Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 133

Search results for: Anang Hudaya Muhamad Amin

133 Time Comparative Simulator for Distributed Process Scheduling Algorithms

Authors: Nazleeni Samiha Haron, Anang Hudaya Muhamad Amin, Mohd Hilmi Hasan, Izzatdin Abdul Aziz, Wirdhayu Mohd Wahid

Abstract:

In any distributed systems, process scheduling plays a vital role in determining the efficiency of the system. Process scheduling algorithms are used to ensure that the components of the system would be able to maximize its utilization and able to complete all the processes assigned in a specified period of time. This paper focuses on the development of comparative simulator for distributed process scheduling algorithms. The objectives of the works that have been carried out include the development of the comparative simulator, as well as to implement a comparative study between three distributed process scheduling algorithms; senderinitiated, receiver-initiated and hybrid sender-receiver-initiated algorithms. The comparative study was done based on the Average Waiting Time (AWT) and Average Turnaround Time (ATT) of the processes involved. The simulation results show that the performance of the algorithms depends on the number of nodes in the system.

Keywords: Distributed Systems, Load Sharing, Process Scheduling, AWT and ATT

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132 High Optical Properties and Rectifying Behavior of ZnO (Nano and Microstructures)/Si Heterostructures

Authors: Ramin Yousefi, Muhamad. Rasat. Muhamad

Abstract:

We investigated a modified thermal evaporation method in the growth process of ZnO nanowires. ZnO nanowires were fabricated on p-type silicon substrates without using a metal catalyst. A simple horizontal double-tube system along with chemical vapor diffusion of the precursor was used to grow the ZnO nanowires. The substrates were placed in different temperature zones, and ZnO nanowires with different diameters were obtained for the different substrate temperatures. In addition to the nanowires, ZnO microdiscs with different diameters were obtained on another substrate, which was placed at a lower temperature than the other substrates. The optical properties and crystalline quality of the ZnO nanowires and microdiscs were characterized by room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrometers. The PL and Raman studies demonstrated that the ZnO nanowires and microdiscs grown using such set-up had good crystallinity with excellent optical properties. Rectifying behavior of ZnO/Si heterostructures was characterized by a simple DC circuit.

Keywords: ZnO nano and microstructures, Photoluminescence, Raman, Rectifying behavior.

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131 Erythema Multiforme Exudativum Major Caused by Isoniazid Hypersensitivity in a Child

Authors: Azwin Lubis, Rika Hapsari, Zahrah Hikmah, Anang Endaryanto, Ariyanto Harsono

Abstract:

Erythema Multiforme Exudativum Major (EMEM) is one of the drug allergy diseases. Drug allergies caused by isoniazid rarely causes EMEM. Cutaneous reactions caused by isoniazid were obtained in 0.98% of patients, but the precise occurrence of Steven Johnson’s Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermolisis Necrolisis (TEN) due to isoniazid is not known for certain. We present this case to show hypersensitivity of isoniazid in a child. Based on the history of drug intake, physical diagnostic tests, drug elimination and provocation; we established the diagnosis of isoniazid hypersensitivity. The child showed improvement on skin manifestation after stopped isoniazid therapy.

Keywords: Erythema Multiforme Exudativum Major, hypersensitivity, elimination test, provocation test.

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130 Performance Evaluation of Low Density Parity Check Codes

Authors: Othman O. Khalifa, Sheroz khan, Mohamad Zaid, Muhamad Nawawi

Abstract:

This paper mainly about the study on one of the widely used error correcting codes that is Low parity check Codes (LDPC). In this paper, the Regular LDPC code has been discussed The LDPC codes explained in this paper is about the Regular Binary LDPC codes or the Gallager.

Keywords: LDPC, channel coding.

