experiments were performed in a packed-bed tubular reactor (PBTR) and variable studied were reaction temperature (523 K to 598 K), pressure (10 MPa to 20 MPa), oil to ethanol molar ratio (1:10 to 1:40) and water concentration (0 wt% to 10 wt% in ethanol). Results showed that ethyl esters yields obtained in the PBTR were higher (> 20 wt%) than those verified in a tubular reactor (TR), due to improved mass transfer conditions attained in the PBTR. Results demonstrated that temperature, pressure, oil to ethanol molar ratio and water concentration had a positive effect on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) production in the experimental range investigated, with appreciable reaction yields (90 wt%) achieved at 598 K, 20 MPa, oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:40 and 10 wt% of water concentration.

Keywords: Packed bed reactor, ethyl esters, continuous process, catalyst-free process.

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1036 Flow-Through Supercritical Installation for Producing Biodiesel Fuel

Authors: Y. A. Shapovalov, F. M. Gumerov, M. K. Nauryzbaev, S. V. Mazanov, R. A. Usmanov, A. V. Klinov, L. K. Safiullina, S. A. Soshin

Abstract:

A flow-through installation was created and manufactured for the transesterification of triglycerides of fatty acids and production of biodiesel fuel under supercritical fluid conditions. Transesterification of rapeseed oil with ethanol was carried out according to two parameters: temperature and the ratio of alcohol/oil mixture at the constant pressure of 19 MPa. The kinetics of the yield of fatty acids ethyl esters (FAEE) was determined in the temperature range of 320-380 °C at the alcohol/oil molar ratio of 6:1-20:1. The content of the formed FAEE was determined by the method of correlation of the resulting biodiesel fuel by its kinematic viscosity. The maximum FAEE yield (about 90%) was obtained within 30 min at the ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and a temperature of 380 °C. When studying of transesterification of triglycerides, a kinetic model of an isothermal flow reactor was used. The reaction order implemented in the flow reactor has been determined. The first order of the reaction was confirmed by data on the conversion of FAEE during the reaction at different temperatures and the molar ratios of the initial reagents (ethanol/oil). Using the Arrhenius equation, the values of the effective constants of the transesterification reaction rate were calculated at different reaction temperatures. In addition, based on the experimental data, the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of the transesterification reaction were determined.

Keywords: Biodiesel, fatty acid esters, supercritical fluid technology, transesterification.

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1035 Growth Behaviors, Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Secretion and Fatty Acid Profiles of Acid-adapted and Non-adapted Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Authors: Ming-Lun Chiang, Chieh Wu, Ming-Ju Chen

Abstract:

Three strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (690, BCRC 13023 and BCRC 13025) implicated in food poisoning outbreaks in Taiwan were subjected to acid adaptation at pH 5.5 for 90 min. The growth behaviors of acid-adapted and non-adapted V. parahaemolyticus in the media supplemented with various nitrogen and carbon sources were investigated. The effects of acid adaptation on the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) secretion and fatty acid profiles of V. parahaemolyticus were also examined. Results showed that acid-adapted and non-adapted V. parahaemolyticus 690, BCRC 13023 and BCRC 13025 grew similarly in TSB-3% NaCl and basal media supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources during incubation period. Higher TDH secretion was noted with V. parahaemolyticus 690 among the three strains. However, acid-adapted strains produced less amounts of TDH than non-adapted strains when they were grown in TSB-3% NaCl. Additionally, acid adaptation increased the ratio of SFA/USFA in cells of V. parahaemolyticus strains.

Keywords: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, acid adaptation, thermostable direct hemolysin, fatty acid profile.

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1034 Influence of Culture Conditions on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Green Microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa

Authors: Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Saltanat B. Orazova, Yana S. Tzurkan, Alla V. Goncharova, Bakytzhan K. Kairat, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova

Abstract:

Microalgae due to the ability to accumulate high levels of practically valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids attract attention as a promising raw material for commercial products. The features of the growth processes of cells green protococcal microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa at cultivation in different nutritional mediums were determined. For the rapid accumulation of biomass, combined with high productivity of total lipids fraction yield recommended to use the Fitzgerald medium (Scenodesmus obliquus, Oocystis rhomboideus) and/or Bold medium (Dictyochlorella globosa). Productivity of lipids decreased in sequence Dictyochlorella globosa > Scenodesmus obliquus > Oocystis rhomboideus. The bulk of fatty acids fraction of the total lipids is unsaturated fatty acids, which ac­counts for 70 to 83% of the total number of fatty acids. The share of monoenic acids accounts from 18 to 34%, while the share of unsaturated fatty acids - from 44 to 62% of the total number of unsaturated fatty acids fraction. Among the un­saturated acids dominate α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), hexadecatetraenic acid (C16:4) and linoleic acid (C18:2).

Keywords: Fatty acids, lipids, microalgae.

