Steam Gasification of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS): Effect of Fe/BEA and Ni/BEA Catalysts and Steam to Biomass Ratio on Composition of Gaseous Products
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32794
Steam Gasification of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS): Effect of Fe/BEA and Ni/BEA Catalysts and Steam to Biomass Ratio on Composition of Gaseous Products

Authors: M.F. Mohamad, Anita Ramli, S.E.E Misi, S. Yusup


This work presents the hydrogen production from steam gasification of palm kernel shell (PKS) at 700 oC in the presence of 5% Ni/BEA and 5% Fe/BEA as catalysts. The steam gasification was performed in two-staged reactors to evaluate the effect of calcinations temperature and the steam to biomass ratio on the product gas composition. The catalytic activity of Ni/BEA catalyst decreases with increasing calcinations temperatures from 500 to 700 oC. The highest H2 concentration is produced by Fe/BEA (600) with more than 71 vol%. The catalytic activity of the catalysts tested is found to correspond to its physicochemical properties. The optimum range for steam to biomass ratio if found to be between 2 to 4. Excess steam content results in temperature drop in the gasifier which is undesirable for the gasification reactions.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Palm Kernel Shell, Steam gasification, Ni/BEA, Fe/BEA

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2185


[1] M. Balat, M. Balat, E. Kirtay, and H. Balat, "Main routes for the thermo- conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Part 2: Gasification System," Energy Conversion and Management, vol 50, pp. 3158-3168, 2009.
[2] T. Suzuki, H. Ohme, Y. Watanabe, "Alkali metal catalyzed carbon dioxide gasification of carbon," Energy Fuels, vol 6, no 4, pp. 343- 351,1992.
[3] Z. Abu El-Rub, E.A. Bramer, and G. Brem, "Review of Catalysts for Tar Elimination in Biomass Gasification Process," Ind. Eng. Chem Res., vol. 43, no. 22, pp. 6911-6919, 2004.
[4] D. Sutton, B. Kelleher, and J.R.H Ross, "Review of literature on catalyst for biomass gasification," Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 73, pp. 155- 173, 2001.
[5] T. Nordgreen, T. Liliedahl, and K. Sjostrom, " Metallic iron as a tar breakdown catalyst related to atmospheric, fluidised bed gasification of biomass," Fuel, vol. 85, pp 689-694, 2006.
[6] A. Hassan, S. Ahmed, M. A. Ali, H. Hamid, and T. Inui, "A comparison between β- and USY-zeolite-bases hydrocracking catalysts," Appl. Catal. A., vol. 220, pp. 59-68, 2001.
[7] A. Ramli, A. R. A Hamid, F. Manaf and S. M. Ibrahim, "Effect of vanadium and titanium substitution over an antimony- based mixed oxide catalysts for propane ammoxidation to acrylonitrile," Malaysian J. Analytical Sci., vol. 11,pp. 166-172,2007.
[8] C. Courson, L. Udron, D. Swierczyn'ski, C Petit, and A. Kiennemann, "Hydrogen production from biomass gasification on nickel catalysts Test for dry reforming of methane," Catalysis Today, vol. 76,pp. 75-86, 2002
[9] J. Zielinski, "Morphology of Nickel/Alumina Catalysts," J. Catal., vol 76, pp. 157-163,1982.
[10] M. Virginie, S. Libs, A. Courson, and Kiennemann, " Iron/Olivine Catalysts for Tar Reforming: Comparison with Nickel/Olivine" (2008), (retrieved on January 13, 2010)
[11] H. J. Wan, B. S. Wu, C. H. Zhang, H. W. Xiang, Y. W. Li, B.F. Xu, and F.Yi, "Study of Fe-Al2O3 Interaction over Precipitated Iron Catalyst for Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis," Catal. Commun.,vol. 8, pp. 1538-1545,2007.
[12] A. F. H. Wielers, A. J. H. M. Kock, C. E. C. A. Hop, and J. W. Geus, "The Reduction Behavior of Silica-Supported and Alumina-Supported Iron Catalysts: A Mossbauer and Infrared Spectroscopic Study," J. Catal., vol. 117, pp. 1-18,1989.
[13] C. H. Zhang, Y. Yang, B. T. Teng, T. Z. Li, H. Y. Zheng, H. W. Xiang, and Y. W. Li, "Study of an Iron-Manganese Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalyst Promoted with Copper," J. Catal.,vol. 237, pp. 405-415,2006
[14] P. Lv, Z. Yuan, C. Wu, L. Ma, Y. Chen, N. Tsubaki., "Bio-syngas production from biomass catalytic gasification," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 48, pp. 1132-1139,2007.
[15] M. P. Aznar, M. A. Caballero, J. Corella, G. Molina, and J. M. Toledo, " Hydrogen production by biomass gasification with steam-O2 mixtures followed by a catalytic steam reformer and a CO-shift system," Energy Fuels, vol. 20, pp. 1305-1309,2006.
[16] S. Luo, B. Xiao, Z. Hu, S. Liu, X. Guo, and M. He, "Hydrogen -rich gas from catalytic steam gasification of biomass in a fixed bed reactor: Influence of temperature and steam on gasification performance," Inter. J. of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, pp. 2191-2194, 2009.
[17] N. Gao, A. Li, C. Quan, and F. Gao, " Hydrogen-rich gas production from biomass steam gasification in an updraft-fixed bed gasifier combined with a porous ceramic reformer," Inter. J. of Hydrogen Energy, vol.33, pp.5430-5438, 2008.