Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 377

Search results for: Biodegradable film

377 Fabrication and Characterization of Sawdust Composite Biodegradable Film

Authors: M.Z. Norashikin, M.Z. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This report shows the performance of composite biodegradable film from chitosan, starch and sawdust fiber. The main objectives of this research are to fabricate and characterize composite biodegradable film in terms of morphology and physical properties. The film was prepared by casting method. Sawdust fiber was used as reinforcing agent and starch as polymer matrix in the casting solution. The morphology of the film was characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM). The result showed that the film has smooth structure. Chemical composition of the film was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) where the result revealed present of starch in the film. The thermal properties were characterized using thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) where the results showed that the film has small difference in melting and degradation temperature.

Keywords: Sawdust, composite, film, biodegradable.

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376 The Potential of Natural Waste (Corn Husk) for Production of Environmental Friendly Biodegradable Film for Seedling

Authors: M. Z. Norashikin, M. Z. Ibrahim

Abstract:

The use of plastic materials in agriculture causes serious hazards to the environment. The introduction of biodegradable materials, which can be disposed directly into the soil can be one possible solution to this problem. In the present research results of experimental tests carried out on biodegradable film fabricated from natural waste (corn husk) are presented. The film was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observation. The film is shown to be readily degraded within 7-9 months under controlled soil conditions, indicating a high biodegradability rate. The film fabricated was use to produce biodegradable pot (BioPot) for seedlings plantation. The introduction and the expanding use of biodegradable materials represent a really promising alternative for enhancing sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural activities.

Keywords: Environment, waste, plastic, biodegradable.

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375 Some Characteristics of Biodegradable Film Substituted by Yam (Dioscorea alata) Starch from Thailand

Authors: Orose Rugchati, Khumthong Mahawongwiriya, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas

Abstract:

Yam starch obtained from the water yam (munlued) by the wet milling process was studied for some physicochemical properties. Yam starch film was prepared by casting using glycerol as a plasticizer. The effect of different glycerol (1.30, 1.65 and 2.00g/100g of filmogenic solution) and starch concentrations (3.30, 3.65 and 4.00g /100g of filmogenic solution) were evaluated on some characteristics of the film. The temperature for obtaining the gelatinized starch solution was 70-80°C and then dried at 45°C for 4 hours. The resulting starch from munlued granular morphology was triangular and the average size of the granule was 26.68 μm. The amylose content by colorimetric method was 26 % and the gelatinize temperature was 70-80°C. The appearance of the film was smooth, transparent, and glossy with average moisture content of 25.96% and thickness of 0.01mm. Puncture deformation and flexibility increased with glycerol content. The starch and glycerol concentration were a significant factor of the yam starch film characteristics. Yam starch film can be described as a biofilm providing many applications and developments with the advantage of biodegradability.

Keywords: Characteristics of Biodegradable film, yam starch, Dioscoreaalata, substitute, Thailand.

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374 Effect of UV-Treatment on Properties of Biodegradable Film From Rice Starch

Authors: Nawapat Detduangchan, Thawien Wittaya

Abstract:

Photo-crosslinked rice starch-based biodegradable films were prepared by casting film-solution on leveled trays and ultra violet (UV) irradiation was applied for 10 minute. The effect of the content (3%, 6% and 9 wt. %)of photosensitiser (sodium benzoate) on mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP) and structural properties of rice starch films were investigated. The tensile strength increased while elongation at break and water resistance properties of rice starch films decreased with addition and increasing content of photosensitiser. The % crystallinity of rice starch films were decreased when the content of photosensitiser increased and UV were applied. The results showed that the carboxylate group band of sodium benzoate was found in the FTIR spectrum of rice starch films and found that incorporation of 6% of photosensitiser into the films showed a higher absorption band of resulted films. This result pointed out the highest interaction between starch molecules was occurred.

