Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 230

Search results for: steam turbine

230 Multi-Objective Optimization of a Steam Turbine Stage

Authors: Alvise Pellegrini, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

The design of a steam turbine is a very complex engineering operation that can be simplified and improved thanks to computer-aided multi-objective optimization. This process makes use of existing optimization algorithms and losses correlations to identify those geometries that deliver the best balance of performance (i.e. Pareto-optimal points). This paper deals with a one-dimensional multi-objective and multi-point optimization of a single-stage steam turbine. Using a genetic optimization algorithm and an algebraic one-dimensional ideal gas-path model based on loss and deviation correlations, a code capable of performing the optimization of a predefined steam turbine stage was developed. More specifically, during this study the parameters modified (i.e. decision variables) to identify the best performing geometries were solidity and angles both for stator and rotor cascades, while the objective functions to maximize were totalto- static efficiency and specific work done. Finally, an accurate analysis of the obtained results was carried out.

Keywords: Steam turbine, optimization, genetic algorithms.

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229 Thermodynamic Performance Assessment of Steam-Injection Gas-Turbine Systems

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim, Giman Kim

Abstract:

The cycles of the steam-injection gas-turbine systems are studied. The analyses of the parametric effects and the optimal operating conditions for the steam-injection gas-turbine (STIG) system and the regenerative steam-injection gas-turbine (RSTIG) system are investigated to ensure the maximum performance. Using the analytic model, the performance parameters of the system such as thermal efficiency, fuel consumption and specific power, and also the optimal operating conditions are evaluated in terms of pressure ratio, steam injection ratio, ambient temperature and turbine inlet temperature (TIT). It is shown that the computational results are presented to have a notable enhancement of thermal efficiency and specific power.

Keywords: gas turbine, RSTIG, steam injection, STIG, thermal efficiency.

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228 Exergetic Analysis of Steam Turbine Power Plant Operated in Chemical Industry

Authors: F. Hafdhi, T. Khir, A. Ben Yahia, A. Ben Brahim

Abstract:

An Energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in different parts of the plant are also considered in the analysis. Mass, thermal and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the factory. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis. The effects of the key operating parameters such as steam pressure and temperature, mass flow rate as well as seawater temperature, on the cycle performances are investigated. A maximum Exergy Loss Rate of about 72% is obtained for the melters, followed by the condensers, heat exchangers and the pumps. The heat exchangers used in the phosphoric acid unit present exergetic efficiencies around 33% while 60% to 72% are obtained for steam turbines and blower. For the explored ranges of HP steam temperature and pressure, the exergy efficiencies of steam turbine generators STGI and STGII increase of about 2.5% and 5.4% respectively. In the same way optimum HP steam flow rate values, leading to the maximum exergy efficiencies are defined.

Keywords: Steam turbine generator, energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, phosphoric acid plant.

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227 Computational Study and Wear Prediction of Steam Turbine Blade with Titanium-Nitride Coating Deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition Method

Authors: Karuna Tuchinda, Sasithon Bland

Abstract:

This work investigates the wear of a steam turbine blade coated with titanium nitride (TiN), and compares to the wear of uncoated blades. The coating is deposited on by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. The working conditions of the blade were simulated and surface temperature and pressure values as well as flow velocity and flow direction were obtained. This data was used in the finite element wear model developed here in order to predict the wear of the blade. The wear mechanisms considered are erosive wear due to particle impingement and fluid jet, and fatigue wear due to repeated impingement of particles and fluid jet. Results show that the life of the TiN-coated blade is approximately 1.76 times longer than the life of the uncoated one.

Keywords: Physical vapour deposition, steam turbine blade, titanium-based coating, wear prediction.

