Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: proximate composition

14 Evaluating the Performance of Organic, Inorganic and Liquid Sheep Manure on Growth, Yield and Nutritive Value of Hybrid Napier CO-3

Authors: F. A. M. Safwan, H. N. N. Dilrukshi, P. U. S. Peiris

Abstract:

Less availability of high quality green forages leads to low productivity of national dairy herd of Sri Lanka. Growing grass and fodder to suit the production system is an efficient and economical solution for this problem. CO-3 is placed in a higher category, especially on tillering capacity, green forage yield, regeneration capacity, leaf to stem ratio, high crude protein content, resistance to pests and diseases and free from adverse factors along with other fodder varieties grown within the country. An experiment was designed to determine the effect of organic sheep manure, inorganic fertilizers and liquid sheep manure on growth, yield and nutritive value of CO-3. The study was consisted with three treatments; sheep manure (T1), recommended inorganic fertilizers (T2) and liquid sheep manure (T3) which was prepared using bucket fermentation method and each treatment was consisted with three replicates and those were assigned randomly. First harvest was obtained after 40 days of plant establishment and number of leaves (NL), leaf area (LA), tillering capacity (TC), fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) were recorded and second harvest was obtained after 30 days of first harvest and same set of data were recorded. SPSS 16 software was used for data analysis. For proximate analysis AOAC, 2000 standard methods were used. Results revealed that the plants treated with T1 recorded highest NL, LA, TC, FW and DW and were statistically significant at first and second harvest of CO-3 (p˂ 0.05) and it was found that T1 was statistically significant from T2 and T3. Although T3 was recorded higher than the T2 in almost all growth parameters; it was not statistically significant (p ˃0.05). In addition, the crude protein content was recorded highest in T1 with the value of 18.33±1.61 and was lowest in T2 with the value of 10.82±1.14 and was statistically significant (p˂ 0.05). Apart from this, other proximate composition crude fiber, crude fat, ash, moisture content and dry matter were not statistically significant between treatments (p ˃0.05). In accordance with the results, it was found that the organic fertilizer is the best fertilizer for CO-3 in terms of growth parameters and crude protein content.

Keywords: Fertilizer, growth parameters, Hybrid Napier CO-3, proximate composition.

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13 Nutritional Composition of Crackers Produced from Blend of Sprouted Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan), Unripe Plantain (Musa parasidiaca) and Brewers’ Spent Grain Flour and Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic Rats Fed the Biscuit

Authors: Nneka N. Uchegbu, Charles N. Ishiwu

Abstract:

The nutritional composition and hypoglycaemic effect of crackers produced from blend of sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain and brewers’ spent grain and fed to Alloxan induced diabetic rat was investigated. Crackers were produced from different blends of sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain and brewers’ spent grain. The crackers were evaluated for proximate composition, amino acid profile and antinutritional factors. Blood glucose levels of normal and diabetic rats fed with the control sample and different formulations of cracker were measured. The protein content of the samples were significantly different (p<0.05) from each other with sample A having the lowest value and sample B with the highest value. The values obtained showed that the samples contained most of the amino acids that are found in plant proteins. The levels of antinutritional factor determined were generally low. Administration of the formulated cracker meals led to a significant reduction in the fasting blood glucose level in the diabetic rats. The present study concluded that consumption of crackers produced from this composite flour could be recommended for the diabetics and those who are sceptical about the disease.

Keywords: Crackers, diabetics rat, sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain and brewers’ spent grain.

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12 Effect on Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Yellow Noodles Substituted with Different Levels of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) Pericarp Powder

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Nurain Abdul Karim, Nur Shazrinna Sazali

Abstract:

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp is considered as agricultural waste and not fully utilized in food products. It is widely reported that mangosteen pericarp contains high antioxidant properties. The objective of this study is to develop novel yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) substituted with different levels of mangosteen pericarp powder (MPP). YAN formulation was substituted with different levels of MPP (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on nutritional and antioxidant properties was evaluated. Higher substitution levels of MPP resulted in significant increase (p<0.05) of ash, fibre, specific mineral elements and antioxidant properties (total phenolic, total flavonoid, anthocyanin and DPPH) than control sample.

Keywords: Yellow alkaline noodle, mangosteen pericarp powder, proximate composition, antioxidant properties.