Keywords: Biodegradable film, Rice starch, UV treatment, Photosensitiser, Photo-crosslink

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373 Influence of PLA Film Packaging on the Shelf Life of Soft Cheese Kleo

Authors: Lija Dukalska, Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Irisa Murniece, Ilona Dabina-Bicka, Emils Kozlinskis, Svetlana Sarvi

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture (LLU). Soft cheese Kleo produced in Latvia was packed in a biodegradable PLA without barrierproperties and VC999 BioPack lidding film PLA, coated with a barrier of pure silicon oxide (SiOx) and in combination with modified atmosphere (MAP) the influence on the shelf life was investigated and compared with some conventional (OPP, PE/PA, PE/OPA and Multibarrier 60) polymer film impact. Modified atmosphere consisted of carbon dioxide CO2 (E 290) 30% and nitrogen N2 (E 941) 70%. The analyzable samples were stored at the temperature of +4.0±0.5 °C up to 32 days- and analyzed before packaging and in the 0, 5th, 11th, 15th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th and 32nd day of storage. The shelf life was extended along to 32 days, good outside appearance and lactic acid aroma was observed.

Keywords: Soft cheese, modified atmosphere, conventional andbiodegradable PLA film, shelf life

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372 An Optical Sensing Film for Fe(III) Determination Based on 1,1′- diethyl 2,2′- cyanine Iodide Immobilized in Nafion Film

Authors: K. Kajsanthia, J. Wittayakun, S. Prayoonpokarach

Abstract:

An optical chemical sensing film based on immobilizing of 1,1′- diethyl 2,2′-cyanine (pseudocyanine iodide) in nafion film was developed for the determination of Fe(III). The sensing film was homogeneous, transparent, and mechanically stable. Decrease of the absorbance measured at 518 nm was observed when the sensing film was immersed in a solution of Fe(III). The optimum response of the sensing film to Fe(III) was obtained in a solution with pH 4.0. Linear calibration curve over an Fe(III) concentration range of 1-30 ppm with a limit of detection of 0.71 ppm was obtained. Cd(II) is the major interference. The sensing film exhibited good stability for 2 months and high reproducibility. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Fe(III) in water samples with satisfactory results.

Keywords: iron(III), _nafion, optical sensing film, pseudocyanine iodide

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371 Study on the Atomic-Oxygen-Protection Film Preparation of Organic Silicon and Its Properties

Authors: Zheng-Kuohai, Yang-Shengsheng, Li-Zhonghua, Zhao-Lin

Abstract:

Materials used on exterior spacecraft surfaces are subjected to many environmental threats which can cause degradation, atomic oxygen is one of the most threats. We prepared organic silicon atomic-oxygen-protection film using method of polymerization. This paper presented the effects on the film structure and its durability of the preparation processing, and analyzed the polymerization theory, the film structure and composition of the film. At last, we tested the film in our ground based atomic oxygen simulator, and indicated that the film worked well.

Keywords: Atomic oxygen, siloxane, protection, plasma, polymerization.

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370 Strategic Risk Issues for Film Distributors of Hindi Film Industry in Mumbai: A Grounded Theory Approach

Authors: R. Dyondi, S. K. Jha

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to address the strategic risk issues surrounding Hindi film distribution in Mumbai for a film distributor, who acts as an entrepreneur when launching a product (movie) in the market (film territory).The paper undertakes a fundamental review of films and risk in the Hindi film industry and applies Grounded Theory technique to understand the complex phenomena of risk taking behavior of the film distributors (both independent and studios) in Mumbai. Rich in-depth interviews with distributors are coded to develop core categories through constant comparison leading to conceptualization of the phenomena of interest. This paper is a first-of-its-kind-attempt to understand risk behavior of a distributor, which is akin to entrepreneurial risk behavior under conditions of uncertainty.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Risk Behavior, Film Distribution Strategy, Hindi Film Industry, Risk.

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369 Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Amphiphilic Polymers and Micelles as Drug Delivery Systems: Synthesis and Study

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Vladimir P. Torchilin, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Nanotherapy is an actual newest mode of treatment numerous diseases using nanoparticles (NPs) loading with different pharmaceuticals. NPs of biodegradable polymeric micelles (PMs) are gaining increased attention for their numerous and attractive abilities to be used in a variety of applications in the various fields of medicine. The present paper deals with the synthesis of a class of biodegradable micelle-forming polymers, namely ABA triblock-copolymer in which A-blocks represent amino-poly(ethylene glycol) (H2N-PEG) and B-block is biodegradable amino acid-based poly(ester amide) constituted of α-amino acid – L-phenylalanine. The obtained copolymer formed micelles of 70±4 nm size at 10 mg/mL concentration.