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226 On The Design of Robust Governors of Steam Power Systems Using Polynomial and State-Space Based H∞ Techniques: A Comparative Study

Authors: Rami A. Maher, Ibraheem K. Ibraheem

Abstract:

This work presents a comparison study between the state-space and polynomial methods for the design of the robust governor for load frequency control of steam turbine power systems. The robust governor is synthesized using the two approaches and the comparison is extended to include time and frequency domains performance, controller order, and uncertainty representation, weighting filters, optimality and sub-optimality. The obtained results are represented through tables and curves with reasons of similarities and dissimilarities.

Keywords: Robust control, load frequency control, steam turbine, H∞-norm, system uncertainty, load disturbance.

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225 Turbine Compressor Vibration Analysis and Rotor Movement Evaluation by Shaft Center Line Method (The Case History Related to Main Turbine Compressor of an Olefin Plant in Iran Oil Industries)

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Vibration monitoring methods of most critical equipment like main turbine and compressors always plays important role in preventive maintenance and management consideration in big industrial plants. There are a number of traditional methods like monitoring the overall vibration data from Bently Nevada panel and the time wave form (TWF) or fast Fourier transform (FFT) monitoring. Besides, Shaft centerline monitoring method developed too much in recent years. There are a number of arguments both in favor of and against this method between people who work in preventive maintenance and condition monitoring systems (vibration analysts). In this paper basic principal of Turbine compressor vibration analysis and rotor movement evaluation by shaft centerline method discussed in details through a case history. This case history is related to main turbine compressor of an olefin plant in Iran oil industry. In addition, some common mistakes that may occur by vibration analyst during the process discussed in details. It is worthy to know that, these mistakes may one of the reasons that sometimes this method seems to be not effective. Furthermore, recent patent and innovation in shaft position and movement evaluation are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Shaft centerline position, attitude angle, journal bearing, sleeve bearing, tilting pad, steam turbine, main compressor, multistage compressor, condition monitoring, non-contact probe

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224 Steam Gasification of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS): Effect of Fe/BEA and Ni/BEA Catalysts and Steam to Biomass Ratio on Composition of Gaseous Products

Authors: M.F. Mohamad, Anita Ramli, S.E.E Misi, S. Yusup

Abstract:

This work presents the hydrogen production from steam gasification of palm kernel shell (PKS) at 700 oC in the presence of 5% Ni/BEA and 5% Fe/BEA as catalysts. The steam gasification was performed in two-staged reactors to evaluate the effect of calcinations temperature and the steam to biomass ratio on the product gas composition. The catalytic activity of Ni/BEA catalyst decreases with increasing calcinations temperatures from 500 to 700 oC. The highest H2 concentration is produced by Fe/BEA (600) with more than 71 vol%. The catalytic activity of the catalysts tested is found to correspond to its physicochemical properties. The optimum range for steam to biomass ratio if found to be between 2 to 4. Excess steam content results in temperature drop in the gasifier which is undesirable for the gasification reactions.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Palm Kernel Shell, Steam gasification, Ni/BEA, Fe/BEA

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223 Determination of Stress Concentration Factors of a Steam Turbine Rotor by FEA

Authors: R. Nagendra Babu, K. V. Ramana, K. Mallikarjuna Rao

Abstract:

Stress Concentration Factors are significant in machine design as it gives rise to localized stress when any change in the design of surface or abrupt change in the cross section occurs. Almost all machine components and structural members contain some form of geometrical or microstructural discontinuities. These discontinuities are very dangerous and lead to failure. So, it is very much essential to analyze the stress concentration factors for critical applications like Turbine Rotors. In this paper Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with extremely fine mesh in the vicinity of the blades of Steam Turbine Rotor is applied to determine stress concentration factors. A model of Steam Turbine Rotor is shown in Fig. 1.

Keywords: Stress Concentration Factors, Finite Element Analysis, and ANSYS.

