Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3701

Search results for: gas turbine power plant

3701 Efficient Use of Energy through Incorporation of a Gas Turbine in Methanol Plant

Authors: M. Azadi, N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi

Abstract:

A techno-economic evaluation for efficient use of energy in a large scale industrial plant of methanol is carried out. This assessment is based on integration of a gas turbine with an existing plant of methanol in which the outlet gas products of exothermic reactor is expanded to power generation. Also, it is decided that methanol production rate is constant through addition of power generation system to the existing methanol plant. Having incorporated a gas turbine with the existing plant, the economic results showed total investment of MUSD 16.9, energy saving of 3.6 MUSD/yr with payback period of approximately 4.7 years.

Keywords: Energy saving, Gas turbine, Methanol, Power generation.

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3700 Improving the Performance of Gas Turbine Power Plant by Modified Axial Turbine

Authors: Hakim T. Kadhim, Faris A. Jabbar, Aldo Rona, Audrius Bagdanaviciu

Abstract:

Computer-based optimization techniques can be employed to improve the efficiency of energy conversions processes, including reducing the aerodynamic loss in a thermal power plant turbomachine. In this paper, towards mitigating secondary flow losses, a design optimization workflow is implemented for the casing geometry of a 1.5 stage axial flow turbine that improves the turbine isentropic efficiency. The improved turbine is used in an open thermodynamic gas cycle with regeneration and cogeneration. Performance estimates are obtained by the commercial software Cycle – Tempo. Design and off design conditions are considered as well as variations in inlet air temperature. Reductions in both the natural gas specific fuel consumption and in CO2 emissions are predicted by using the gas turbine cycle fitted with the new casing design. These gains are attractive towards enhancing the competitiveness and reducing the environmental impact of thermal power plant.

Keywords: Axial flow turbine, computational fluid dynamics, gas turbine power plant, optimization.

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3699 Energy and Exergy Performance Optimization on a Real Gas Turbine Power Plant

Authors: Farhat Hajer, Khir Tahar, Cherni Rafik, Dakhli Radhouen, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

This paper presents the energy and exergy optimization of a real gas turbine power plant performance of 100 MW of power, installed in the South East of Tunisia. A simulation code is established using the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) software. The parameters considered are those of the actual operating conditions of the gas turbine thermal power station under study. The results show that thermal and exergetic efficiency decreases with the increase of the ambient temperature. Air excess has an important effect on the thermal efficiency. The emission of NOx rises in the summer and decreases in the winter. The obtained rates of NOx are compared with measurements results.

Keywords: Efficiency, exergy, gas turbine, temperature.

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3698 Vibration Analysis of an Alstom Typhoon Gas Turbine Power Plant Related to Iran Oil Industry

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

Vibration analysis is the most important factor in preventive maintenance. Gas turbine vibration analysis is also one of the most challenging categories in most critical equipment monitoring systems. Utilities are heart of the process in big industrial plants like petrochemical zones. Vibration analysis methods and condition monitoring systems of this kind of equipment developed too much in recent years. On the other hand, too much operation condition consideration in this kind of equipment should be adjusted properly like inlet and outlet pressure and temperature for both turbine and compressor. In this paper the most important tools and hypothesis used for analyzing of gas turbine power plants discussed in details through a real case history related to an Alstom Typhoon gas turbine power plant in Iran oil industries. In addition, the basic principal of vibration behavior caused by mechanical unbalance in gas turbine rotor discussed in details.

Keywords: Vibration analysis, gas turbine, time wave form (TWF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), phase angle.

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3697 Thermal Analysis of Open-Cycle Regenerator Gas-Turbine Power-Plant

Authors: M. M. Rahman, Thamir K. Ibrahim, M. Y. Taib, M. M. Noor, Rosli A. Bakar

Abstract:

Regenerative gas turbine engine cycle is presented that yields higher cycle efficiencies than simple cycle operating under the same conditions. The power output, efficiency and specific fuel consumption are simulated with respect to operating conditions. The analytical formulae about the relation to determine the thermal efficiency are derived taking into account the effected operation conditions (ambient temperature, compression ratio, regenerator effectiveness, compressor efficiency, turbine efficiency and turbine inlet temperature). Model calculations for a wide range of parameters are presented, as are comparisons with simple gas turbine cycle. The power output and thermal efficiency are found to be increasing with the regenerative effectiveness, and the compressor and turbine efficiencies. The efficiency increased with increase the compression ratio to 5, then efficiency decreased with increased compression ratio, but in simple cycle the thermal efficiency always increase with increased in compression ratio. The increased in ambient temperature caused decreased thermal efficiency, but the increased in turbine inlet temperature increase thermal efficiency.