Keywords: Amino acids, biodegradable poly(ester amide), amphiphilic triblock-copolymer, micelles.

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368 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Annealing increases the average grain size by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: Electrodeposition, Non-aqueous medium, SEM, XRD.

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367 Classification of Causes and Effects of Uploading and Downloading of Pirated Film Products

Authors: Pavel Janak

Abstract:

This paper covers various aspects of the Internet film piracy. In order to successfully deal with this matter, it is needed to recognize and explain various motivational factors related to film piracy. Thus, this study proposes groups of economical, sociopsychological and other factors that could motivate individuals to engage in pirate activities. The paper also studies the interactions between downloaders and uploaders and offers the causality of the motivational factors and its effects on the film industry. Moreover, the study also focuses on proposed scheme of relations of downloading movies and the possible effect on box office revenues.

Keywords: Download, Film piracy, Internet, Upload

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366 Development of a Porous Silica Film by Sol-gel Process

Authors: Binay K. Dutta, Tayseir M. Abd Ellateif, Saikat Maitra

Abstract:

In the present work homogeneous silica film on silicon was fabricated by colloidal silica sol. The silica sol precursor with uniformly granular particle was derived by the alkaline hydrolysis of tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) in presence of glycerol template. The film was prepared by dip coating process. The templated hetero-structured silica film was annealed at elevated temperatures to generate nano- and meso porosity in the film. The film was subsequently annealed at different temperatures to make it defect free and abrasion resistant. The sol and the film were characterized by the measurement of particle size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, measurement of the refractive index, thermal conductivity and abrasion resistance. The porosity of the films decreased whereas refractive index and dielectric constant of it `increased with the increase in the annealing temperature. The thermal conductivity of the films increased with the increase in the film thickness. The developed porous silica film holds strong potential for use in different areas.

Keywords: Silica film, Nanoporous, Sol-gel, Templating, Dip coating.

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365 Nazi Propaganda and the 1930 Berlin Film Premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front”

Authors: Edward C. Smith III

Abstract:

Historical narration is an act that necessarily develops and deforms history. This “translation” is examined within the historical and political context of the 1930 Berlin film premiere of “All Quiet on the Western Front,” a film based on Erich Maria Remarque’s 1928 best-selling novel. Both the film and the novel appeared during an era in which life was conceived of as innately artistic. The emergence of this “aestheticization” of memory and history enabled conservative propaganda of the period to denounce all art that did not adhere conceptually to its political tenets, with “All Quiet” becoming yet another of its “victims.”

Keywords: Propaganda, Film, International Literature, Popular Culture.

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364 Neo Realism in Thai’s Film after Political Crisis in October 14, 1973 and Political Crisis between 2005-2014

Authors: Pison S.

Abstract:

The objective of presenting this article is to analyze between Thai’s film and Thai society in political crisis, to study the development and trend of the film which reflects society in Thailand from political crisis of 14 October 1973 and the present day political crisis using a comparative study of the two era, both the similarities and differences in the film reflects the society in an era of change.

Keywords: Film, Political, Neo Realism, Thailand.

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363 Role of Director's Philosophical Approach in Cinematographic Expression

Authors: Sedat Cereci

Abstract:

The original idea for a feature film may come from a writer, director or a producer. Director is the person responsible for the creative aspects, both interpretive and technical, of a motion picture production in a film. Director may be shot discussing his project with his or her cowriters, members of production staff, and producer, and director may be shown selecting locales or constructing sets. All these activities provide, of course, ways of externalizing director-s ideas about the film. A director sometimes pushes both the film image and techniques of narration to new artistic limits, but main responsibility of director is take the spectator to an original opinion in his philosophical approach. Director tries to find an artistic angle in every scene and change screenplay into an effective story and sets his film on a spiritual and philosophical base.

Keywords: Director, role, film, approach, opinion.

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362 Modeling of the Internet Film Piracy - Preliminary Report

Authors: Pavel Janak

Abstract:

This paper covers various aspects of film piracy over the Internet. In order to successfully deal with this matter, it is needed to recognize motivational factors related to film piracy. Thus, this study discusses group factors that could motivate individuals to engage in pirate activities. Furthermore, the paper discusses the theoretical effect on box office revenues and explains it on a proposed scheme of solutions for decreasing revenues. The article also maps the scheme of incentive motivational anti-piracy campaigns. Moreover, the paper proposes the preliminary scheme for system dynamic modeling of the Internet film piracy. Scheme is developed as a model of behaviors, influences and relations among the elements pertaining to the Internet film piracy.