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222 Robust Steam Temperature Regulation for Distillation of Essential Oil Extraction Process using Hybrid Fuzzy-PD plus PID Controller

Authors: Nurhani Kasuan, Zakariah Yusuf, Mohd Nasir Taib, Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman, Nazurah Tajuddin, Mohd Azri Abdul Aziz

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy-PD plus PID (HFPP) controller and its application to steam distillation process for essential oil extraction system. Steam temperature is one of the most significant parameters that can influence the composition of essential oil yield. Due to parameter variations and changes in operation conditions during distillation, a robust steam temperature controller becomes nontrivial to avoid the degradation of essential oil quality. Initially, the PRBS input is triggered to the system and output of steam temperature is modeled using ARX model structure. The parameter estimation and tuning method is adopted by simulation using HFPP controller scheme. The effectiveness and robustness of proposed controller technique is validated by real time implementation to the system. The performance of HFPP using 25 and 49 fuzzy rules is compared. The experimental result demonstrates the proposed HFPP using 49 fuzzy rules achieves a better, consistent and robust controller compared to PID when considering the test on tracking the set point and the effects due to disturbance.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic controller, steam temperature, steam distillation, real time control.

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221 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage: A Recipe for Success

Authors: Mohsen Ebrahimi

Abstract:

In this paper, Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is introduced and its advantages over ordinary steam injection is demonstrated. A simple simulation model is built and three scenarios of natural production, ordinary steam injection, and SAGD are compared in terms of their cumulative oil production and cumulative oil steam ratio. The results show that SAGD can significantly enhance oil production in quite a short period of time. However, since the distance between injection and production wells is short, the oil to steam ratio decreases gradually through time.

Keywords: Thermal recovery, Steam injection, SAGD, Enhanced oil recovery

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220 Growth of Droplet in Radiation-Induced Plasma of Own Steam

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

The theoretical approach is developed to describe the change of drops in the atmosphere of own steam and buffer gas under irradiation. It is shown that the irradiation influences on size of stable droplet and on the conditions under which the droplet exists. Under irradiation the change of drop becomes more complex: the not monotone and periodical change of size of drop becomes possible. All possible solutions are represented by means of phase portrait. It is found all qualitatively different phase portraits as function of critical parameters: rate generation of clusters and substance density.

Keywords: Irradiation, steam, plasma, cluster formation, liquid droplets, evolution.

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219 Calculating the Efficiency of Steam Boilers Based on Its Most Effecting Factors: A Case Study

Authors: Nabil M. Muhaisen, Rajab Abdullah Hokoma

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with calculating boiler efficiency as one of the most important types of performance measurements in any steam power plant. That has a key role in determining the overall effectiveness of the whole system within the power station. For this calculation, a Visual-Basic program was developed, and a steam power plant known as El-Khmus power plant, Libya was selected as a case study. The calculation of the boiler efficiency was applied by using heating balance method. The findings showed how the maximum heat energy which produced from the boiler increases the boiler efficiency through increasing the temperature of the feed water, and decreasing the exhaust temperature along with humidity levels of the of fuel used within the boiler.

Keywords: Boiler, Calculation, Efficiency, Performance. Steam

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218 Improving the Performance of Gas Turbine Power Plant by Modified Axial Turbine

Authors: Hakim T. Kadhim, Faris A. Jabbar, Aldo Rona, Audrius Bagdanaviciu

Abstract:

Computer-based optimization techniques can be employed to improve the efficiency of energy conversions processes, including reducing the aerodynamic loss in a thermal power plant turbomachine. In this paper, towards mitigating secondary flow losses, a design optimization workflow is implemented for the casing geometry of a 1.5 stage axial flow turbine that improves the turbine isentropic efficiency. The improved turbine is used in an open thermodynamic gas cycle with regeneration and cogeneration. Performance estimates are obtained by the commercial software Cycle – Tempo. Design and off design conditions are considered as well as variations in inlet air temperature. Reductions in both the natural gas specific fuel consumption and in CO2 emissions are predicted by using the gas turbine cycle fitted with the new casing design. These gains are attractive towards enhancing the competitiveness and reducing the environmental impact of thermal power plant.

Keywords: Axial flow turbine, computational fluid dynamics, gas turbine power plant, optimization.

