Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Fatty acid profile

9 Oil Extraction from Microalgae Dunalliela sp. by Polar and Non-Polar Solvents

Authors: A. Zonouzi, M. Auli, M. Javanmard Dakheli, M. A. Hejazi

Abstract:

Microalgae are tiny photosynthetic plants. Nowadays, microalgae are being used as nutrient-dense foods and sources of fine chemicals. They have significant amounts of lipid, carotenoids, vitamins, protein, minerals, chlorophyll, and pigments. Oil extraction from algae is a hotly debated topic currently because introducing an efficient method could decrease the process cost. This can determine the sustainability of algae-based foods. Scientific research works show that solvent extraction using chloroform/methanol (2:1) mixture is one of the efficient methods for oil extraction from algal cells, but both methanol and chloroform are toxic solvents, and therefore, the extracted oil will not be suitable for food application. In this paper, the effect of two food grade solvents (hexane and hexane/ isopropanol) on oil extraction yield from microalgae Dunaliella sp. was investigated and the results were compared with chloroform/methanol (2:1) extraction yield. It was observed that the oil extraction yield using hexane, hexane/isopropanol (3:2) and chloroform/methanol (2:1) mixture were 5.4, 13.93, and 17.5 (% w/w, dry basis), respectively. The fatty acid profile derived from GC illustrated that the palmitic (36.62%), oleic (18.62%), and stearic acids (19.08%) form the main portion of fatty acid composition of microalgae Dunalliela sp. oil. It was concluded that, the addition of isopropanol as polar solvent could increase the extraction yield significantly. Isopropanol solves cell wall phospholipids and enhances the release of intercellular lipids, which improves accessing of hexane to fatty acids.

Keywords: Fatty acid profile, Microalgae, Oil extraction, Polar solvent.

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8 Effects of Four Dietary Oils on Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

Authors: A. F. Agboola, B. R. O. Omidiwura, A. Oyeyemi, E. A. Iyayi, A. S. Adelani

Abstract:

Dietary cholesterol has elicited the most public interest as it relates with coronary heart disease. Thus, humans have been paying more attention to health, thereby reducing consumption of cholesterol enriched food. Egg is considered as one of the major sources of human dietary cholesterol. However, an alternative way to reduce the potential cholesterolemic effect of eggs is to modify the fatty acid composition of the yolk. The effect of palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO), sesame seed oil (SSO) and fish oil (FO) supplementation in the diets of layers on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol, egg production and egg quality parameters were evaluated in a 42-day feeding trial. One hundred and five Isa Brown laying hens of 34 weeks of age were randomly distributed into seven groups of five replicates and three birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Seven corn-soybean basal diets (BD) were formulated: BD+No oil (T1), BD+1.5% PO (T2), BD+1.5% SO (T3), BD+1.5% SSO (T4), BD+1.5% FO (T5), BD+0.75% SO+0.75% FO (T6) and BD+0.75% SSO+0.75% FO (T7). Five eggs were randomly sampled at day 42 from each replicate to assay for the cholesterol, fatty acid profile of egg yolk and egg quality assessment. Results showed that there were no significant (P>0.05) differences observed in production performance, egg cholesterol and egg quality parameters except for yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, egg shape index, haugh unit, and yolk colour. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) observed in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels of egg yolk across the treatments. However, diets had effect (P<0.05) on TAG (triacylglycerol) and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) of the egg yolk. The highest TAG (603.78 mg/dl) and VLDL values (120.76 mg/dl) were recorded in eggs of hens on T4 (1.5% sesame seed oil) and was similar to those on T3 (1.5% soybean oil), T5 (1.5% fish oil) and T6 (0.75% soybean oil + 0.75% fish oil). However, results revealed a significant (P<0.05) variations on eggs’ summation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). In conclusion, it is suggested that dietary oils could be included in layers’ diets to produce designer eggs low in cholesterol and high in PUFA especially omega-3 fatty acids.

Keywords: Dietary oils, Egg cholesterol, Egg fatty acid profile, Egg quality parameters.

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7 Growth Behaviors, Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Secretion and Fatty Acid Profiles of Acid-adapted and Non-adapted Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Authors: Ming-Lun Chiang, Chieh Wu, Ming-Ju Chen

Abstract:

Three strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (690, BCRC 13023 and BCRC 13025) implicated in food poisoning outbreaks in Taiwan were subjected to acid adaptation at pH 5.5 for 90 min. The growth behaviors of acid-adapted and non-adapted V. parahaemolyticus in the media supplemented with various nitrogen and carbon sources were investigated. The effects of acid adaptation on the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) secretion and fatty acid profiles of V. parahaemolyticus were also examined. Results showed that acid-adapted and non-adapted V. parahaemolyticus 690, BCRC 13023 and BCRC 13025 grew similarly in TSB-3% NaCl and basal media supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources during incubation period. Higher TDH secretion was noted with V. parahaemolyticus 690 among the three strains. However, acid-adapted strains produced less amounts of TDH than non-adapted strains when they were grown in TSB-3% NaCl. Additionally, acid adaptation increased the ratio of SFA/USFA in cells of V. parahaemolyticus strains.