Keywords: Gas turbine, power plant, thermal analysis, regeneration

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3696 Turbine Speed Variation Study in Gas Power Plant for an Active Generator

Authors: R. Kazemzadeh, J. M. Kauffmann

Abstract:

This research deals with investigations on the “Active Generator" under rotor speed variations and output frequency control. It runs at turbine speed and it is connected to a three phase electrical power grid which has its own frequency different from turbine frequency. In this regard the set composed of a four phase synchronous generator and a natural commutated matrix converter (NCMC) made with thyristors, is called active generator. It replaces a classical mechanical gearbox which introduces many drawbacks. The main idea in this article is the presentation of frequency control at grid side when turbine runs at variable speed. Frequency control has been done by linear and step variations of the turbine speed. Relation between turbine speed (frequency) and main grid zero sequence voltage frequency is presented.

Keywords: Power Generation, Energy Conversion, FrequencyControl, Matrix Converter.

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3695 The Current Situation and Perspectives of Electricity Demand and Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Efficiency

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Aldali

Abstract:

This article presents a current and future energy situation in Libya. The electric power efficiency and operating hours in power plants are evaluated from 2005 to 2010. Carbon dioxide emissions in most of power plants are estimated. In 2005, the efficiency of steam power plants achieved a range of 20% to 28%. While, the gas turbine power plants efficiency ranged between 9% and 25%, this can be considered as low efficiency. However, the efficiency improvement has clearly observed in some power plants from 2008 to 2010, especially in the power plant of North Benghazi and west Tripoli. In fact, these power plants have modified to combine cycle. The efficiency of North Benghazi power plant has increased from 25% to 46.6%, while in Tripoli it is increased from 22% to 34%. On the other hand, the efficiency improvement is not observed in the gas turbine power plants. When compared to the quantity of fuel used, the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from electricity generation plants were very high. Finally, an estimation of the energy demand has been done to the maximum load and the annual load factor (i.e., the ratio between the output power and installed power).

Keywords: Power plant, Efficiency improvement, Carbon dioxide Emissions.

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3694 Availability Analysis of a Power Plant by Computer Simulation

Authors: Mehmet Savsar

Abstract:

Reliability and availability of power stations are extremely important in order to achieve a required level of power generation. In particular, in the hot desert climate of Kuwait, reliable power generation is extremely important because of cooling requirements at temperatures exceeding 50-centigrade degrees. In this paper, a particular power plant, named Sabiya Power Plant, which has 8 steam turbines and 13 gas turbine stations, has been studied in detail; extensive data are collected; and availability of station units are determined. Furthermore, a simulation model is developed and used to analyze the effects of different maintenance policies on availability of these stations. The results show that significant improvements can be achieved in power plant availabilities if appropriate maintenance policies are implemented.

Keywords: Power plants, steam turbines, gas turbines, maintenance, availability, simulation.

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3693 Exergetic Analysis of Steam Turbine Power Plant Operated in Chemical Industry

Authors: F. Hafdhi, T. Khir, A. Ben Yahia, A. Ben Brahim

Abstract:

An Energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in different parts of the plant are also considered in the analysis. Mass, thermal and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the factory. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis. The effects of the key operating parameters such as steam pressure and temperature, mass flow rate as well as seawater temperature, on the cycle performances are investigated. A maximum Exergy Loss Rate of about 72% is obtained for the melters, followed by the condensers, heat exchangers and the pumps. The heat exchangers used in the phosphoric acid unit present exergetic efficiencies around 33% while 60% to 72% are obtained for steam turbines and blower. For the explored ranges of HP steam temperature and pressure, the exergy efficiencies of steam turbine generators STGI and STGII increase of about 2.5% and 5.4% respectively. In the same way optimum HP steam flow rate values, leading to the maximum exergy efficiencies are defined.

Keywords: Steam turbine generator, energy efficiency, exergy efficiency, phosphoric acid plant.