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217 Performance Assessment of Wet-Compression Gas Turbine Cycle with Turbine Blade Cooling

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Turbine blade cooling is considered as the most effective way of maintaining high operating temperature making use of the available materials, and turbine systems with wet compression have a potential for future power generation because of high efficiency and high specific power with a relatively low cost. In this paper performance analysis of wet-compression gas turbine cycle with turbine blade cooling is carried out. The wet compression process is analytically modeled based on non-equilibrium droplet evaporation. Special attention is paid for the effects of pressure ratio and water injection ratio on the important system variables such as ratio of coolant fluid flow, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and specific power. Parametric studies show that wet compression leads to insignificant improvement in thermal efficiency but significant enhancement of specific power in gas turbine systems with turbine blade cooling.

Keywords: Water injection, wet compression, gas turbine, turbine blade cooling.

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216 Finite Element Solution of Navier-Stokes Equations for Steam Flow and Heat Transfer

Authors: Igor Nedelkovski, Ilios Vilos, Tale Geramitcioski

Abstract:

Computational simulation of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers on the basis of the threedimensional mathematical model for the flow through porous media is presented. In order to solve the mathematical model of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers, the Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element method is applied. By comparison of the results of simulation with experimental results about an experimental condenser, it is confirmed that SUPG finite element method can be successfully applied for solving the three-dimensional mathematical model of steam flow and heat transfer in power plant condensers.

Keywords: Navier-Stokes, FEM, condensers, steam.

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215 Combustion and Emissions Performance of Syngas Fuels Derived from Palm Kernel Shell and Polyethylene (PE) Waste via Catalytic Steam Gasification

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the burning of syngas fuels derived from biomass and plastic solid waste mixture through gasification process is presented in this paper. The syngas fuel is burned in gas turbine can combustor. Gas turbine can combustor with swirl is designed to burn the fuel efficiently and reduce the emissions. The main objective is to test the impact of the alternative syngas fuel compositions and lower heating value on the combustion performance and emissions. The syngas fuel is produced by blending palm kernel shell (PKS) with polyethylene (PE) waste via catalytic steam gasification (fluidized bed reactor). High hydrogen content syngas fuel was obtained by mixing 30% PE waste with PKS. The syngas composition obtained through the gasification process is 76.2% H2, 8.53% CO, 4.39% CO2 and 10.90% CH4. The lower heating value of the syngas fuel is LHV = 15.98 MJ/m3. Three fuels were tested in this study natural gas (100%CH4), syngas fuel and pure hydrogen (100% H2). The power from the combustor was kept constant for all the fuels tested in this study. The effect of syngas fuel composition and lower heating value on the flame shape, gas temperature, mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) per unit of energy generation is presented in this paper. The results show an increase of the peak flame temperature and NO mass fractions for the syngas and hydrogen fuels compared to natural gas fuel combustion. Lower average CO2 emissions at the exit of the combustor are obtained for the syngas compared to the natural gas fuel.

Keywords: CFD, Combustion, Emissions, Gas Turbine Combustor, Gasification, Solid Waste, Syngas and Waste to Energy.

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214 Bioethanol Production from Enzymatically Saccharified Sunflower Stalks Using Steam Explosion as Pretreatment

Authors: Pilanee Vaithanomsat, Sinsupha Chuichulcherm, Waraporn Apiwatanapiwat

Abstract:

Sunflower stalks were analysed for chemical compositions: pentosan 15.84%, holocellulose 70.69%, alphacellulose 45.74%, glucose 27.10% and xylose 7.69% based on dry weight of 100-g raw material. The most optimum condition for steam explosion pretreatment was as follows. Sunflower stalks were cut into small pieces and soaked in 0.02 M H2SO4 for overnight. After that, they were steam exploded at 207 C and 21 kg/cm2 for 3 minutes to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting hydrolysate, containing hemicellulose, and cellulose pulp contained xylose sugar at 2.53% and 7.00%, respectively.The pulp was further subjected to enzymatic saccharification at 50 C, pH 4.8 citrate buffer) with pulp/buffer 6% (w/w)and Celluclast 1.5L/pulp 2.67% (w/w) to obtain single glucose with maximum yield 11.97%. After fixed-bed fermentation under optimum condition using conventional yeast mixtures to produce bioethanol, it indicated maximum ethanol yield of 0.028 g/100 g sunflower stalk.