Keywords: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, acid adaptation, thermostable direct hemolysin, fatty acid profile.

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6 Fatty Acid Profile of Meat from Lambs Fed on Diets Containing Mulberry Hay

Authors: A. G. Silva Sobrinho, L. G. A. Cirne, V. T. Santana

Abstract:

The aim of this trial was to evaluate fatty acid profile of meat from lambs fed on diets containing 0, 12.5 and 25.0% mulberry hay as a substitute for the concentrate. Twenty-four feedlot Ile de France lambs (average weight of 15kg and average age of 60 days) were randomized to receive the different diets and slaughtered at 32kg body weight. Increases were observed in the concentrations of the saturated pentadecanoic, heptadecanoic and arachidic fatty acids; of the monounsaturated nervonic fatty acid and of the polyunsaturated α-linolenic, ɣ-linolenic and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids. Increased conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was also found in the meat of lambs fed on 12.5% mulberry hay. In addition, the omega-3 composition was augmented, while the omega-3/omega-6 ratio was decreased in mulberry hay-fed animals. In conclusion, a more desirable fatty acid profile was observed in lamb meat following the substitution of mulberry hay in the concentrate of fed, resulting in improved nutritional characteristics of the meat.

Keywords: Alternative food, fatty acids, feedlot, sheep meat.

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5 Effect of Feeding Systems on Meat Goat CLA

Authors: P. Paengkoum, A. Lukkananukool, S. Bureenok, Y. Kawamoto, Y. Imura, J. Mitchaothai, S. Paengkoum, S. Traiyakun

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tropical forage source and feeding system on fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity in meat goats. Twenty male crossbred goats (Boer x Saanen), were included in the current study and the study design was assigned to be a 2 x 3 factorial in completely randomized design. All goats were slaughtered after 120 days of experimental period. Dietary tropical roughage sources were grass (Mulata II) and legume (Verano stylo). Both types of roughage were offered to the experimental meat goat as 3 feeding regimes; cut-and-carry, silage and grazing. All goats were fed basal concentrate diet at 1.5% of body weight, and they were fed ad libitum the roughages.Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and antioxidation activity of dietary treatments in all feeding system and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles in all groups were quantified. The results have shown that the fat content in both types of studied roughage sources ranged from about 2.0% to 4.0% of DM and the fatty acid composition of those was mainly C16:0, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3, with less proportion for C18:1n9. The free-radical scavenging activity of the Mulato II was lower than that of the Verano stylo. The free-radical scavenging activity of the Mulato II was lower than that of the Verano stylo. For LD muscle, the fatty acid composition was mainly C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9, with less proportion for C18:2n6. The LD muscle of the goats fed with Mulato II and the Verano stylo by grazing had highest free-radical scavenging activity, compared to those fed with cut-and-carry and silage regime, although there were rather high unsaturated fatty acids in LD muscle. Thus, feeding the meat goats with the Mulato II and Verano stylo by grazing would be beneficial effect for consumers to intake high unsaturated fatty acids and lower risk for oxidation from goat meat.

Keywords: Feeding system, goat, CLA, meat.

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4 Supplementation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae or Lactobacillus Acidophilus in Goats Diets

Authors: Pramote Paengkoum, Y. Han , S. Traiyakun, J. Khotsakdee, S. Paengkoum

Abstract:

This experiment was performed with the purpose of investigating effect of additional blend of probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus on plasma fatty acid profiles particularly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in growing goats fed corn silage, and selected the optimal levels of the probiotics for further study. Twenty-four growing crossbred (Thai native x Anglo-Nubian) goats that weighed (14.2 ± 2.3) kg, aged about 6 months, were purchased and allocated to 4 treatments according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 6 goats in each treatment. The blocks were made by weight into heavy, medium, and light goats and each of the treatments contained two goats from each of the blocks. In the mean time, ruminal average pH unaffected, but the NH3-N and also plasma urea nitrogen (p<0.05), total volatile fatty acid (p>0.05) were raised, but propionic proportion (p<0.05) and butyric proportion (p>0.05) were reduced in concurrent with raise of acetic proportion and resultantly C2:C3 ratio (p>0.05). On plasma fatty acid profiles, total saturated fatty acids (p>0.05) was increased, and contrasted with decrease of C15:0 (p<0.01), C16:0 (p>0.05), and C18-C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05 or p<0.01). In addition, the experiment proved that the supplemented probiotics was in force for heightening CLA (p<0.01); for raising desirable fatty acids (p<0.05); for reducing ratio of PUFA: SFA (p>0.05) and for raising ratio of n6:n3 (p<0.05).