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129 E-Books in Malaysian Primary Schools: The Terengganu Chapter

Authors: Azelin Mohamed Noor, Abd Mutalib Embong, Muhamad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah

Abstract:

After the Terengganu state government decided to give a boost in teaching and learning through the allocation of free ebooks to all Primary five and six students; it was time to examine the presence of e-books in the classrooms. A survey was conducted on 101 students to determine how they felt about using the e-book and their experiences. It was discovered that a majority of these students liked using the e-book. However, although they had little problems using the e-book and the e-book helped to lighten the schoolbags, these new-age textbooks were not fully utilized. It is implied that perhaps the school administrators, teachers and students may not be able to overcome the unfamiliar characteristics of the e-book and its limitations.

Keywords: E-books, students, classroom, limitations

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128 Estimating Enzyme Kinetic Parameters from Apparent KMs and Vmaxs

Authors: Simon Brown, Noorzaid Muhamad, David C Simcock

Abstract:

The kinetic properties of enzymes are often reported using the apparent KM and Vmax appropriate to the standard Michaelis-Menten enzyme. However, this model is inappropriate to enzymes that have more than one substrate or where the rate expression does not apply for other reasons. Consequently, it is desirable to have a means of estimating the appropriate kinetic parameters from the apparent values of KM and Vmax reported for each substrate. We provide a means of estimating the range within which the parameters should lie and apply the method to data for glutamate dehydrogenase from the nematode parasite of sheep Teladorsagia circumcincta.

Keywords: enzyme kinetics, glutamate dehydrogenase, intervalanalysis, parameter estimation.

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127 Factors Affecting Employee Performance: A Case Study in Marketing and Trading Directorate, Pertamina Ltd.

Authors: Saptiadi Nugroho, A. Nur Muhamad Afif

Abstract:

Understanding factors that influence employee performance is very important. By finding the significant factors, organization could intervene to improve the employee performance that simultaneously will affect organization itself. In this research, four aspects consist of PCCD training, education level, corrective action, and work location were tested to identify their influence on employee performance. By using correlation analysis and T-Test, it was found that employee performance significantly influenced by PCCD training, work location, and corrective action. Meanwhile the education level did not influence employee performance.

Keywords: Training, employee development, performance management system.

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126 A Review on WEB Resources in Teaching of Geotechnical Engineering

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz

Abstract:

The use of computer hardware and software in education and training dates to the early 1940s, when American researchers developed flight simulators which used analog computers to generate simulated onboard instrument data.Computer software is widely used to help engineers and undergraduate student solve their problems quickly and more accurately. This paper presents the list of computer software in geotechnical engineering.

Keywords: Geotechnical, Teaching, Courseware

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125 Supply Chain Management: After Business Process Re-Engineering

Authors: Wan Hasrulnizzam Wan Mahmood, Mohd Razali Muhamad, Nurulain Mat Tahar

Abstract:

This paper is prepared to provide a review of how an automotive manufacturer, ISUZU HICOM Malaysia Co. Ltd. sustained the supply chain management after business process reengineering in 2007. One of the authors is currently undergoing industrial attachment and has spent almost 6 months researching in the production and operation management system of the company. This study was carried out as part of the tasks in the attachment program. The result shows that delivery lateness and outsourcing are the main barriers that affected productivity. From the gap analysis, the authors found that new business process operation had improved suppliers delivery performance.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Business Process Re- Engineering, Delivery, Outsourcing, Automotive Manufacturer.

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124 Adsorption of Copper by using Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash (MIRHA)

Authors: N.A.Johan, S.R.M.Kutty, M. H. Isa, N.S.Muhamad, H.Hashim

Abstract:

Many non-conventional adsorbent have been studied as economic alternative to commercial activated carbon and mostly agricultural waste have been introduced such as rubber leaf powder and hazelnut shell. Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash (MIRHA), produced from the rice husk is one of the low-cost materials that were used as adsorbent of heavy metal. The aim of this research was to study the feasibility of using MIRHA500 and MIRHA800 as adsorbent for the removal of Cu(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions by the batch studies. The adsorption of Cu(II) into MIRHA500 and MIRH800 favors Fruendlich isotherm and imply pseudo – kinetic second order which applied chemisorptions

Keywords: Copper (II) aqueous solution, batch study, MIRHA500, MIRHA800, Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash(MIRHA)