Keywords: Enzymatic, steam explosion, sunflower stalk, ethanol production.

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213 Analysis of Pressure Drop in a Concentrated Solar Collector with Direct Steam Production

Authors: Sara Sallam, Mohamed Taqi, Naoual Belouaggadia

Abstract:

Solar thermal power plants using parabolic trough collectors (PTC) are currently a powerful technology for generating electricity. Most of these solar power plants use thermal oils as heat transfer fluid. The latter is heated in the solar field and transfers the heat absorbed in an oil-water heat exchanger for the production of steam driving the turbines of the power plant. Currently, we are seeking to develop PTCs with direct steam generation (DSG). This process consists of circulating water under pressure in the receiver tube to generate steam directly into the solar loop. This makes it possible to reduce the investment and maintenance costs of the PTCs (the oil-water exchangers are removed) and to avoid the environmental risks associated with the use of thermal oils. The pressure drops in these systems are an important parameter to ensure their proper operation. The determination of these losses is complex because of the presence of the two phases, and most often we limit ourselves to describing them by models using empirical correlations. A comparison of these models with experimental data was performed. Our calculations focused on the evolution of the pressure of the liquid-vapor mixture along the receiver tube of a PTC-DSG for pressure values and inlet flow rates ranging respectively from 3 to 10 MPa, and from 0.4 to 0.6 kg/s. The comparison of the numerical results with experience allows us to demonstrate the validity of some models according to the pressures and the flow rates of entry in the PTC-DSG receiver tube. The analysis of these two parameters’ effects on the evolution of the pressure along the receiving tub, shows that the increase of the inlet pressure and the decrease of the flow rate lead to minimal pressure losses.

Keywords: Direct steam generation, parabolic trough collectors, pressure drop.

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212 Effect of Tube Materials and Special Coating on Coke Deposition in the Steam Cracking of Hydrocarbons

Authors: A. Niaei, D. Salari , N. Daneshvar, A. Chamandeh, R. Nabavi

Abstract:

The steam cracking reactions are always accompanied with the formation of coke which deposits on the walls of the tubular reactors. The investigation has attempted to control catalytic coking by the applying aluminum, zinc and ceramic coating like aluminum-magnesium by thermal spray and pack cementation method. Rate of coke formation during steam cracking of naphtha has been investigated both for uncoated stainless steel (with different alloys) and metal coating constructed with thermal Spray and pack cementation method with metal powders of Aluminum, Aluminum-Magnesium, zinc, silicon, nickel and chromium. The results of the study show that passivating the surface of SS321 with a coating of Aluminum and Aluminum-Magnesium can significantly reduce the rate of coke deposition during naphtha pyrolysis. SEM and EDAX techniques (Philips XL Series) were used to examine the coke deposits formed by the metal-hydrocarbon reactions. Our objective was to separate the different stages by identifying the characteristic morphologies.

Keywords: Steam Cracking, Pyrolysis, Coke deposition, thermalspray, Pack Cementation.