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1033 Application of Tocopherol as Antioxidant to Reduce Decomposition Process on Palm Oil Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Rendy J. Pramono

Abstract:

Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which has an advantage as it is sustainable and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tends to decompose during storage, biodiesel also has the same characteristic that tends to decompose during storage. Biodiesel decomposition will form higher acid value as the result of oxidation to double bond on a fatty acid compound on biodiesel. Thus, free fatty acid value could be used to evaluate degradation of biodiesel due to the oxidation process. High free fatty acid on biodiesel could impact on the engine performance. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introducing a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. Biodiesel made from high free fatty acid (FFA) crude palm oil (CPO) by using two steps esterification is vulnerable to oxidation process which is resulted in increasing on the FFA value. Tocopherol also known as vitamin E is one of the antioxidant that could improve the stability of biodiesel due to decomposition by the oxidation process. Tocopherol 0.5% concentration on palm oil biodiesel could reduce 13% of increasing FFA under temperature 80 °C and exposing time 180 minute.

Keywords: Antioxidant, biodiesel, decomposition, oxidation, tocopherol.

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1032 Application of Tocopherol as Antioxidant to Reduce Decomposition Process on Palm Oil Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Rendy J. Pramono

Abstract:

Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which has an advantage as it is sustainable and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tends to decompose during storage, biodiesel also has the same characteristic that tends to decompose during storage. Biodiesel decomposition will form higher acid value as the result of oxidation to double bond on a fatty acid compound on biodiesel. Thus, free fatty acid value could be used to evaluate degradation of biodiesel due to the oxidation process. High free fatty acid on biodiesel could impact on the engine performance. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introducing a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. Biodiesel made from high free fatty acid (FFA) crude palm oil (CPO) by using two steps esterification is vulnerable to oxidation process which is resulted in increasing on the FFA value. Tocopherol also known as vitamin E is one of the antioxidant that could improve the stability of biodiesel due to decomposition by the oxidation process. Tocopherol 0.5% concentration on palm oil biodiesel could reduce 13% of increasing FFA under temperature 80 °C and exposing time 180 minute.

Keywords: Antioxidant, biodiesel, decomposition, oxidation, tocopherol.

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1031 Effect of Rearing Systems on Fatty Acid Composition and Cholesterol Content of Thai Indigenous Chicken Meat

Authors: W. Molee, P. Puttaraksa, S. Khempaka

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to study the effect of rearing systems on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Thai indigenous chicken meat. Three hundred and sixty chicks were allocated to 2 different rearing systems: conventional, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2); free-range, housing in an indoor pen (5 birds/m2) with access to a grass paddock (1 bird/m2) from 8 wk of age until slaughter. All birds were provided with the same diet during the experimental period. At 16 wk of age, 24 birds per group were slaughtered to evaluate the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of breast and thigh meat. The results showed that the proportion of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in breast and thigh meat were not different among groups (P>0.05). However, the proportion of n-3 fatty acids was higher and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids was lower in free-range system than in conventional system (P<0.05). There was no difference between groups in cholesterol content in breast and thigh meat (P>0.05). The data indicated that the free-range system could increase the proportion of n-3 fatty acids, but no effect on cholesterol content in Thai indigenous chicken meat.

Keywords: Cholesterol, fatty acid composition, free-range, Thai indigenous chicken

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1030 Supplementation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae or Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Goats Diets

Authors: Pramote Paengkoum, Y. Han , S. Traiyakun, J. Khotsakdee, S. Paengkoum

Abstract:

This experiment was performed with the purpose of investigating effect of additional blend of probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus on plasma fatty acid profiles particularly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in growing goats fed corn silage, and selected the optimal levels of the probiotics for further study. Twenty-four growing crossbred (Thai native x Anglo-Nubian) goats that weighed (14.2 ± 2.3) kg, aged about 6 months, were purchased and allocated to 4 treatments according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 6 goats in each treatment. The blocks were made by weight into heavy, medium, and light goats and each of the treatments contained two goats from each of the blocks. In the mean time, ruminal average pH unaffected, but the NH3-N and also plasma urea nitrogen (p<0.05), total volatile fatty acid (p>0.05) were raised, but propionic proportion (p<0.05) and butyric proportion (p>0.05) were reduced in concurrent with raise of acetic proportion and resultantly C2:C3 ratio (p>0.05). On plasma fatty acid profiles, total saturated fatty acids (p>0.05) was increased, and contrasted with decrease of C15:0 (p<0.01), C16:0 (p>0.05), and C18-C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05 or p<0.01). In addition, the experiment proved that the supplemented probiotics was in force for heightening CLA (p<0.01); for raising desirable fatty acids (p<0.05); for reducing ratio of PUFA: SFA (p>0.05) and for raising ratio of n6:n3 (p<0.05).