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123 Ethanol Fuelled HCCI Engine: A Review

Authors: B. Bahri, A. A. Aziz, M. Shahbakhti, M. F. Muhamad Said

Abstract:

The greenhouse effect and limitations on carbon dioxide emissions concern engine maker and the future of the internal combustion engines should go toward substantially and improved thermal efficiency engine. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative high-efficiency technology for combustion engines to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, there are still tough challenges in the successful operation of HCCI engines, such as controlling the combustion phasing, extending the operating range, and high unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. HCCI and the exploitation of ethanol as an alternative fuel is one way to explore new frontiers of internal combustion engines with an eye towards maintaining its sustainability. This study was done to extend database knowledge about HCCI with ethanol a fuel.

Keywords: Ethanol combustion, Ethanol fuel, HCCI.

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122 Virtual Laboratory for Learning Biology – A Preliminary Investigation

Authors: Murniza Muhamad, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Azlina Ahmad

Abstract:

This study aims to conduct a preliminary investigation to determine the topic to be focused in developing Virtual Laboratory For Biology (VLab-Bio). Samples involved in answering the questionnaire are form five students (equivalent to A-Level) and biology teachers. Time and economical resources for the setting up and construction of scientific laboratories can be solved with the adaptation of virtual laboratories as an educational tool. Thus, it is hoped that the proposed virtual laboratory will help students to learn the abstract concepts in biology. Findings show that the difficult topic chosen is Cell Division and the learning objective to be focused in developing the virtual lab is “Describe the application of knowledge on mitosis in cloning".

Keywords: biology education, computer simulation, virtual laboratory, virtual reality

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121 The Role of Cultural Transformation in Telco Strategy

Authors: F. Amin, S. Feizi

Abstract:

This paper describes the complex nature of organizational culture and its role in telecom organizations. To set the stage for culture change, the literature is reviewed for perspective on the role and function of culture in organizations. Organizational the­orists as well as business consultants report that a strong organizational culture is essential for success because the shared assumptions, values and culture of an organization influence the behavior of its individual members.

Keywords: Component, Telecommunication, Management, Cultural, Transformation.

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120 Soil Laboratory Classes in Curtin University, Australia

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz

Abstract:

Soil mechanics is a traditional course in any university. Management of lab classes is one of the main issues to deliver a proper outline. In Curtin University, different methods applied to check the efficiency of these methods. One of them was mainly rely on demonstration and the other one mainly on involving students in running tests. Comparison between these delivery methods also are outlined in summary section. The recommendation also made that the more satisfaction is reachable while the students engaged.

Keywords: Soil, Geomechanic, Laboratory.

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119 LabVIEW with Fuzzy Logic Controller Simulation Panel for Condition Monitoring of Oil and Dry Type Transformer

Authors: N. A. Muhamad, S.A.M. Ali

Abstract:

Condition monitoring of electrical power equipment has attracted considerable attention for many years. The aim of this paper is to use Labview with Fuzzy Logic controller to build a simulation system to diagnose transformer faults and monitor its condition. The front panel of the system was designed using LabVIEW to enable computer to act as customer-designed instrument. The dissolved gas-in-oil analysis (DGA) method was used as technique for oil type transformer diagnosis; meanwhile terminal voltages and currents analysis method was used for dry type transformer. Fuzzy Logic was used as expert system that assesses all information keyed in at the front panel to diagnose and predict the condition of the transformer. The outcome of the Fuzzy Logic interpretation will be displayed at front panel of LabVIEW to show the user the conditions of the transformer at any time.

Keywords: LabVIEW, Fuzzy Logic, condition monitoring, oiltransformer, dry transformer, DGA, terminal values.

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118 Augmenting Use Case View for Modeling

Authors: Pradip Peter Dey, Bhaskar Raj Sinha, Mohammad Amin, Hassan Badkoobehi

Abstract:

Mathematical, graphical and intuitive models are often constructed in the development process of computational systems. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is one of the most popular modeling languages used by practicing software engineers. This paper critically examines UML models and suggests an augmented use case view with the addition of new constructs for modeling software. It also shows how a use case diagram can be enhanced. The improved modeling constructs are presented with examples for clarifying important design and implementation issues.