Keywords: Box office, Cinema, Film, Internet piracy, Uploading

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361 Synthesis of Cross-Linked Konjac Glucomannan and Kappa Carrageenan Film with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Sperisa Distantina, Fadilah Fadilah, Mujtahid Kaavessina

Abstract:

Cross-linked konjac glucomannan and kappa carrageenan film were prepared by chemical crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent. The effect crosslinking on the swelling degree was investigated. Konjac glucomannan and its mixture with kappa carrageenan film was immersed in GA solution and then thermally cured. The obtained cross-linked film was washed and soaked in the ethanol to remove the unreacted GA. The obtained film was air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The infrared spectra and the value of swelling degree of obtained crosslinked film showed that glucomannan and kappa carrageenan was able to be cross-linked using glutaraldehyde by film immersion and curing method without catalyst. The cross-linked films were found to be pH sensitive, indicating a potential to be used in drug delivery polymer system.

Keywords: Crosslinking, glucomannan, carrageenan, swelling.

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360 Experimental Validation of Treatment Planning for Multiple Radiotherapy Fields by EDR2 Film Dosimeter

Authors: Vahid Fayaz , Asieh Tavakol

Abstract:

To investigate the applicability of the EDR-2 film for clinical radiation dosimetry, percentage depth-doses, profiles and distributions in open and dynamically wedged fields were measured using film and compared with data from a Treatment Planning system.The validity of the EDR2 film to measure dose in a plane parallel to the beam was tested by irradiating 10 cm×10 cm and 4 cm×4 cm fields from a Siemens, primus linac with a 6MV beam and a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. The film was placed Horizontally between solid water phantom blocks and marked with pin holes at a depth of 10 cm from the incident beam surface. The film measurement results, in absolute dose, were compared with ion chamber measurements using a Welhoffer scanning water tank system and Treatment Planning system. Our results indicate a maximum underestimate of calculated dose of 8 % with Treatment Planning system.

Keywords: 6MV Photon , EDR-2 film, Radiotherapy, TreatmentPlanning system

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359 Characterization of HD-V2 Gafchromic Film for Measurement of Spatial Dose Distribution from Alpha Particle of 5.5 MeV

Authors: A. Aydarous, M. El Ghazaly

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of the newly released Gafchromic HD-V2 film for alpha particle of 5.5 MeV. Gafchromic HD-V2 was exposed to alpha particles of energy 5 MeV from 241Am for different durations. Then the films were scanned with a flatbed scanner. The dose response curve up to 2200 Gy has been achieved. The film’s reproducibility and sensitivity were evaluated. The results obtained show that the net optical density increases almost exponentially with the increase in the exposure time, and it becomes saturated after prolonged exposure times. The red channel shows the highest sensitivity, with a value of 4 x 10-3 Gy-1 at netOD of 0.4. The inter-film reproducibility was measured and the relative uncertainty found was 1.7 %, 2.1 % and 2.3 % for grey, red and green channels, respectively.

Keywords: Alpha dosimetry, 241Am, Gafchromic film.

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358 Experimental Film Class: Watbangkapom School, Samut Songkhram

Authors: Areerut J.

Abstract:

Experimental Film Class Project is supported by the Institute for Research and Development at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. This project is purported to provide academic and professional services to improve the quality standards of the community and locals in accordance with the mission of the university, which is to improve and expand knowledge for the community and to develop and transfer such knowledge and professions to the next generation. Eventually, it leads to sustainable development because the development of human resources is deemed as the key for sustainable development. Moreover, the Experimental Film Class is an integral part of the teaching of film production at Suan Sunandha International School of Art (SISA). By means of giving opportunities to students for participation in projects by sharing experience, skill and knowledge and participation in field activities, it helps students in the film production major to enhance their abilities and potentials as preparation for their readiness in the marketplace. Additionally, in this class, we provide basic film knowledge, screenwriting techniques, editing and subtitles including uploading videos on social media such as YouTube and Facebook for the participant students.

Keywords: Experimental Film Class, Watbangkapom School, Participant students, Basic of film production, Film Workshop.

