Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Using an Oscillatory Baffled Reactor
Biofuel production especially that of biodiesel has gained tremendous attention during the last decade due to environmental concerns and shortage in petroleum oil reservoir. This research aims to investigate the influences of operating parameters, such as the alcohol-to-oil molar ratio (4:1, 6:1, and 9:1) and the amount of catalyst (1, 1.5, and 2 wt.%) on the trans esterification of refined palm oil (RPO) in a medium-scale oscillatory baffle reactor. It has been shown that an increase in the methanol-to-oil ratio resulted in an increase in fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content. The amount of catalyst has an insignificant effect on the FAMEs content. Engine testing was performed on B0 (100 v/v% diesel) and blended fuel or B50 (50 v/v% diesel). Combustion of B50 was found to give lower torque compared to pure diesel. Exhaust gas from B50 was found to contain lower concentration of CO and CO2.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1474439Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 635
 F. Chen, X. Huang, and D.-g. Cheng, X. Zhan, “Hydrogen production from alcohols and ethers via cold plasma: A review,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. vol. 39 pp. 9036-9046, June 2014.
 D.H. Choi, S.M. Chun, S.H. Ma, and Y.C. Hong, “Production of hydrogen-rich syngas from methane reforming by steam microwave plasma,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 34, pp. 286-291, Feburary 2016.
 D. Czylkowski, B. Hrycak, R. Miotk, M. Jasiński, M. Dors, and J. Mizeraczyk, “Hydrogen production by conversion of ethanol using atmospheric pressure microwave plasmas,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 40, pp. 14039-14044, October 2015.
 X.Z. Liu, C.J. Liu, and B. Eliasson, “Hydrogen production from methanol using corona discharges Energy,” Chinese Chemical Letters, vol. 14, pp.631-633, June 2003.
 I. Choedkiatsakul, K. Ngaosuwan, S. Assabumrungrat, S. Mantegna, G. Cravotto, “Biodiesel production in a novel continuous flow microwave reactor,” Renewable Energy, vol. 83, pp. 25-29, November 2015.
 L. F. Chuah, J. J. Klemeš, S. Yusup, A. Bokhari, M. M. Akbar, A review of cleaner intensification technologies in biodiesel production, Journal of Cleaner Production.
 G. G. Stephens and M. R. Mackley, “Heat transfer performance for batch oscillatory flow mixing,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, vol.25, pp. 583-594, February 2002.
 X. Ni, J. A. Cosgrove, A. D. Arnott, C. A. Greated, and R. H. Cumming, “On the measurement of strain rate in an oscillatory baffled column using particle image velocimetry,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 55, pp. 3195-3208, August 2000.
 M. S. R. Abbott, A. P. Harvey, G. V. Perez, and M. K. Theodorou, “Biological processing in oscillatory baffled reactors: operation, advantages and potential,” Interface Focus, vol. 3, pp.1-12, December 2013.
 M. S. R. Abbott, C. M. Brain, A. P. Harvey, M. I. Morrison, and G. Valente Perez, “Liquid culture of microalgae in a photobioreactor (PBR) based on oscillatory baffled reactor (OBR) technology – A feasibility study,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 138, pp. 315-323, December 2015.
 E. Lobry, T. Lasuye, C. Gourdon, C. Xuereb, Liquid–liquid dispersion in a continuous oscillatory baffled reactor – Application to suspension polymerization, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 259, pp. 505-518, January 2015.
 T. McGlone, N. E. B. Briggs, C. A. Clark, C. J. Brown, J. Sefcik, and A. J. Florence, “Oscillatory Flow Reactors (OFRs) for Continuous Manufacturing and Crystallization,” Organic Process Research & Development, vol. 19, pp.1186-1202, August 2015.
 M. S. R. Abbott, G. Valente Perez, A. P. Harvey, and M. K. Theodorou, “Reduced power consumption compared to a traditional stirred tank reactor (STR) for enzymatic saccharification of alpha-cellulose using oscillatory baffled reactor (OBR) technology,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 92, pp. 1969-1975, October 2014.
 P. Verma and M. P. Sharma, “Review of process parameters for biodiesel production from different feedstocks,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 62, pp. 1063-1071, September 2016.
 A. N. Phan, A. P. Harvey, and V. Eze, “Rapid Production of Biodiesel in Mesoscale Oscillatory Baffled Reactors,” Chemical Engineering & Technology, vol.35, pp. 1214-1220, May 2012.
 B. Zhmud, Viscosity Blending Equations, Lube-Tech, vol. 93, pp.22-27, June 2014.
 T. C. C. T., “Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) - Determination of ester and linolenic acid methyl ester contents,” in, European Commitee for Standardization, Brussels, pp. 11, April 2003.
 A. N. Phan, A. P. Harvey, and M. Rawcliffe, “Continuous screening of base-catalysed biodiesel production using New designs of mesoscale oscillatory baffled reactors,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 92, pp. 1560-1567, August 2011.
 I. A. Musa, “The effects of alcohol to oil molar ratios and the type of alcohol on biodiesel production using transesterification process,” Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, vol.25, pp. 21-31, March 2016.
 S. A. El Sherbiny, A. A. Refaat, and T. El Sheltawy, “Production of biodiesel using the microwave technique,” Journal of Advanced Research, vol.1, pp. 309-314, October 2010.
 I. K. Hong, H. Jeon, H. Kim, S. B. Lee, “Preparation of waste cooking oil based biodiesel using microwave irradiation energy,” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol.42, pp. 107-112, January 2016.
 H. Yuan, B. L. Yang, and G. L. Zhu, “Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Microwave Absorption Catalysts,” Energy & Fuels, vol. 23, pp. 548-552, December 2009.
 X. Yin, X. Zhang, M. Wan, X. Duan, Q. You, J. Zhang, S. Li, “Intensification of biodiesel production using dual-frequency counter-current pulsed ultrasound,” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, vol. 37, pp. 136-143, December 2017.
 E.T. Akhihiero, K.M. Oghenejoboh, P.O. Umukoro, “Effects of process variables ontransesterification reaction of jatropha curcas seed oil for the production of biodiesel,” Int J Emerg Technol Adv Eng., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 388–393, March 2013.
 A.N. Ozsezen, M. Canakci, V. Turkcan, C. Sayin, “Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters,” Fuel, vol.167, pp. 629–636, March 2016.
 M.A. Kalam, H.H. Masjuki, M.H. Jayed, A.M Liaquat, “Emission and performance characteristics of an indirect ignition diesel engine fuel with waste cooking oil,” Energy, vol. 36, pp. 397–402, August 2011.