Keywords: Software architecture, software design, Unified Modeling Language (UML), user interface.

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117 Modes of Collapse of Compress–Expand Member under Axial Loading

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Aidil Khaidir Bin Muhamad, Ken Kaminishi, Dai-Heng Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, a study on the modes of collapse of compress- expand members are presented. Compress- expand member is a compact, multiple-combined cylinders, to be proposed as energy absorbers. Previous studies on the compress- expand member have clarified its energy absorption efficiency, proposed an approximate equation to describe its deformation characteristics and also highlighted the improvement that it has brought. However, for the member to be practical, the actual range of geometrical dimension that it can maintain its applicability must be investigated. In this study, using a virtualized materials that comply the bilinear hardening law, Finite element Method (FEM) analysis on the collapse modes of compress- expand member have been conducted. Deformation maps that plotted the member's collapse modes with regards to the member's geometric and material parameters were then presented in order to determine the dimensional range of each collapse modes.

Keywords: Axial collapse, compress-expand member, tubular member, finite element method, modes of collapse, thin-walled cylindrical tube.

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116 PSO-Based Planning of Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations

Authors: Amin Hajizadeh, Ehsan Hajizadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents a multi-objective formulation for optimal siting and sizing of distributed generation (DG) resources in distribution systems in order to minimize the cost of power losses and energy not supplied. The implemented technique is based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and weight method that employed to obtain the best compromise between these costs. Simulation results on 33-bus distribution test system are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed procedure.

Keywords: Distributed generation, distribution networks, particle swarm optimization, reliability, weight method

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115 Efficiency of Geocell Reinforcement for Using in Expanded Polystyrene Embankments via Numerical Analysis

Authors: S. N. Moghaddas Tafreshi, S. M. Amin Ghotbi

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical study for investigating the effectiveness of geocell reinforcement in reducing pressure and settlement over EPS geofoam blocks in road embankments. A 3-D FEM model of soil and geofoam was created in ABAQUS, and geocell was also modeled realistically using membrane elements. The accuracy of the model was tested by comparing its results with previous works. Sensitivity analyses showed that reinforcing the soil cover with geocell has a significant influence on the reduction of imposed stresses over geofoam and consequently decreasing its deformation.

Keywords: EPS geofoam, road embankments, geocell, reinforcement, lightweight fill.

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114 A High Accuracy Measurement Circuit for Soil Moisture Detection

Authors: Sheroz Khan, A. H. M. Zahirul Alam, Othman O. Khalifa, Mohd Rafiqul Islam, Zuraidah Zainudin, Muzna S. Khan, Nurul Iman Muhamad Pauzi

Abstract:

The study of soil for agriculture purposes has remained the main focus of research since the beginning of civilization as humans- food related requirements remained closely linked with the soil. The study of soil has generated an interest among the researchers for very similar other reasons including transmission, reflection and refraction of signals for deploying wireless underground sensor networks or for the monitoring of objects on (or in ) soil in the form of better understanding of soil electromagnetic characteristics properties. The moisture content has been very instrumental in such studies as it decides on the resistance of the soil, and hence the attenuation on signals traveling through soil or the attenuation the signals may suffer upon their impact on soil. This work is related testing and characterizing a measurement circuit meant for the detection of moisture level content in soil.

Keywords: Analog–digital Conversion, Bridge Circuits, Intelligent sensors, Pulse Time Modulation, Relaxation Oscillator

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113 Characterization of Banana (Musa spp.) Pseudo-Stem and Fruit-Bunch-Stem as a Potential Renewable Energy Resource

Authors: Nurhayati Abdullah, Fauziah Sulaiman, Muhamad Azman Miskam, Rahmad Mohd Taib

Abstract:

Banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are agricultural residues that can be used for conversion to bio-char, biooil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 11.0 mf wt.% and 20.6 mf wt.%; while the carbon content of banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are 37.9 mf wt.% and 35.58 mf wt.% respectively. The molecular formulas for banana stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are C24H33NO26 and C19H29NO33 respectively. The measured higher heating values of banana pseudostem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 15.5MJ/kg and 12.7 MJ/kg respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The feasibility of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Banana Waste, Biomass, Renewable Energy, Thermo-chemical Characteristics.