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3692 Performance Assessment of Wet-Compression Gas Turbine Cycle with Turbine Blade Cooling

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

Turbine blade cooling is considered as the most effective way of maintaining high operating temperature making use of the available materials, and turbine systems with wet compression have a potential for future power generation because of high efficiency and high specific power with a relatively low cost. In this paper performance analysis of wet-compression gas turbine cycle with turbine blade cooling is carried out. The wet compression process is analytically modeled based on non-equilibrium droplet evaporation. Special attention is paid for the effects of pressure ratio and water injection ratio on the important system variables such as ratio of coolant fluid flow, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and specific power. Parametric studies show that wet compression leads to insignificant improvement in thermal efficiency but significant enhancement of specific power in gas turbine systems with turbine blade cooling.

Keywords: Water injection, wet compression, gas turbine, turbine blade cooling.

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3691 Power Generation from Sewage by a Micro-Hydraulic Turbine

Authors: Tomomi Uchiyama, Tomoko Okayama, Yukio Ide

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the development of a micro-hydraulic turbine for power generation installed in sewer pipes. The runner has a circular hollow around the central (rotating) axis so that solid materials included in water can be easily flow through the runner without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are also conducted. The hollow is very effective to make polyester fibers pass through the turbine. The guide vane is useful to heighten the turbine performance. But it is easily blocked by the fibers, making the turbine lose the function.

Keywords: Generation of electricity, micro-hydraulic turbine, sewage, sewer pipe.

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3690 Identification of Key Parameters for Benchmarking of Combined Cycle Power Plants Retrofit

Authors: S. Sabzchi Asl, N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi

Abstract:

Benchmarking of a process with respect to energy consumption, without accomplishing a full retrofit study, can save both engineering time and money. In order to achieve this goal, the first step is to develop a conceptual-mathematical model that can easily be applied to a group of similar processes. In this research, we have aimed to identify a set of key parameters for the model which is supposed to be used for benchmarking of combined cycle power plants. For this purpose, three similar combined cycle power plants were studied. The results showed that ambient temperature, pressure and relative humidity, number of HRSG evaporator pressure levels and relative power in part load operation are the main key parameters. Also, the relationships between these parameters and produced power (by gas/ steam turbine), gas turbine and plant efficiency, temperature and mass flow rate of the stack flue gas were investigated.

Keywords: Combined cycle power plant, energy benchmarking, modelling, Retrofit.

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3689 Optimum Turbomachine Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants

Authors: S. B. Alavi, G. Cerri, L. Chennaoui, A. Giovannelli, S. Mazzoni

Abstract:

Power Regeneration in Refrigeration Plant concept has been analyzed and has been shown to be capable of saving about 25% power in Cryogenic Plants with the Power Regeneration System (PRS) running under nominal conditions. The innovative component Compressor Expander Group (CEG) based on turbomachinery has been designed and built modifying CETT compressor and expander, both selected for optimum plant performance. Experiments have shown the good response of the turbomachines to run with R404a as working fluid. Power saving up to 12% under PRS derated conditions (50% loading) has been demonstrated. Such experiments allowed predicting a power saving up to 25% under CEG full load.

Keywords: Compressor, Expander, Power Saving, Refrigeration Plant, Turbine, Turbomachinery Selection, Vapor Pressure Booster.

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3688 Turbine Trip without Bypass Analysis of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant Using TRACE Coupling with FRAPTRAN

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. T. Lin, H. C. Chang, W. K. Lin, W. Y. Li, C. Shih

Abstract:

This analysis of Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) was performed mainly by TRACE, assisted with FRAPTRAN and FRAPCON. SNAP v2.2.1 and TRACE v5.0p3 are used to develop the Kuosheng NPP SPU TRACE model which can simulate the turbine trip without bypass transient. From the analysis of TRACE, the important parameters such as dome pressure, coolant temperature and pressure can be determined. Through these parameters, comparing with the criteria which were formulated by United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), we can determine whether the Kuoshengnuclear power plant failed or not in the accident analysis. However, from the data of TRACE, the fuel rods status cannot be determined. With the information from TRACE and burn-up analysis obtained from FRAPCON, FRAPTRAN analyzes more details about the fuel rods in this transient. Besides, through the SNAP interface, the data results can be presented as an animation. From the animation, the TRACE and FRAPTRAN data can be merged together that may be realized by the readers more easily. In this research, TRACE showed that the maximum dome pressure of the reactor reaches to 8.32 MPa, which is lower than the acceptance limit 9.58 MPa. Furthermore, FRAPTRAN revels that the maximum strain is about 0.00165, which is below the criteria 0.01. In addition, cladding enthalpy is 52.44 cal/g which is lower than 170 cal/g specified by the USNRC NUREG-0800 Standard Review Plan.

