Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30124
Quality Evaluation of Grape Seed Oils of the Ionian Islands Based on GC-MS and Other Spectroscopic Techniques

Authors: I. Oikonomou, I. Lappa, D. Daferera, C. Kanakis, L. Kiokakis, K. Skordilis, A. Avramouli, E. Kalli, C. Pappas, P. A. Tarantilis, E. Skotti

Abstract:

Grape seeds are waste products of wineries and often referred to as an important agricultural and industrial waste product with the potential to be used in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. In this study, grape seed oil from traditional Ionian varieties was examined for the determination of the quality and the characteristics of each variety. Initially, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, after transesterification. Furthermore, other quality parameters of the grape seed oils were determined by Spectroscopy techniques, UV-Vis and Raman included. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured by 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and their antioxidant capacity expressed in Trolox equivalents. K and ΔΚ indices were measured in 232, 268, 270 nm, as an oil quality index. The results indicate that the air-dried grape seed total oil content ranged from 5.26 to 8.77% w/w, which is in accordance with the other grape seed varieties tested in similar studies. The composition of grape seed oil is predominated with linoleic and oleic fatty acids, with the linoleic fatty acid ranging from 53.68 to 69.95% and both the linoleic and oleic fatty acids totaling 78-82% of FAMEs, which is analogous to the fatty acid composition of safflower oil. The antioxidant assays ABTS and DPPH scored high, exhibiting that the oils have potential in the cosmetic and culinary businesses. Above that, our results demonstrate that Ionian grape seed oils have prospects that can go further than cosmetic or culinary use, into the pharmaceuticals industry. Finally, the reclamation of grape seeds from wineries waste stream is in accordance with the bio-economy strategic framework and contributes to environmental protection.

Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, fatty acid methyl esters, grape seed oil, GC-MS.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1474585

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 337

References:


[1] Food and Agricultural Organization (29 July 2018), FAOSTAT, Retrieved from URL: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/.
[2] Teixeira, A., Baenas, N., Dominguez-Perles, R., Barros, A., Rosa, E., Moreno, D. A., & Garcia-Viguera, C. (2014). Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: a review. International journal of molecular sciences, 15(9), 15638-15678.
[3] Da Silva, A. C., & Jorge, N. (2017). Bioactive compounds of oils extracted from fruits seeds obtained from agroindustrial waste. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 119(4), 1600024.
[4] Serra, A. T., Matias, A. A., Nunes, A. V., Leitão, M. C., Brito, D., Bronze, R., Duarte, C. M. (2008). In vitro evaluation of olive-and grape-based natural extracts as potential preservatives for food. Innovative food science & emerging technologies, 9(3), 311-319.
[5] Oliveira, D. A., Salvador, A. A., Smânia Jr, A., Smânia, E. F., Maraschin, M., & Ferreira, S. R. (2013). Antimicrobial activity and composition profile of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluids. Journal of Biotechnology, 164(3), 423-432.
[6] Lutterodt, H., Slavin, M., Whent, M., Turner, E., & Yu, L. L. (2011). Fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of selected cold-pressed grape seed oils and flours. Food Chemistry, 128(2), 391-399.
[7] Maier, T., Schieber, A., Kammerer, D. R., & Carle, R. (2009). Residues of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed oil production as a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Food Chemistry, 112(3), 551-559.
[8] Beveridge, T. H., Girard, B., Kopp, T., & Drover, J. C. (2005). Yield and composition of grape seed oils extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and petroleum ether: varietal effects. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(5), 1799-1804.
[9] Sabir, A., Unver, A., & Kara, Z. (2012). The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92(9), 1982-1987.
[10] Fernandes, L., Casal, S., Cruz, R., Pereira, J. A., & Ramalhosa, E. (2013). Seed oils of ten traditional Portuguese grape varieties with interesting chemical and antioxidant properties. Food Research International, 50(1), 161-166.
[11] Zhao, L., Yagiz, Y., Xu, C., Lu, J., Chung, S., & Marshall, M. R. (2015). Muscadine grape seed oil as a novel source of tocotrienols to reduce adipogenesis and adipocyte inflammation. Food & function, 6(7), 2293-2302.
[12] Rombaut, N., Savoire, R., Thomasset, B., Castello, J., Van Hecke, E., & Lanoisellé, J. L. (2015). Optimization of oil yield and oil total phenolic content during grape seed cold screw pressing. Industrial Crops and Products, 63, 26-33.
[13] Davidov-Pardo, G., & McClements, D. J. (2015). Nutraceutical delivery systems: resveratrol encapsulation in grape seed oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification. Food chemistry, 167, 205-212.
[14] Fernandez-Martinez, J., Del Rio, M., & De Haro, A. (1993). Survey of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm for variants in fatty acid composition and other seed characters. Euphytica, 69(1-2), 115-122.
[15] Yang, R., Zhang, L., Li, P., Yu, L., Mao, J., Wang, X., & Zhang, Q. (2018). A review of chemical composition and nutritional properties of minor vegetable oils in China. Trends in Food Science & Technology.
[16] Pardo, J. E., Fernández, E., Rubio, M., Alvarruiz, A., & Alonso, G. L. (2009). Characterization of grape seed oil from different grape varieties (Vitis vinifera). European journal of lipid science and technology, 111(2), 188-193.
[17] Antolovich, M., Prenzler, P. D., Patsalides, E., McDonald, S., & Robards, K. (2002). Methods for testing antioxidant activity. Analyst, 127(1), 183-198.
[18] European Union Commission: Characteristics of olive and olive pomace oils and their analytical methods. Regulation EC/1989/2003. Off J Eur Comm. 2003, L295, 57–66.
[19] Czamara, K., Majzner, K., Pacia, M. Z., Kochan, K., Kaczor, A., & Baranska, M. (2015). Raman spectroscopy of lipids: a review. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 46(1), 4-20.
[20] Beattie, J. R., Bell, S. E., Borgaard, C., Fearon, A., & Moss, B. W. (2006). Prediction of adipose tissue composition using Raman spectroscopy: average properties and individual fatty acids. Lipids, 41(3), 287-294.