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112 Analysis of Public-Key Cryptography for Wireless Sensor Networks Security

Authors: F. Amin, A. H. Jahangir, H. Rasifard

Abstract:

With the widespread growth of applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), the need for reliable security mechanisms these networks has increased manifold. Many security solutions have been proposed in the domain of WSN so far. These solutions are usually based on well-known cryptographic algorithms. In this paper, we have made an effort to survey well known security issues in WSNs and study the behavior of WSN nodes that perform public key cryptographic operations. We evaluate time and power consumption of public key cryptography algorithm for signature and key management by simulation.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Security, Public Key Cryptography, Key Management.

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111 Validity and Reliability of Competency Assessment Implementation (CAI) Instrument Using Rasch Model

Authors: Nurfirdawati Muhamad Hanafi, Azmanirah Ab Rahman, Marina Ibrahim Mukhtar, Jamil Ahmad, Sarebah Warman

Abstract:

This study was conducted to generate empirical evidence on validity and reliability of the item of Competency Assessment Implementation (CAI) Instrument using Rasch Model for polythomous data aided by Winstep software version 3.68. The construct validity was examined by analyzing the point-measure correlation index (PTMEA), infit and outfit MNSQ values; meanwhile the reliability was examined by analyzing item reliability index. A survey technique was used as the major method with the CAI instrument on 156 teachers from vocational schools. The results have shown that the reliability of CAI Instrument items were between 0.80 and 0.98. PTMEA Correlation is in positive values, in which the item is able to distinguish between the ability of the respondent. Statistical data obtained show that out of 154 items, 12 items from the instrument suggested to be omitted. This study is hoped could bring a new direction to the process of data analysis in educational research.

Keywords: Competency Assessment, Reliability, Validity, Item Analysis.

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110 Study on the Deformation Modes of an Axially Crushed Compact Impact Absorption Member

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Dai-Heng Chen, Aidil Khaidir Bin Muhamad

Abstract:

In this paper, the deformation modes of a compact impact absorption member subjected to axial compression are investigated using finite element method and experiments. A multiple combination compact impact absorption member, referred to as a 'compress-expand member', is proposed to substitute the conventional thin-walled circular tube. This study found that the proposed compact impact absorption member has stable load increase characteristics and a wider range of high load efficiency (Pave/Pmax) than the thin-walled circular tube. Moreover, the proposed compact impact absorption member can absorb larger loads in a smaller radius than the thin-walled cylindrical tube, as it can maintain its stable deformation in increased wall thicknesses.

Keywords: axial collapse, compact impact absorption member, finite element method, thin-walled cylindrical tube.

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109 On Constructing Approximate Convex Hull

Authors: M. Zahid Hossain, M. Ashraful Amin

Abstract:

The algorithms of convex hull have been extensively studied in literature, principally because of their wide range of applications in different areas. This article presents an efficient algorithm to construct approximate convex hull from a set of n points in the plane in O(n + k) time, where k is the approximation error control parameter. The proposed algorithm is suitable for applications preferred to reduce the computation time in exchange of accuracy level such as animation and interaction in computer graphics where rapid and real-time graphics rendering is indispensable.

Keywords: Convex hull, Approximation algorithm, Computational geometry, Linear time.