Keywords: Turbine trip without bypass, Kuosheng NPP, TRACE, FRAPTRAN, SNAP animation.

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3687 A Study of Wind Speed Characteristic in PI Controller based DFIG Wind Turbine

Authors: T. Unchim, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

The Wind Turbine Modeling in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) PI Controller based design is presented. To study about the variable wind speed. The PI controller performs responding to the dynamic performance. The objective is to study the characteristic of wind turbine and finding the optimum wind speed suitable for wind turbine performance. This system will allow the specification setting (2.5MW). The output active power also corresponding same the input is given. And the reactive power produced by the wind turbine is regulated at 0 Mvar. Variable wind speed is optimum for drive train performance at 12.5 m/s (at maximum power coefficient point) from the simulation of DFIG by Simulink is described.

Keywords: DFIG, wind speed, PI controller, the output power.

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3686 Turbine Follower Control Strategy Design Based on Developed FFPP Model

Authors: Ali Ghaffari, Mansour Nikkhah Bahrami, Hesam Parsa

Abstract:

In this paper a comprehensive model of a fossil fueled power plant (FFPP) is developed in order to evaluate the performance of a newly designed turbine follower controller. Considering the drawbacks of previous works, an overall model is developed to minimize the error between each subsystem model output and the experimental data obtained at the actual power plant. The developed model is organized in two main subsystems namely; Boiler and Turbine. Considering each FFPP subsystem characteristics, different modeling approaches are developed. For economizer, evaporator, superheater and reheater, first order models are determined based on principles of mass and energy conservation. Simulations verify the accuracy of the developed models. Due to the nonlinear characteristics of attemperator, a new model, based on a genetic-fuzzy systems utilizing Pittsburgh approach is developed showing a promising performance vis-à-vis those derived with other methods like ANFIS. The optimization constraints are handled utilizing penalty functions. The effect of increasing the number of rules and membership functions on the performance of the proposed model is also studied and evaluated. The turbine model is developed based on the equation of adiabatic expansion. Parameters of all evaluated models are tuned by means of evolutionary algorithms. Based on the developed model a fuzzy PI controller is developed. It is then successfully implemented in the turbine follower control strategy of the plant. In this control strategy instead of keeping control parameters constant, they are adjusted on-line with regard to the error and the error rate. It is shown that the response of the system improves significantly. It is also shown that fuel consumption decreases considerably.

Keywords: Attemperator, Evolutionary algorithms, Fossil fuelled power plant (FFPP), Fuzzy set theory, Gain scheduling

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3685 Type–2 Fuzzy Programming for Optimizing the Heat Rate of an Industrial Gas Turbine via Absorption Chiller Technology

Authors: T. Ganesan, M. S. Aris, I. Elamvazuthi, Momen Kamal Tageldeen

Abstract:

Terms set in power purchase agreements (PPA) challenge power utility companies in balancing between the returns (from maximizing power production) and securing long term supply contracts at capped production. The production limitation set in the PPA has driven efforts to maximize profits through efficient and economic power production. In this paper, a combined industrial-scale gas turbine (GT) - absorption chiller (AC) system is considered to cool the GT air intake for reducing the plant’s heat rate (HR). This GT-AC system is optimized while considering power output limitations imposed by the PPA. In addition, the proposed formulation accounts for uncertainties in the ambient temperature using Type-2 fuzzy programming. Using the enhanced chaotic differential evolution (CEDE), the Pareto frontier was constructed and the optimization results are analyzed in detail.

Keywords: Absorption chillers, turbine inlet air cooling, power purchase agreement, multiobjective optimization, type-2 fuzzy programming, chaotic differential evolution.

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3684 Aerodynamic Bicycle Torque Augmentation with a Wells Turbine in Wheels

Authors: Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

Cyclists often run through a crosswind and sometimes we experience the adverse pressure. We came to an idea that Wells turbine can be used as power augmentation device in the crosswind something like sails of a yacht. Wells turbine always rotates in the same direction irrespective of the incoming flow direction, and we use it in the small-scale power generation in the ocean where waves create an oscillating flow. We incorporate the turbine to the wheel of a bike. A commercial device integrates strain gauges in the crank of a bike and transmitted force and torque applied to the pedal of the bike as an e-mail to the driver’s mobile phone. We can analyze the unsteady data in a spreadsheet sent from the crank sensor. We run the bike with the crank sensor on the rollers at the exit of a low-speed wind tunnel and analyze the effect of the crosswind to the wheel with a Wells turbine. We also test the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine separately. Although power gain depends on the flow direction, several Watts increase might be possible by the Wells turbine incorporated to a bike wheel.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, wells turbine, bicycle, wind engineering.

