Biosorption of Heavy Metals Contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area using Desmodesmus sp.
A vast array of biological materials, especially algae have received increasing attention for heavy metal removal. Algae have been proven to be cheaper, more effective for the removal of metallic elements in aqueous solutions. A fresh water algal strain was isolated from Zoo Lake, Johannesburg, South Africa and identified as Desmodesmus sp. This paper investigates the efficacy of Desmodesmus sp.in removing heavy metals contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area (WCA) water bodies. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models. The Langmuir maximum uptakes gave the sequence: Mn2+>Ni2+>Fe2+. The best results for kinetic study was obtained in concentration 120 ppm for Fe3+ and Mn2+, whilst for Ni2+ was at 20 ppm, which is about the same concentrations found in contaminated water in the WCA (Fe3+115 ppm, Mn2+ 121 ppm and Ni2+ 26.5 ppm).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1081435Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1692
 F. Winde, and E.J. Stoch, "Threats and opportunities for post-closure development in dolomitic mining areas of the West Rand and Far West Rand (South Africa) — a hydraulic view Part 1: Mining legacy and future threats," Water SA, vol.1, no.1, 2010, pp. 69-74.
 J.L. Wang, and C. Chen, "Biosorption of heavy metals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a review;" Journal of Biotechnological Advances, vol. 24, 2006 pp. 426-451.
 R.L. Irvine, and S.K. Sikdar, "Bioremediation Technologies: Principles and Practise," vol III, CRC Press, 1998.
 J.R. Wild, A. Scozzafava, S.D. Varfolomeyev, "Perspectives in bioremediation technologies for environmental improvement, in Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research workshop on Biotechnical Remediation of Contaminated Sites," High Technology Springer, Lvov, Ukraine, NATO ASI Series, vol. 19, 1996, March 5-9.
 M. Gavrilescu, "Fate of pesticides in the environment and its bioremediation, Environ.Sci.Technol," 2005, pp. 497-526.
 M. Gavrilescu, "Overview of in situ remediation technologies for sites and groundwater," Environ.Eng.Manage., 2006, pp.79-114.
 M. Gavrilescu, L.V. Pavel and I. Cretescu, "Characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium," Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.163, 2008, pp.475-510.
 N.Y. Mata, M.L. Blazquez, A Ballester, F. Gonzalez, and J.A. Munoz," Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.158, 2008, pp. 316-323.
 Y.S. Ho, and G. McKay, "Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes,"ProcessBiochem, vol. 34, 1999, pp. 451-459.
 K.G. Bhattacharyya, and A.J. Sharma, "Azadirachtaindica leaf powder as an effective biosorbent for dyes: a case study with aqueous Congo red solutions," Environ. Manage, vol. 71, 2004, pp. 217-229.
 M.A. Maroof, K.M. Solima, R.A. Jorgenson, and R.W. Allard, 1984Ribosomal DNA spacer-length polymorphisms in barley: Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 81:8014-8018.
 L. Barsanti, and P. Gualtieri, ALGAE, Anatomy, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, CRC Press, USA, 2006.
 F. Pagnanelli, L. Esposito, and F. Veglio, "Metal speciation and pH effects on Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd biosorption onto Sphaerotilusnatans: Langmuir-type empirical model," Water Research, vol. 37, 2003, pp .627-633 .
 B. Volesky, "Biosorption process simulation tools," Hydrometallurgy, vol. 71, 2003, pp.179-190.
 A. Kapoor, and T. Viraraghavan, "Fungal biosorption — an alternative treatment option for heavy metal bearing wastewaters: a review," Journal of Bioresource Technology, vol. 53, 1995, pp.195-206.
 B. Volesky, and Z.R. Holan, "Biosorption of heavy metals," Biotechnology Programme, vol. 11, 1995, pp. 235-250.
 T. Aman, A.A. Kazi, M.U. Sabri, and Q. Bano, "Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water/industrial effluent," Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 63, 2008, pp. 116- 121.
 O.Nosa, "Adsorption for Advanced Water and Wastewater Treatment," Enviromental Engineering Program, Tuskegee University, 2009.
 J.L. Johnson, M.W. Fawley, and K.P. Fawley, "The diversity of Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus (Chlorophyceae) in Itasca State Park," Minnesota, USA. Phycologia, 2005, vol. 46, pp.214-229.
 T.W. Weber, and R.K. Chakraborti, "Pore and solid diffusion models for fixed bed adsorbents," AIChE, vol. 20, 1974, pp. 228-238.
 G. McKay, H.S. Blair, and J.R. Gardener, "Adsorption of dyes on chitin. I. Equilibrium studies," Appl.Polym.Sci, 1982, vol.27, pp. 3043¬3057.
 V.M.Dronnet, C.M.C.G. Renard, M.A.V. Axelos, and J.F. Thibault, "Characterisation and selectivity of divalent metal ions binding by citrus and sugar-beet pectins," Carbohydr. Polym., vol.30, 1996, pp. 253-263.
 Z. Reddad, C. Gerente, Y. Andres, M.C. Ralet, J.F. Thibault, and P. Le Cloirec, "Ni(II) and Cu(II) binding properties of native and modified sugar beet pulp," Carbohydr.Polym., vol. 49, 2002, pp.23-31.
 E. Guibal, I. Saucedo, J. Roussy, and P. Le Cloirec, "Uptake of uranyl ions by new sorbing polymers: discussion of adsorption isotherms and pH effect," Reactive Polymers, vol. 23, 1994, pp.147-156.
 D. Langmuir, "The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum," Am.Chem.Soc., vol. 40, 1918, pp.1361-1403.
 Afkar, E., Ababna, H. & , Fathi A.A. 2010, Toxicological response of the green algae Chlorella vulgaris to some heavy metals', American Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 6, pp.23-31.
 Rai, L.C., Gaur, J.P. & Kumar, H.D., 1981, `Phycology and heavy-metal
 Gadd, G.M., 1993. Interactions of fungi with toxic metals. New Phytologist 124, 25-60.
 Ford, T., Ryan, D., 1995. Toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems:a microbiological perspective. Environmental HealthPerspectives 103,