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108 An Optimization Analysis on an Automotive Component with Fatigue Constraint Using HyperWorks Software for Environmental Sustainability

Authors: W. M. Wan Muhamad, E. Sujatmika, M.R. Idris, S.A. Syed Ahmad

Abstract:

A finite element analysis (FEA) computer software HyperWorks is utilized in re-designing an automotive component to reduce its mass. Reduction of components mass contributes towards environmental sustainability by saving world-s valuable metal resources and by reducing carbon emission through improved overall vehicle fuel efficiency. A shape optimization analysis was performed on a rear spindle component. Pre-processing and solving procedures were performed using HyperMesh and RADIOSS respectively. Shape variables were defined using HyperMorph. Then optimization solver OptiStruct was utilized with fatigue life set as a design constraint. Since Stress-Number of Cycle (S-N) theory deals with uni-axial stress, the Signed von Misses stress on the component was used for looking up damage on S-N curve, and Gerber criterion for mean stress corrections. The optimization analysis resulted in mass reduction of 24% of the original mass. The study proved that the adopted approach has high potential use for environmental sustainability.

Keywords: Environmental Sustainability, Shape Optimization, Fatigue, Rear Spindle.

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107 Design an Electrical Nose with ZnO Nanowire Arrays

Authors: Amin Nekoubin, Abdolamir Nekoubin

Abstract:

Vertical ZnO nanowire array films were synthesized based on aqueous method for sensing applications. ZnO nanowires were investigated structurally using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanowires array films are studied. It is found that the ZnO nanowires array film sensor exhibits excellent sensing properties towards O2 and CO2 at 100 °C with the response time shorter than 5 s. High surface area / volume ratio of vertical ZnO nanowire and high mobility accounts for the fast response and recovery. The sensor response was measured in the range from 100 to 500 ppm O2 and CO2 in this study.

Keywords: Gas sensor, semiconductor, ZnO, Nanowire array

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106 A Robotic Cube to Preschool Children for Acquiring the Mathematical and Colours Concepts

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Tamer M. Ismail, M. Abd El Salam

Abstract:

This work presents a robot called Conceptual Robotic Cube, CR-Cube. The robot can be used as an educational tool for children from the age of three. It has a cube shape attached with a camera colours sensor. In addition, it contains four wheels to move smoothly. The researchers prepared a questionnaire to measure the efficiency of the robot. The design and the questionnaire was presented to 11 experts who agreed that the robot is appropriate for learning numbering and colours for preschool children.

Keywords: CR-Cube, robotic cube, conceptual robot, conceptual cube, colour concept, early childhood education.

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105 New Fuzzy Preference Relations and its Application in Group Decision Making

Authors: Nur Syibrah Muhamad Naim, Mohd Lazim Abdullah, Che Mohd Imran Che Taib, Abu OsmanMd. Tap

Abstract:

Decision making preferences to certain criteria usually focus on positive degrees without considering the negative degrees. However, in real life situation, evaluation becomes more comprehensive if negative degrees are considered concurrently. Preference is expected to be more effective when considering both positive and negative degrees of preference to evaluate the best selection. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to propose the conflicting bifuzzy preference relations in group decision making by utilization of a novel score function. The conflicting bifuzzy preference relation is obtained by introducing some modifications on intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations. Releasing the intuitionistic condition by taking into account positive and negative degrees simultaneously and utilizing the novel score function are the main modifications to establish the proposed preference model. The proposed model is tested with a numerical example and proved to be simple and practical. The four-step decision model shows the efficiency of obtaining preference in group decision making.

Keywords: Fuzzy preference relations, score function, conflicting bifuzzy, decision making.

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104 Teachers- Perceptions on the Use of E-Books as Textbooks in the Classroom

Authors: Abd Mutalib Embong, Azelin M Noor, Razol Mahari M Ali, Zulqarnain Abu Bakar, Abdur- Rahman Mohamed Amin

Abstract:

At the time where electronic books, or e-Books, offer students a fun way of learning , teachers who are used to the paper text books may find it as a new challenge to use it as a part of learning process. Precisely, there are various types of e-Books available to suit students- knowledge, characteristics, abilities, and interests. The paper discusses teachers- perceptions on the use of ebooks as a paper text book in the classroom. A survey was conducted on 72 teachers who use e-books as textbooks. It was discovered that a majority of these teachers had good perceptions on the use of ebooks. However, they had little problems using the devices. It can be overcome with some strategies and a suggested framework.

Keywords: Classroom, E-books, perception, teacher.

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