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3683 Estimated Production Potential Types of Wind Turbines Connected to the Network Using Random Numbers Simulation

Authors: Saeid Nahi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Nabavi

Abstract:

Nowadays, power systems, energy generation by wind has been very important. Noting that the production of electrical energy by wind turbines on site to several factors (such as wind speed and profile site for the turbines, especially off the wind input speed, wind rated speed and wind output speed disconnect) is dependent. On the other hand, several different types of turbines in the market there. Therefore, selecting a turbine that its capacity could also answer the need for electric consumers the efficiency is high something is important and necessary. In this context, calculating the amount of wind power to help optimize overall network, system operation, in determining the parameters of wind power is very important. In this article, to help calculate the amount of wind power plant, connected to the national network in the region Manjil wind, selecting the best type of turbine and power delivery profile appropriate to the network using Monte Carlo method has been. In this paper, wind speed data from the wind site in Manjil, as minute and during the year has been. Necessary simulations based on Random Numbers Simulation method and repeat, using the software MATLAB and Excel has been done.

Keywords: wind turbine, efficiency, wind turbine work points, Random Numbers, reliability

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3682 Vibration and Operation Technical Consideration before Field Balance of Gas Turbine Utilities (In Iran Power Plants SIEMENS V94.2 Gas Turbines)

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

One of the most challenging times in operation of big industrial plant or utilities is the time that alert lamp of Bently Nevada connection in main board substation turn on and show the alert condition of machine. All of the maintenance groups usually make a lot of discussion with operation and together rather this alert signal is real or fake. This will be more challenging when condition monitoring vibrationdata shows 1X(X=current rotor frequency) in fast Fourier transform(FFT) and vibration phase trends show 90 degree shift between two non-contact probedirections with overall high radial amplitude amounts. In such situations, CM (condition monitoring) groups usually suspicious about unbalance in rotor. In this paper, four critical case histories related to SIEMENS V94.2 Gas Turbines in Iran power industry discussed in details. Furthermore, probe looseness and fake (unreal) trip in gas turbine power plants discussed. In addition, critical operation decision in alert condition in power plants discussed in details.

Keywords: Gas turbine, field balance, turbine compressors, balancing tools, balancing data collectors.

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3681 Performance Augmentation of a Combined Cycle Power Plant with Waste Heat Recovery and Solar Energy

Authors: Mohammed A. Elhaj, Jamal S. Yassin

Abstract:

In the present time, energy crises is considered a severe problem across the world. For the protection of global environment and maintain ecological balance, energy saving is considered one of the most vital issues from the view point of fuel consumption. As the industrial sectors everywhere continue efforts to improve their energy efficiency, recovering waste heat losses provides an attractive opportunity for an emission free and less costly energy resource. In the other hand the using of solar energy has become more insistent particularly after the high gross of prices and running off the conventional energy sources. Therefore, it is essential that we should endeavor for waste heat recovery as well as solar energy by making significant and concrete efforts. For these reasons this investigation is carried out to study and analyze the performance of a power plant working by a combined cycle in which heat recovery system generator (HRSG) gets its energy from the waste heat of a gas turbine unit. Evaluation of the performance of the plant is based on different thermal efficiencies of the main components in addition to the second law analysis considering the exergy destructions for the whole components. The contribution factors including the solar as well as the wasted energy are considered in the calculations. The final results have shown that there is significant exergy destruction in solar concentrator and the combustion chamber of the gas turbine unit. Other components such as compressor, gas turbine, steam turbine and heat exchangers having insignificant exergy destruction. Also, solar energy can contribute by about 27% of the input energy to the plant while the energy lost with exhaust gases can contribute by about 64% at maximum cases.

Keywords: Solar energy, environment, efficiency, waste heat, steam generator, performance, exergy destruction.