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11 Effects of Process Parameters on the Yield of Oil from Coconut Fruit

Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Godian O. Mbah, Maxwel I. Onyiah, Callistus N. Ude

Abstract:

Analysis of the properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and its oil was evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The analyses carried out include proximate composition of the fruit, extraction of oil from the fruit using different process parameters and physicochemical analysis of the extracted oil. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash and carbohydrate content of the coconut as 7.59, 55.15, 5.65, 7.35 and 19.51 respectively. The oil from the coconut fruit was odourless and yellowish liquid at room temperature (30oC). The treatment combinations used (leaching time, leaching temperature and solute: solvent ratio) showed significant differences (P<0.05) in the yield of oil from coconut flour. The oil yield ranged between 36.25%-49.83%. Lipid indices of the coconut oil indicated the acid value (AV) as 10.05Na0H/g of oil, free fatty acid (FFA) as 5.03%, saponification values (SV) as 183.26mgKOH-1g of oil, iodine value (IV) as 81.00 I2/g of oil, peroxide value (PV) as 5.00 ml/ g of oil and viscosity (V) as 0.002. A standard statistical package minitab version 16.0 program was used in the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical software mentioned above was also used to generate various plots such as single effect plot, interactions effect plot and contour plot. The response or yield of oil from the coconut flour was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the yield to the process variables studied. The maximum conditions obtained that gave the highest yield of coconut oil were leaching time of 2hrs, leaching temperature of 50oC and solute/solvent ratio of 0.05g/ml.

Keywords: Coconut, oil-extraction, optimization, physicochemical, proximate.

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10 Proximate and Mineral Composition of Chicken Giblets from Vojvodina (Northern Serbia)

Authors: M. R. Jokanović, V. M. Tomović, M. T. Jović, S. B. Škaljac, B. V. Šojić, P. M. Ikonić, T. A. Tasić

Abstract:

Proximate (moisture, protein, total fat, total ash) and mineral (K, P, Na, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) composition of chicken giblets (heart, liver and gizzard) were investigated. Phosphorous content, as well as proximate composition, were determined according to recommended ISO methods. The content of all elements, except phosphorus, of the giblets tissues were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), after dry ashing mineralization. Regarding proximate composition heart was the highest in total fat content, and the lowest in protein content. Liver was the highest in protein and total ash content, while gizzard was the highest in moisture and the lowest in total fat content. Regarding mineral composition liver was the highest for K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn, while heart was the highest for Na content. The contents of almost all investigated minerals in analysed giblets tissues of chickens from Vojvodina were similar to values reported in the literature, i.e. in national food composition databases of other countries.

Keywords: Chicken giblets, proximate composition, mineral composition.

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9 Proximate Composition and Textural Properties of Cooked Sausages Formulated from Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat with Addition of Chicken Offal

Authors: Marija R. Jokanović, Vladimir M. Tomović, Mihajlo T. Jović, Branislav V. Šojić, Snežana B. Škaljac, Tatjana A. Tasić, Predrag M. Ikonić

Abstract:

Proximate composition (moisture, protein, total fat, and total ash) and textural characteristics (hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and firmness and work of shear) of cooked sausages formulated from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) with addition of chicken offal (heart, gizzard or liver) were investigated. Chicken offal replaced equal weight (15 kg) of MDCM in standard sausage formulation. Regarding proximate composition sausage with heart addition was significantly (P<0.05) lower in moisture content (70.45%) than sausage with liver addition (71.35%), and significantly (P<0.05) the highest in total ash content (2.83%). Sausage with gizzard addition was significantly higher in protein content (9.77%) than sausage with liver addition (9.42%). Total fat content didn’t significantly (P>0.05) differ among all three sausages. The effect of offal addition was more notable in Warner-Bratzler shear test results than in texture profile analysis test. Firmness and work of shear were significantly different (P<0.05) among all three sausages. Sausage with liver addition was significantly (P<0.05) lower in hardness (1672 g) and chewiness (1020 g) and numerically the lowest in springiness (0.90) and adhesiveness (–70 g*s) comparing with other two sausages. Sausage with heart addition was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cohesiveness (0.74) comparing with other two sausages.

Keywords: Cooked sausage, mechanically deboned chicken meat, offal, proximate composition, texture

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8 Investigation of Proximate Value, Sensorial Evaluation, Flesh Yield of Shrimp (Parapenaus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846) between Populations in the Marmara and Northern Aegean Sea

Authors: Zafer Ceylan, Gülgün F. Unal Sengor, Onur Gönülal

Abstract:

The differences on proximate composition, sensorial analysis (for raw and cooked samples) and flesh productivity of the samples of Parapenaus longirostris that were caught in the North Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea were investigated. Moisture, protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate, energy content of the North Aegean Sea shrimp were found 74.92 ± 0.1, 20.32 ± 0.16, 2.55 ± 0.1, 2.13 ± 0.08, 0.08%, 110.1 kcal/100 g, respectively. On the other hand, the Marmara Sea shrimp was found 76.9 ± 0.02, 19.06 ± 0.03, 2.22 ± 0.08, 1.51 ± 0.04, 0.33, 102.77 kcal/100g, respectively. Protein, lipid, ash and energy values of the Northern Aegean Sea shrimp were higher than the Marmara Sea shrimp. On the other hand, moisture, carbohydrate values of the Northern Aegean Sea shrimp were lower than the Marmara samples. Sensorial analyses were carried on for raw and cooked samples. Among all properties for raw samples, flesh color, shrimp connective tissue, shrimp body parameters were different from each other according to the result of the panel. According to the result of the cooked shrimp samples among all properties, cooked odour, flavor and texture were different from each other as well. Especially, flavor and textural properties of cooked shrimps of the Northern Aegean Sea were higher than the Marmara Sea shrimp. The flesh yield of the Northern Aegean Sea shrimp was found 46.42%, while Marmara Sea shrimp was found 47.74%.

Keywords: Proximate value, sensorial evaluation, Parapenaus longirostris flesh yield.

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7 Effect of Smoke Drying Techniques on the Proximate and Mineral Composition of Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (African River Prawn)

Authors: D. E. Omomo, R. M. Sunday, I. Kareem

Abstract:

This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional composition of the African River Prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) in relation to Chokor (traditional) and Altona (improved traditional) drying techniques used in the preservation and processing of prawns by carrying out proximate composition analysis. The value obtained for the proximate analysis of Chokor and Altona smoke dried prawns were; Moisture (14.90% and 15.15%), Dry matter (85.10% and 84.85%), Protein (55.80% and 58.87%), Crude fat (1.95% and 1.98%), Crude fibre (21.40% and 13.11%), Carbohydrate (0.54% and 0.54%) and Ash (19.76% and 15.86%) respectively. The proximate mineral composition of Chokor and Altona smoke dried prawns were; Calcium (5.66% and 4.20%) and Phosphorus (9. 22% and 6.34%) respectively. Result shows there was no loss of nutritional value with respect to Chokor and Altona drying techniques used in the processing of prawns.

Keywords: Altona, Chokor, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, Proximate composition, Smoke drying.

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6 Antioxidant Properties and Nutritive Values of Raw and Cooked Pool Barb (Puntius sophore) of Eastern Himalayas

Authors: Ch. Sarojnalini, Wahengbam Sarjubala Devi

Abstract:

Antioxidant properties and nutritive values of raw and cooked Pool barb, Puntius sophore (Hamilton-Buchanan) of Eastern Himalayas, India were determined. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of the raw, steamed, fried and curried Pool barb was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value of the raw, steamed, fried and curried Pool barb was 1.66 micro-gram/ml, 16.09 micro-gram/ml, 8.99 micro-gram/ml, 0.59 micro-gram/ml whereas the IC50 of the reference ascorbic acid was 46.66miro-gram/ml. These results showed that the fish have high antioxidant activity. Protein content was found highest in raw (20.50±0.08%) and lowest in curried (18.66±0.13%). Moisture content in raw, fried and curried was 76.35±0.09, 46.27±0.14 and 57.46±0.24 respectively. Lipid content was recorded 2.46±0.14% in raw and 21.76±0.10% in curried. Ash content varied from 12.57±0.11 to 22.53±0.07%. The total amino acids varied from 36.79±0.02 and 288.43±0.12 mg/100g. Eleven essential mineral elements were found abundant in all the samples. The samples had considerable amount of Fe ranging from 152.17 to 320.39 milli-gram/100gram, Ca 902.06 to 1356.02 milli-gram/100gram, Zn 91.07 to 138.14 milli-gram/100gram, K 193.25 to 261.56 milli-gram/100gram, Mg 225.06 to 229.10 milli-gram/100gram. Ni was not detected in the curried fish. The Mg and K contents were significantly decreased in frying method; however the Fe, Cu, Ca, Co and Mn contents were increased significantly in all the cooked samples. The Mg and Na contents were significantly increased in curried sample and the Cr content was decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all the cooked samples.

Keywords: Antioxidant property, Pool barb, minerals, amino acids, proximate composition, cooking methods.

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5 Evaluation of Sensory Attributes of Snack from Maize-Moringa Seed Flour Blends

Authors: O. Aluko, M. R. Brai, A. O. Adelore

Abstract:

Healthy snack (cookie) was produced from corn flour and moringa seed flour blends. The samples were mixed in various proportions and analysed for proximate composition and functional characteristics. The healthy snack (cookies) was evaluated for sensory parameters of Colour, Crispness, Taste, Aroma and Overall Acceptability. The proximate analysis of the flour obtained from different proportion showed that proximate composition increased with increase in substitution level of moringa seed flour especially with protein, fat and crude fibre. The protein contents of samples range from 1.75 to 6.58, fat from 0.60 to 6.80, while fibre from 0.85 to 2.06. There was no significance difference in the functional properties of the blend when compared with 100% corn flour. Sensory evaluation results shows a significant difference in Colour, Taste, Crispness, Aroma and Overall Acceptability of healthy snack (cookies) sample from different blends at 5% significance level.