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357 Sericin Film: Influence of Concentration on its Physical Properties

Authors: N. Namviriyachote, N. Bang, P. Aramwit

Abstract:

Silk sericin (SS) is a glue-like protein from silkworm cocoon. With its outstanding moisturization and activation collagen synthesis properties, silk protein is applied for wound healing. Since wound dressing in film preparation can facilitate patients- convenience and reduce risk of wound contraction, SS and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films were prepared with various concentrations of SS. Their physical properties such as surface density, light transmission, protein dissolution and tensile modulus were investigated. The results presented that 3% SS with 2% PVA is the best ingredient for SS film forming.

Keywords: Sericin, silk protein, film, wound healing.

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356 Composition Dependent Formation of Sputtered Co-Cu Film on Cr Under-Layer

Authors: Watcharee Rattanasakulthong, Pichai Sirisangsawang, Supree Pinitsoontorn

Abstract:

Sputtered CoxCu100-x films with the different compositions of x = 57.7, 45.8, 25.5, 13.8, 8.8, 7.5 and 1.8 were deposited on Cr under-layer by RF-sputtering. SEM result reveals that the averaged thickness of Co-Cu film and Cr under-layer are 92 nm and 22nm, respectively. All Co-Cu films are composed of Co (FCC) and Cu (FCC) phases in (111) directions on BCC-Cr (110) under-layers. Magnetic properties, surface roughness and morphology of Co-Cu films are dependent on the film composition. The maximum and minimum surface roughness of 3.24 and 1.16nm are observed on the Co7.5Cu92.5 and Co45.8Cu54.2films, respectively. It can be described that the variance of surface roughness of the film because of the difference of the agglomeration rate of Co and Cu atoms on Cr under-layer. The Co57.5Cu42.3, Co45.8Cu54.2 and Co25.5Cu74.5 films shows the ferromagnetic phase whereas the rest of the film exhibits the paramagnetic phase at room temperature. The saturation magnetization, remnant magnetization and coercive field of Co-Cu films on Cr under-layer are slightly increased with increasing the Co composition. It can be concluded that the required magnetic properties and surface roughness of the Co-Cu film can be adapted by the adjustment of the film composition.

Keywords: Co-Cu films, Under-layers, Sputtering, Surface roughness, Magnetic properties, Atomic force microscopy (AFM).

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355 Principles of Editing and Story Telling in Relation to Editorial Graphic Design

Authors: Melike Taşcıoğlu

Abstract:

This paper aims to combine film-editing principles with basic design principles to explore what graphic designers do in terms of storytelling. The sequential aspect of film is designed and examined through the art of editing. Examining the rules, principles and formulas of film editing can be a used as a method by graphic designers to further practice the art of storytelling. There are many publications and extensive research on design basics; however, time, pace, dramatic structure and choreography are not very well defined in the area of graphic design. In this era of creative storytelling and interdisciplinary collaboration, not only film editors, but also graphic designers and students of art and design should understand the theory and practice of editing to be able to create a strong mise-en-scène and not only a mise-en-page.

Keywords: Design principles, editing principles, editorial design, film editing, graphic design, storytelling.

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354 Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Hybrid Blends of LLDPE/Starch/PVA

Authors: Rahmah, M., Farhan, M., Akidah, N.M.Y

Abstract:

Polybag and mulch film in agricultural field are used plastics which caused environmental problems after transplantation and planting processes due to the discarded wastes. Thus a degradable polybag was designed in this study to replace non degradable polybag with natural biodegradable resin that is widely available, namely sago starch (SS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Hybrid blend consists of SS, PVA and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) was compounded at different ratios. The thermal and mechanical properties of the blends were investigated. Hybrid films underwent landfill degradation tests for up to 2 months. The films showed gelation and melting transition existed for all three systems with significant melting peaks by LLDPE and PVA. All hybrid blends loses its LLDPE semi crystalline characteristics as PVA and SS systems had disrupted crystallinity and enhanced the amorphosity of the hybrid system. Generally, blending SS with PVA improves the mechanical properties of the SS based materials. Tensile strength of each film was also decreased with the increase of SS contents while its modulus had increased with SS content.

Keywords: Appearance peak, LLDPE, PVA, sago starch.

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353 Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method

Authors: M. Babaeipour, M. Vejdanihemmat

Abstract:

Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.