Keywords: Probiotic, conjugated linoleic acid, plasma fattyacid, goats

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1029 Authenticity of Lipid and Soluble Sugar Profiles of Various Oat Cultivars (Avena sativa)

Authors: Marijana M. Ačanski, Kristian A. Pastor, Djura N. Vujić

Abstract:

The identification of lipid and soluble sugar components in flour samples of different cultivars belonging to common oat species (Avena sativa L.) was performed: spring oat, winter oat and hulless oat. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol). Soluble sugars were then extracted from defatted and dried samples of oat flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into corresponding TMS-oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide). The hexane and ethanol extracts of each oat cultivar were analyzed using GC-MS system. Lipid and simple sugar compositions are very similar in all samples of investigated cultivars. Chemometric tool was applied to numeric values of automatically integrated surface areas of detected lipid and simple sugar components in their corresponding derivatized forms. Hierarchical cluster analysis shows a very high similarity between the investigated flour samples of oat cultivars, according to the fatty acid content (0.9955). Moderate similarity was observed according to the content of soluble sugars (0.50). These preliminary results support the idea of establishing methods for oat flour authentication, and provide the means for distinguishing oat flour samples, regardless of the variety, from flour samples made of other cereal species, just by lipid and simple sugar profile analysis.

Keywords: Authentication, chemometrics, GC-MS, lipid and soluble sugar composition, oat cultivars.

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1028 Modification of Palm Oil Structure to Cocoa Butter Equivalent by Carica papaya Lipase- Catalyzed Interesterification

Authors: P. Pinyaphong, S. Phutrakul

Abstract:

Palm oil could be converted to cocoa butter equivalent by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. The objective of this research was to investigate the structure modification of palm oil to cocoa butter equivalent using Carica papaya lipase –catalyzed interesterification. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction temperature and the amount of enzyme. Among three acyl donors tested (methyl stearate, ethyl stearate and stearic acid), methyl stearate appeared to be the best acyl donor for incorporation to palm oil structure. The best reaction conditions for cocoa butter equivalent production were : substrate ratio (palm oil : methyl stearate, mol/mol) at 1 : 4, water activity of enzyme at 0.11, reaction time at 4 h, reaction temperature at 45 ° C and 18% by weight of the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of cocoa butter equivalent were 9.75 ± 0.41% free fatty acid, 44.89 ± 0.84 iodine number, 193.19 ± 0.78 sponification value and melting point at 37-39 °C.

Keywords: Carica papaya lipase, cocoa butter equivalent, interesterification, palm oil.

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1027 Free Fatty Acid Assessment of Crude Palm Oil Using a Non-Destructive Approach

Authors: Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani, Herlina Abdul Rahim, Rashidah Ghazali, Noramli Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of prediction models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this study, 110 crude palm oil (CPO) samples were used to build a free fatty acid (FFA) prediction model. 60% of the collected data were used for training purposes and the remaining 40% used for testing. The visible peaks on the NIR spectrum were at 1725 nm and 1760 nm, indicating the existence of the first overtone of C-H bands. Principal component regression (PCR) was applied to the data in order to build this mathematical prediction model. The optimal number of principal components was 10. The results showed R2=0.7147 for the training set and R2=0.6404 for the testing set.

Keywords: Palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS, regression.

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1026 Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Hexane Extracted Aniseed Oil from Cold Press Extraction Residue and Cold Press Aniseed Oil

Authors: Derya Ören Duran, Şeyma Akalin Benderli

Abstract:

Cold press technique is a traditional method to obtain oil. The cold-pressing procedure involves neither heat nor chemical treatments; therefore, cold press technique has low oil yield. The cold pressed herbal material residue still contains some oil after cold press. In this study, the oil that is remained in the cold pressed aniseed was extracted with hexane; and it was analyzed to determine physicochemical properties and quality parameters. It was found that the aniseed after cold press process still contained 10% oil. The values of other analysis parameters were 2.1 mgKOH/g for free fatty acid (FFA) and 7.6 meq02/kg for peroxide. Cold pressed aniseed oil values were determined as 2.1 mgKOH/g for FFA and 4.5 meq02/kg for peroxide, respectively. In addition, fatty acid composition was analyzed, and it was found that both types of oil had same fatty acid compositions. The main fatty acids were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids.

Keywords: Aniseed oil, cold press, extraction, residue.

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1025 Result of Fatty Acid Content in Meat of Selenge Breed Younger Cattle

Authors: Myagmarsuren Soronzonjav, N. Togtokhbayar, L. Davaahuu, B. Minjigdorj, Seong Gu Hwang

Abstract:

The number of natural or organic product consumers is increased in recent years and this healthy demand pushes to increase usage of healthy meat. At the same time, consumers pay more attention on the healthy fat, especially on unsaturated fatty acids. These long chain carbohydrates reduce heart diseases, improve memory and eye sight and activate the immune system. One of the important issues to be solved for our Mongolia’s food security is to provide healthy, fresh, widely available and cheap meat for the population. Thus, an importance of the Selenge breed meat production is increasing in order to supply the quality meat food security since the Selenge breed cattle are rapidly multiplied, beneficial in term of income, the same quality as Mongolian breed, and well digested for human body. We researched the lipid, unsaturated and saturated fatty acid contents of meat of Selenge breed younger cattle by their muscle types. Result of our research reveals that 11 saturated fatty acids are detected. For the content of palmitic acid among saturated fatty acids, 23.61% was in the sirloin meat, 24.01% was in the round and chuck meat, and 24.83% was in the short loin meat.

Keywords: Chromatogram, gas chromatography, organic resolving, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

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