Keywords: Healthy snack, moringa.

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4 Effect of Process Parameters on the Proximate Composition, Functional and Sensory Properties

Authors: C. I. Omohimi, O. P. Sobukola, K. O. Sarafadeen, L.O. Sanni

Abstract:

Flour from Mucuna beans (Mucuna pruriens) were used in producing texturized meat analogue using a single screw extruder to monitor modifications on the proximate composition and the functional properties at high moisture level. Response surface methodology based on Box Behnken design at three levels of barrel temperature (110, 120, 130°C), screw speed (100,120,140rpm) and feed moisture (44, 47, 50%) were used in 17 runs. Regression models describing the effect of variables on the product responses were obtained. Descriptive profile analyses and consumer acceptability test were carried out on optimized flavoured extruded meat analogue. Responses were mostly affected by barrel temperature and moisture level and to a lesser extent by screw speed. Optimization results based on desirability concept indicated that a barrel temperature of 120.15°C, feed moisture of 47% and screw speed of 119.19 rpm would produce meat analogue of preferable proximate composition, functional and sensory properties which reveals consumers` likeness for the product.

Keywords: Functional properties, mucuna bean flour, optimization, proximate composition, texturized meat analogue.

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3 Comparison of Proximate Compositions, Resistant Starch Content, and Pasting Properties of Different Colored Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Authors: S. Sasanam, T. Paseephol, A. Moongngarm

Abstract:

Four different colors of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) (black, white, red and black/white speckled) and red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were used to evaluate proximate compositions, starch content, and pasting properties. There were no significant differences of moisture, protein, ash, fat, and carbohydrate contents of all bean types. The kidney bean had significantly lower amounts of total starch and solubilized starch compared to those of other cowpeas (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the red cowpea and red kidney bean had highest content of resistant starch (9-10%). Decortication indicated no significant effect on the proximate compositions of all samples, but it significantly decreased the resistant starch content in cowpeas and increased the solubilized starch and total starch content in all types of cowpeas. The highest values of pasting properties, generally observed in flours obtained from black and black/white speckled cowpea.

Keywords: Cowpea, Decortication, Red kidney bean, Resistantstarch

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2 Nutritional Evaluation of Sorghum Flour (Sorghumbicolor L. Moench) During Processing of Injera

Authors: Noha A. Mohammed, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Elfadil E. Babiker

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of sorghum flour during processing of injera (unleavened thick bread). The proximate composition of sorghum flour before and after fermentation and that of injera was determined. Compared to the raw flour and fermented one, injera had low protein (11.55%), ash (1.57%) and fat (2.40%) contents but high in fiber content. Moreover, injera was found to have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher energy (389.08 Kcal/100g) compared to raw and fermented sorghum flour. Injera contained lower levels of anti-nutritional factors (polyphenols, phytate and tannins) compared to raw and fermented sorghum. Also it was found to be rich in Ca (4.75mg/100g), Fe (3.95 mg/100g), and Cu (0.7 mg/100g) compared to that of raw and fermented flour. Moreover, both the extractable minerals and protein digestibility were high for injera due to low amount of anti-nutrients. Injera was found to contain an appreciable amount of amino acids except arginine and tyrosine.

Keywords: Cooking, Fermentation, Malt, Protein fractions, Sorghum.

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1 Maydis stigma Improves Physical Traits and Unchanged Sensory Properties of Beef and Chicken Patties

Authors: W. I. Wan Rosli, A. R. Nurhanan, M. A. Solihah, S. S. J. Mohsin

Abstract:

The proximate composition, physical traits and sensory properties of beef and chicken patties incorporated with various level of dried cornsilk (Maydis stigma) were studied. The beef and chicken patties were formulated with either 2%, 4% or 6% of cornsilk. Both cooked beef and chicken patties incorporated with 6% cornsilk recorded the highest protein concentration at 23.3% and 28.42%, respectively. Both cooked beef and chicken patties containing 6% cornsilk significantly recorded the lowest concentration of fat at 11.4% and 14.60%, respectively. Beef and chicken patties formulated with 6% cornsilk recorded the highest cooking yield at 80.13% and 83.03% compared to other treatments. The inclusion of cornsilk did not change the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of cornsilk-based beef and chicken patties. Cornsilk fibre has been effective in improving cooking yield, moisture and fat retention of beef and chicken patties

Keywords: cornsilk, beef and chicken patty, proximatecomposition, sensory evaluation.

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