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211 Experimental Study on a Solar Heat Concentrating Steam Generator

Authors: Qiangqiang Xu, Xu Ji, Jingyang Han, Changchun Yang, Ming Li

Abstract:

Replacing of complex solar concentrating unit, this paper designs a solar heat-concentrating medium-temperature steam-generating system. Solar radiation is collected by using a large solar collecting and heat concentrating plate and is converged to the metal evaporating pipe with high efficient heat transfer. In the meantime, the heat loss is reduced by employing a double-glazed cover and other heat insulating structures. Thus, a high temperature is reached in the metal evaporating pipe. The influences of the system's structure parameters on system performance are analyzed. The steam production rate and the steam production under different solar irradiance, solar collecting and heat concentrating plate area, solar collecting and heat concentrating plate temperature and heat loss are obtained. The results show that when solar irradiance is higher than 600 W/m2, the effective heat collecting area is 7.6 m2 and the double-glazing cover is adopted, the system heat loss amount is lower than the solar irradiance value. The stable steam is produced in the metal evaporating pipe at 100 ℃, 110 ℃, and 120 ℃, respectively. When the average solar irradiance is about 896 W/m2, and the steaming cumulative time is about 5 hours, the daily steam production of the system is about 6.174 kg. In a single day, the solar irradiance is larger at noon, thus the steam production rate is large at that time. Before 9:00 and after 16:00, the solar irradiance is smaller, and the steam production rate is almost 0.

Keywords: Heat concentrating, heat loss, medium temperature, solar steam production.

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210 Comparison of Different Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling Methods

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli

Abstract:

Gas turbine air inlet cooling is a useful method for increasing output for regions where significant power demand and highest electricity prices occur during the warm months. Inlet air cooling increases the power output by taking advantage of the gas turbine-s feature of higher mass flow rate when the compressor inlet temperature decreases. Different methods are available for reducing gas turbine inlet temperature. There are two basic systems currently available for inlet cooling. The first and most cost-effective system is evaporative cooling. Evaporative coolers make use of the evaporation of water to reduce the gas turbine-s inlet air temperature. The second system employs various ways to chill the inlet air. In this method, the cooling medium flows through a heat exchanger located in the inlet duct to remove heat from the inlet air. However, the evaporative cooling is limited by wet-bulb temperature while the chilling can cool the inlet air to temperatures that are lower than the wet bulb temperature. In the present work, a thermodynamic model of a gas turbine is built to calculate heat rate, power output and thermal efficiency at different inlet air temperature conditions. Computational results are compared with ISO conditions herein called "base-case". Therefore, the two cooling methods are implemented and solved for different inlet conditions (inlet temperature and relative humidity). Evaporative cooler and absorption chiller systems results show that when the ambient temperature is extremely high with low relative humidity (requiring a large temperature reduction) the chiller is the more suitable cooling solution. The net increment in the power output as a function of the temperature decrease for each cooling method is also obtained.

Keywords: Absorption chiller, evaporative cooling, gas turbine, turbine inlet cooling.

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209 H2 Permeation Properties of a Catalytic Membrane Reactor in Methane Steam Reforming Reaction

Authors: M. Amanipour, J. Towfighi, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Heidari

Abstract:

Cylindrical alumina microfiltration membrane (GMITM Corporation, inside diameter=9 mm, outside diameter=13 mm, length= 50 mm) with an average pore size of 0.5 micrometer and porosity of about 0.35 was used as the support for membrane reactor. This support was soaked in boehmite sols, and the mean particle size was adjusted in the range of 50 to 500 nm by carefully controlling hydrolysis time, and calcined at 650 °C for two hours. This process was repeated with different boehmite solutions in order to achieve an intermediate layer with an average pore size of about 50 nm. The resulting substrate was then coated with a thin and dense layer of silica by counter current chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. A boehmite sol with 10 wt.% of nickel which was prepared by a standard procedure was used to make the catalytic layer. BET, SEM, and XRD analysis were used to characterize this layer. The catalytic membrane reactor was placed in an experimental setup to evaluate the permeation and hydrogen separation performance for a steam reforming reaction. The setup consisted of a tubular module in which the membrane was fixed, and the reforming reaction occurred at the inner side of the membrane. Methane stream, diluted with nitrogen, and deionized water with a steam to carbon (S/C) ratio of 3.0 entered the reactor after the reactor was heated up to 500 °C with a specified rate of 2 °C/ min and the catalytic layer was reduced at presence of hydrogen for 2.5 hours. Nitrogen flow was used as sweep gas through the outer side of the reactor. Any liquid produced was trapped and separated at reactor exit by a cold trap, and the produced gases were analyzed by an on-line gas chromatograph (Agilent 7890A) to measure total CH4 conversion and H2 permeation. BET analysis indicated uniform size distribution for catalyst with average pore size of 280 nm and average surface area of 275 m2.g-1. Single-component permeation tests were carried out for hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide at temperature range of 500-800 °C, and the results showed almost the same permeance and hydrogen selectivity values for hydrogen as the composite membrane without catalytic layer. Performance of the catalytic membrane was evaluated by applying membranes as a membrane reactor for methane steam reforming reaction at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 10,000 h−1 and 2 bar. CH4 conversion increased from 50% to 85% with increasing reaction temperature from 600 °C to 750 °C, which is sufficiently above equilibrium curve at reaction conditions, but slightly lower than membrane reactor with packed nickel catalytic bed because of its higher surface area compared to the catalytic layer.