Keywords: 1H-CaAlSi, absorption, bulk, optical, thin film.

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352 Generation of Highly Ordered Porous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Film by A Simple Coating Method with Colloidal Template

Authors: Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto, Asep Suhendi, Yutaka Kisakibaru, Takashi Ogi, Kikuo Okuyama

Abstract:

An ordered porous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) film was successfully prepared using a simple coating process with colloidal templates. The facile production was effective when a combination of 16-nm ATO (as a model of an inorganic nanoparticle) and polystyrene (PS) spheres (as a model of the template) weresimply coated to produce a composite ATO/PS film. Heat treatment was then used to remove the PS and produce the porous film. The porous film with a spherical pore shape and a highly ordered porous structure could be obtained. A potential way for the control of pore size could be also achieved by changing initial template size. The theoretical explanation and mechanism of porous formation were also added, which would be important for the scaling-up prediction and estimation.

Keywords: Porous structure film; ATO particle; Ultra-low refractive index; vertical drop method; Low-density material;

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351 Thermal and Starvation Effects on Lubricated Elliptical Contacts at High Rolling/Sliding Speeds

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Surjit Angra

Abstract:

The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.

Keywords: Starvation, lubrication, elliptical contact, traction, minimum film thickness.

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350 The TiO2 Refraction Film for CsI Scintillator

Authors: C. C. Chen, C. W. Hun, C. J. Wang, C. Y. Chen, J. S. Lin, K. J. Huang

Abstract:

Cesium iodide (CsI) melt was injected into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and was solidified to CsI column. The controllable AAO channel size (10~500 nm) can makes CsI column size from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. In order to have a shorter light irradiate from each singe CsI column top to bottom the AAO template was coated a TiO2 nano-film. The TiO2 film acts a refraction film and makes X-ray has a shorter irradiation path in the CsI crystal making a stronger the photo-electron signal. When the incidence light irradiate from air (R=1.0) to CsI’s first surface (R=1.84) the first refraction happen, the first refraction continue into TiO2 film (R=2.88) and produces the low angle of the second refraction. Then the second refraction continue into AAO wall (R=1.78) and produces the third refraction after refractions between CsI and AAO wall (R=1.78) produce the fourth refraction. The incidence light through TiO2 filmand the first surface of CsI then arrive to the second surface of CsI. Therefore, the TiO2 film can has shorter refraction path of incidence light and increase the photo-electron conversion efficiency.

Keywords: Cesium iodide, AAO, TiO2, Refraction, X-ray.

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349 Lactic Acid-Chitosan Films’ Properties and Their in vivo Wound Healing Activity

Authors: T. S. Moe, T. A. Khaing

Abstract:

Chitosan is a derivative of chitin, a compound usually isolated from the shells of some crustaceans such as crab, lobster and shrimp. It has biocompatible, biodegradable, and antimicrobial properties. To use these properties of chitosan in biomedical fields, chitosan films (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) were prepared by using l% lactic acid as solvent. The effects of chitosan films on tensile strength, elongation at break, degree of swelling, thickness, morphology, allergic and irritation reactions and antibacterial property were evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were used as tested microorganisms. In vivo wound healing activities of chitosan films were investigated using mice model. As results, Chitosan films have similar appearance and good swelling properties and 4% chitosan film showed the better swelling activity and the greatest elongation ratio than the other chitosan films. They also showed their good activity of wound healing in mice model. Moreover, the results showed that the films did not produce any unwilling symptoms (allergy or irritation). In conclusion, it is evident that the chitosan film has the potentiality to use as wound healing biofilms in the biomedical fields.

Keywords: Chitosan, wound healing, antibacterial activity.

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348 Altered States of Consciousness in Narrative Cinema: Subjective Film Sound

Authors: Mladen Milicevic

Abstract:

In this paper subjective film sound will be addressed as it gets represented in narrative cinema. First, “meta-diegetic” sound will be briefly explained followed by transition to “oneiric” sound. The representation of oneiric sound refers to a situation where film characters are experiencing some sort of an altered state of consciousness. Looking at an antlered state of consciousness in terms of human brain processes will point out to the cinematic ways of expression, which “mimic” those processes. Using several examples for different films will illustrate these points.

Keywords: Oneiric, ASC (altered states of consciousness), film, sound.

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