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3680 Energy Analysis of Pressurized Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Combined Power Turbine

Authors: M. Ayazi, R. Karami, B. Kamkari

Abstract:

Solid oxide fuel cells have been considered in the last years as one of the most promising technologies for very highefficiency electric energy generation from hydrogen or other hydrocarbons, both with simple fuel cell plants and with integrated gas turbine-fuel cell systems. In the present study, a detailed thermodynamic analysis has been carried out. Mass and exergy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of combined cycle. Moreover, different sources of irreversibilities within the SOFC stack have been discussed and a parametric study conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature as well as pressure on SOFC irreversibilities and its performance. In this investigation methane and hydrogen have been used for fueling the SOFC stack and combustion chamber.

Keywords: SOFC, Energy, Power turbine, Irreversibility.

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3679 Thermodynamic Analysis of GT Cycle with Naphtha or Natural Gas as the Fuel: A Thermodynamic Comparison

Authors: S. Arpit, P. K. Das, S. K. Dash

Abstract:

In this paper, a comparative study is done between two fuels, naphtha and natural gas (NG), for a gas turbine (GT) plant of 32.5 MW with the same thermodynamic configuration. From the energy analysis, it is confirmed that the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of the gas turbine in the case of natural gas is higher as compared to naphtha, and hence the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is better. The result from the exergy analysis also confirms that due to high turbine inlet temperature in the case of natural gas, exergy destruction in combustion chamber is less. But comparing two fuels for overall analysis, naphtha has higher energy and exergetic efficiency as compared to natural gas.

Keywords: Exergy, gas turbine, naphtha, natural gas.

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3678 Design of Speed and Power Control System for Wind Turbine with Reference Tracking Method

Authors: H. Ghanbari, H. Nikbakht, A. Zahedi, M. Ghanbari

Abstract:

This paper is focusing on designing a control system for wind turbine which can control the speed and output power according to arbitrary algorithm. Reference Tracking Method is used to control the turbine spinning speed in order to increase its output energy.

Keywords: Wind Turbine, Simulink, Reference Tracking Method.

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3677 Thermodynamic Performance Assessment of Steam-Injection Gas-Turbine Systems

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim, Giman Kim

Abstract:

The cycles of the steam-injection gas-turbine systems are studied. The analyses of the parametric effects and the optimal operating conditions for the steam-injection gas-turbine (STIG) system and the regenerative steam-injection gas-turbine (RSTIG) system are investigated to ensure the maximum performance. Using the analytic model, the performance parameters of the system such as thermal efficiency, fuel consumption and specific power, and also the optimal operating conditions are evaluated in terms of pressure ratio, steam injection ratio, ambient temperature and turbine inlet temperature (TIT). It is shown that the computational results are presented to have a notable enhancement of thermal efficiency and specific power.

Keywords: gas turbine, RSTIG, steam injection, STIG, thermal efficiency.

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3676 Power Electronic Solution for High Energetic Efficiency of a Thermo Plant

Authors: Aziza Benaboud, Alfred Rufer

Abstract:

In this paper the authors propose a flexible electronic solution, to improve the energetic efficiency of a thermo plant. This is achieved by replacing the mechanical gear box, placed traditionally between a gas turbine and a synchronous generator; by a power electronic converter. After reminding problematic of gear boxes and interest of a proposed electronic solution in high power plants, the authors describe a new control strategy for an indirect frequency converter, which is characterized by its high efficiency due to the use of SWM: Square Wave Modulation. The main advantage of this mode is the quasi absence of switching losses. A control method is also proposed to resolve some problems incurred by using square wave modulation, in particular to reduce the harmonics distortion of the output inverter voltage and current. Simulation examples as well as experimental results are included.

Keywords: Angle shift, high efficiency, indirect converter, gas turbine, NPC three level converter, square wave modulation SWM, switching angle.

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3675 Performance Characteristics of Some Small Scale Wind Turbines Fabricated in Tanzania

Authors: Talam K. E, Kainkwa R. M.

Abstract:

In this study, a field testing has been carried out to assess the power characteristics of some small scale wind turbines fabricated by one native technician from Tanzania. Two Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs), one with five and other with sixteen blades were installed at a height of 2.4m above the ground. The rotation speed of the rotor blade and wind speed approaching the turbines were measured simultaneously. The data obtained were used to determine how the power coefficient varies as a function of tip speed ratio and also the way in which the output power compares with available power in the wind for each turbine. For the sixteen-bladed wind turbine the maximum value of power coefficient of about 0.14 was found to occur at a tip speed ratio of around 0.65 while for the five bladed, these extreme values were respectively attained at approximately 0.2 and 1.7. The five bladed-wind turbine was found to have a higher power efficiency of about 37.5% which is higher compared to the sixteen bladed wind turbine whose corresponding value was 14.37%. This is what would be expected, as the smaller the number of blades of a wind turbine, the higher the electric power efficiency and vice versa. Some of the main reasons for the low efficiency of these machines may be due to the low aerodynamic efficiency of the turbine or low efficiency of the transmission mechanisms such as gearbox and generator which were not examined in this study. It is recommended that some other researches be done to investigate the power efficiency of such machines from different manufacturers in the country. The manufacturers should also be encouraged to use fewer blades in their designs so as to improve the efficiency and at the same time reduce materials used to fabricate the blades. The power efficiency of the electric generators used in the locally fabricated wind turbines should also be examined.

Keywords: Tip speed ratio, Power coefficients and power efficiency.

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3674 Development of Wind Turbine Simulator for Generator Torque Control

Authors: Jae-Kyung Lee, Joon-Young Park, Ki-Yong Oh, Jun-Shin Park

Abstract:

Wind turbine should be controlled to capture maximum wind energy and to prevent the turbine from being stalled. To achieve those two goals, wind turbine controller controls torque on generator and limits input torque from wind by pitching blade. Usually, torque on generator is controlled using inverter torque set point. However, verifying a control algorithm in actual wind turbine needs a lot of efforts to test and the actual wind turbine could be broken while testing a control algorithm. So, several software have developed and commercialized by Garrad Hassan, GH Bladed, and NREL, FAST. Even though, those programs can simulate control system modeling with subroutines or DLLs. However, those simulation programs are not able to emulate detailed generator or PMSG. In this paper, a small size wind turbine simulator is developed with induction motor and small size drive train. The developed system can simulate wind turbine control algorithm in the region before rated power.

Keywords: Wind turbine, simulator, wind turbine control, wind turbine torque control

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3673 Stress Analysis of Turbine Blades of Turbocharger Using Structural Steel

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif

Abstract:

Turbocharger is a device that is driven by the turbine and increases efficiency and power output of the engine by forcing external air into the combustion chamber. This study focused on the distribution of stress on the turbine blades and total deformation that may occur during its working along with turbocharger to carry out its static structural analysis of turbine blades. Structural steel was selected as the material for turbocharger. Assembly of turbocharger and turbine blades was designed on PRO ENGINEER. Furthermore, the structural analysis is performed by using ANSYS. This research concluded that by using structural steel, the efficiency of engine is improved and by increasing number of turbine blades, more waste heat from combustion chamber is emitted.

Keywords: Turbocharger, turbine blades, structural steel, ANSYS.

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3672 Exergy Based Performance Analysis of a Gas Turbine Unit at Various Ambient Conditions

Authors: Idris A. Elfeituri

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of ambient conditions on the performance of a 285 MW gas turbine unit using the exergy concept. Based on the available exergy balance models developed, a computer program has been constructed to investigate the performance of the power plant under varying ambient temperature and relative humidity conditions. The variations of ambient temperature range from zero to 50 ºC and the relative humidity ranges from zero to 100%, while the unit load kept constant at 100% of the design load. The exergy destruction ratio and exergy efficiency are determined for each component and for the entire plant. The results show a moderate increase in the total exergy destruction ratio of the plant from 62.05% to 65.20%, while the overall exergy efficiency decrease from 38.2% to 34.8% as the ambient temperature increases from zero to 50 ºC at all relative humidity values. Furthermore, an increase of 1 ºC in ambient temperature leads to 0.063% increase in the total exergy destruction ratio and 0.07% decrease in the overall exergy efficiency. The relative humidity has a remarkable influence at higher ambient temperature values on the exergy destruction ratio of combustion chamber and on exergy loss ratio of the exhaust gas but almost no effect on the total exergy destruction ratio and overall exergy efficiency. At 50 ºC ambient temperature, the exergy destruction ratio of the combustion chamber increases from 30% to 52% while the exergy loss ratio of the exhaust gas decreases from 28% to 8% as the relative humidity increases from zero to 100%. In addition, exergy analysis reveals that the combustion chamber and exhaust gas are the main source of irreversibility in the gas turbine unit. It is also identified that the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratio are considerably dependent on the variations in the ambient air temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, the incorporation of the existing gas turbine plant with inlet air cooling and humidifier technologies should be considered seriously.

Keywords: Destruction, exergy, gas turbine, irreversibility, performance.

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