Keywords: Catalytic membrane, hydrogen, methane steam reforming, permeance.

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208 Investigation of Inert Gas Injection in Steam Reforming of Methane: Energy

Authors: Amjad Riaz, Ali Farsi, Gholamreza Zahedi, Zainuddin Abdul Manan

Abstract:

Synthesis gas manufacturing by steam reforming of hydrocarbons is an important industrial process. High endothermic nature of the process makes it one of the most cost and heat intensive processes. In the present work, composite effect of different inert gases on synthesis gas yield, feed gas conversion and temperature distribution along the reactor length has been studied using a heterogeneous model. Mathematical model was developed as a first stage and validated against the existing process models. With the addition of inert gases, a higher yield of synthesis gas is observed. Simultaneously the rector outlet temperature drops to as low as 810 K. It was found that Xenon gives the highest yield and conversion while Helium gives the lowest temperature. Using Xenon inert gas 20 percent reduction in outlet temperature was observed compared to traditional case.

Keywords: Energy savings, Inert gas, Methane, Modeling, Steam reforming

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207 One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.

Keywords: Reactor, modeling, methanol, steam reforming.

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206 Vibration and Operation Technical Consideration before Field Balance of Gas Turbine Utilities (In Iran Power Plants SIEMENS V94.2 Gas Turbines)

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

One of the most challenging times in operation of big industrial plant or utilities is the time that alert lamp of Bently Nevada connection in main board substation turn on and show the alert condition of machine. All of the maintenance groups usually make a lot of discussion with operation and together rather this alert signal is real or fake. This will be more challenging when condition monitoring vibrationdata shows 1X(X=current rotor frequency) in fast Fourier transform(FFT) and vibration phase trends show 90 degree shift between two non-contact probedirections with overall high radial amplitude amounts. In such situations, CM (condition monitoring) groups usually suspicious about unbalance in rotor. In this paper, four critical case histories related to SIEMENS V94.2 Gas Turbines in Iran power industry discussed in details. Furthermore, probe looseness and fake (unreal) trip in gas turbine power plants discussed. In addition, critical operation decision in alert condition in power plants discussed in details.

Keywords: Gas turbine, field balance, turbine compressors, balancing tools, balancing data collectors.

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205 Ziegler Nichols Based Integral Proportional Controller for Superheated Steam Temperature Control System

Authors: Amil Daraz, Suheel Abdullah Malik, Tahir Saleem, Sajid Ali Bhati

Abstract:

In this paper, Integral Proportional (I-P) controller is employed for superheated steam temperature control system. The Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) method is used for the tuning of I-P controller. The performance analysis of Z-N based I-P controller is assessed on superheated steam system of 500-MW boiler. The comparison of transient response parameters such as rise time, settling time, and overshoot is made with Z-N based Proportional Integral (PI) controller. It is observed from the results that Z-N based I-P controller completely eliminates the overshoot in the output response.