Keywords: Probiotic, conjugated linoleic acid, plasma fattyacid, goats

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3 Heat-treated or Raw Sunflower Seeds in Lactating Dairy Cows Diets: Effects on Milk Fatty Acids Profile and Milk Production

Authors: H. Mansoori, A. Aghazadeh, K. Nazeradl

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with raw or heat-treated sunflower oil seed with two levels of 7.5% or 15% on unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat and performances of high-yielding lactating cows. Twenty early lactating Holstein cows were used in a complete randomized design. Treatments included: 1) CON, control (without sunflower oil seed). 2) LS-UT, 7.5% raw sunflower oil seed. 3) LS-HT, 7.5% heat-treated sunflower oil seed. 4) HS-UT, 15% raw sunflower oil seed. 5) HS-HT, 15% heat-treated sunflower oil seed. Experimental period lasted for 4 wk, with first 2 wk used for adaptation to the diets. Supplementation with 7.5% raw sunflower seed (LS-UT) tended to decrease milk yield, with 28.37 kg/d compared with the control (34.75 kg/d). Milk fat percentage was increased with the HS-UT treatment that obtained 3.71% compared with CON that was 3.39% and without significant different. Milk protein percent was decreased high level sunflower oil seed treatments (15%) with 3.18% whereas CON treatment is caused 3.40% protein. The cows fed added low sunflower heat-treated (LS-HT) produced milk with the highest content of total unsaturated fatty acid with 32.59 g/100g of milk fat compared with the HS-UT with 23.59 g/100g of milk fat. Content of C18 unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat increased from 21.68 g/100g of fat in the HS-UT to 22.50, 23.98, 27.39 and 30.30 g/100g of fat from the cow fed HS-HT, CON, LS-UT and LS-HT treatments, respectively. C18:2 isomers of fatty acid in milk were greater by LSHT supplementation with significant effect (P < 0.05). Total of C18 unsaturated fatty acids content was significantly higher in milk of animal fed added low heat-treated sunflower (7.5%) than those fed with high sunflower. In all, results of this study showed that diet cow's supplementation with sunflower oil seed tended to reduce milk production of lactating cows but can improve C18 UFA (Unsaturated Fatty Acid) content in milk fat. 7.5% level of sunflower oil seed that heated seemed to be the optimal source to increase UFA production.

Keywords: Fatty acid profile, milk production, sunflower seed.

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2 Biological Characterization of the New Invasive Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana in Tunisia: Sabkhet Halk El-Menzel

Authors: Hachem Ben Naceur, Amel Ben Rejeb Jenhani, Mohamed Salah Romdhane

Abstract:

Endemic Artemia franciscana populations can be found throughout the American continent and also as an introduced specie in several country all over the world, such as in the Mediterranean region where Artemia franciscana was identified as an invasive specie replacing native Artemia parthenogenetica and Artemia salina. In the present study, the characterization of the new invasive Artemia franciscana reported from Sabkhet Halk El-Menzel (Tunisia) was done based on the cysts biometry, nauplii instar-I length, Adult sexual dimorphism and fatty acid profile. The mean value of the diameter of non-decapsulated and decapsulated cysts, chorion thickness and naupliar length is 235.8, 226.3, 4.75 and 426.8 μm, respectively. Sexual dimorphism for adults specimen showed that maximal distance between compound eyes, diameter for compound eyes, length of first antenna and the abdomen length compared to the total body length ratio, are the most important variables for males and females discrimination with a total contribution of 62.39 %. The analysis of fatty acid methyl esters profile of decapsulated cysts resulted in low levels of linolenic acid (LLA, C18:3n-3) and high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) with 3.11 and 11.10 %, respectively. Low quantity of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) was also observed with 0.17 mg.g-1 dry weight.

Keywords: Invasive Artemia franciscana, biometry, sexualdimorphism, fatty acid, Tunisia.

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1 An Advanced Approach Based on Artificial Neural Networks to Identify Environmental Bacteria

Authors: Mauro Giacomini, Stefania Bertone, Federico Caneva Soumetz, Carmelina Ruggiero

Abstract:

Environmental micro-organisms include a large number of taxa and some species that are generally considered nonpathogenic, but can represent a risk in certain conditions, especially for elderly people and immunocompromised individuals. Chemotaxonomic identification techniques are powerful tools for environmental micro-organisms, and cellular fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) content is a powerful fingerprinting identification technique. A system based on an unsupervised artificial neural network (ANN) was set up using the fatty acid profiles of standard bacterial strains, obtained by gas-chromatography, used as learning data. We analysed 45 certified strains belonging to Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Aquaspirillum, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Enterobacter, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Shewanella and Vibrio genera. A set of 79 bacteria isolated from a drinking water line (AMGA, the major water supply system in Genoa) were used as an example for identification compared to standard MIDI method. The resulting ANN output map was found to be a very powerful tool to identify these fresh isolates.

Keywords: Cellular fatty acid methyl esters, environmental bacteria, gas-chromatography, unsupervised ANN.

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