Keywords: Superheated steam, process reaction curve, PI and I-P controller, Ziegler-Nichols tuning.

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204 Performance of Derna Steam Power Plant at Varying Super-Heater Operating Conditions Based on Exergy

Authors: Idris Elfeituri

Abstract:

In the current study, energy and exergy analysis of a 65 MW steam power plant was carried out. This study investigated the effect of variations of overall conductance of the super heater on the performance of an existing steam power plant located in Derna, Libya. The performance of the power plant was estimated by a mathematical modelling which considers the off-design operating conditions of each component. A fully interactive computer program based on the mass, energy and exergy balance equations has been developed. The maximum exergy destruction has been found in the steam generation unit. A 50% reduction in the design value of overall conductance of the super heater has been achieved, which accordingly decreases the amount of the net electrical power that would be generated by at least 13 MW, as well as the overall plant exergy efficiency by at least 6.4%, and at the same time that would cause an increase of the total exergy destruction by at least 14 MW. The achieved results showed that the super heater design and operating conditions play an important role on the thermodynamics performance and the fuel utilization of the power plant. Moreover, these considerations are very useful in the process of the decision that should be taken at the occasions of deciding whether to replace or renovate the super heater of the power plant.

Keywords: Exergy, super-heater, fouling, steam power plant, off-design.

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203 Development of Wind Turbine Simulator for Generator Torque Control

Authors: Jae-Kyung Lee, Joon-Young Park, Ki-Yong Oh, Jun-Shin Park

Abstract:

Wind turbine should be controlled to capture maximum wind energy and to prevent the turbine from being stalled. To achieve those two goals, wind turbine controller controls torque on generator and limits input torque from wind by pitching blade. Usually, torque on generator is controlled using inverter torque set point. However, verifying a control algorithm in actual wind turbine needs a lot of efforts to test and the actual wind turbine could be broken while testing a control algorithm. So, several software have developed and commercialized by Garrad Hassan, GH Bladed, and NREL, FAST. Even though, those programs can simulate control system modeling with subroutines or DLLs. However, those simulation programs are not able to emulate detailed generator or PMSG. In this paper, a small size wind turbine simulator is developed with induction motor and small size drive train. The developed system can simulate wind turbine control algorithm in the region before rated power.

Keywords: Wind turbine, simulator, wind turbine control, wind turbine torque control

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202 The Effect of the Direct Contact Heat Exchanger on Steam Power Plant

Authors: Mohamed A. Elhaj, Salahedin A. Aljahime

Abstract:

An actual power plant, which is the power plant of Iron and Steel Factory at Misurata city in Libya , has been modeled using Matlab in order to compare its results to the actual results of the actual cycle. This paper concentrates on two factors: a- The comparison between exergy losses in the actual cycle and the modeled cycle. b- The effect of extracting pressure on temperature water at boiler inlet. Closed heat exchangers used in this plant have been substituted by open heat exchangers in the current study of the modeled power plant and the required changes in the pressure have been considered. In the following investigation the two points mentioned above are taken in consideration.

Keywords: Steam Power Plant, Contact Heat exchanger, Exergy, Cycle Efficiency.

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201 An Experimental Study on Evacuated Tube Solar Collector for Steam Generation in India

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Anunaya Saraswat

Abstract:

An evacuated tube solar collector is experimentally studied for steam generation. When the solar radiation falls on evacuated tubes, this energy is absorbed by the tubes and transferred to water with natural conduction and convection. A natural circulation of water occurs due to the inclination in tubes and header. In this experimental study, the efficiency of collector has been calculated. The result shows that the collector attains the maximum efficiency of 46.26% during 14:00 to 15:00h. Steam has been generated for two hours from 13:30 to 15:30 h on a winter day. Maximum solar intensity and maximum ambient temperatures are 795W/m2 and 19oC respectively on this day.

Keywords: Evacuated tube, solar collector, hot water, steam generation.

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