**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**3748

# Search results for: linear analysis

##### 3748 A New Perturbation Technique in Numerical Study on Buckling of Composite Shells under Axial Compression

**Authors:**
Zia R. Tahir,
P. Mandal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
CFRP Composite Cylindrical Shell,
Finite Element
Analysis,
Perturbation Technique,
Asymmetric Meshing Technique,
Linear Eigenvalue analysis,
Non-linear Riks Analysis

##### 3747 Parametric Non-Linear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Supplemental Damping Systems

**Authors:**
Daniele Losanno,
Giorgio Serino

**Abstract:**

This paper focuses on parametric analysis of reinforced concrete structures equipped with supplemental damping braces. Practitioners still luck sufficient data for current design of damper added structures and often reduce the real model to a pure damper braced structure even if this assumption is neither realistic nor conservative. In the present study, the damping brace is modelled as made by a linear supporting brace connected in series with the viscous/hysteretic damper. Deformation capacity of existing structures is usually not adequate to undergo the design earthquake. In spite of this, additional dampers could be introduced strongly limiting structural damage to acceptable values, or in some cases, reducing frame response to elastic behavior. This work is aimed at providing useful considerations for retrofit of existing buildings by means of supplemental damping braces. The study explicitly takes into consideration variability of (a) relative frame to supporting brace stiffness, (b) dampers’ coefficient (viscous coefficient or yielding force) and (c) non-linear frame behavior. Non-linear time history analysis has been run to account for both dampers’ behavior and non-linear plastic hinges modelled by Pivot hysteretic type. Parametric analysis based on previous studies on SDOF or MDOF linear frames provide reference values for nearly optimal damping systems design. With respect to bare frame configuration, seismic response of the damper-added frame is strongly improved, limiting deformations to acceptable values far below ultimate capacity. Results of the analysis also demonstrated the beneficial effect of stiffer supporting braces, thus highlighting inadequacy of simplified pure damper models. At the same time, the effect of variable damping coefficient and yielding force has to be treated as an optimization problem.

**Keywords:**
Brace stiffness,
dissipative braces,
non-linear analysis,
plastic hinges,
reinforced concrete.

##### 3746 Comparative Study of Equivalent Linear and Non-Linear Ground Response Analysis for Rapar District of Kutch, India

**Authors:**
Kulin Dave,
Kapil Mohan

**Abstract:**

Earthquakes are considered to be the most destructive rapid-onset disasters human beings are exposed to. The amount of loss it brings in is sufficient to take careful considerations for designing of structures and facilities. Seismic Hazard Analysis is one such tool which can be used for earthquake resistant design. Ground Response Analysis is one of the most crucial and decisive steps for seismic hazard analysis. Rapar district of Kutch, Gujarat falls in Zone 5 of earthquake zone map of India and thus has high seismicity because of which it is selected for analysis. In total 8 bore-log data were studied at different locations in and around Rapar district. Different soil engineering properties were analyzed and relevant empirical correlations were used to calculate maximum shear modulus (Gmax) and shear wave velocity (Vs) for the soil layers. The soil was modeled using Pressure-Dependent Modified Kodner Zelasko (MKZ) model and the reference curve used for fitting was Seed and Idriss (1970) for sand and Darendeli (2001) for clay. Both Equivalent linear (EL), as well as Non-linear (NL) ground response analysis, has been carried out with Masing Hysteretic Re/Unloading formulation for comparison. Commercially available DEEPSOIL v. 7.0 software is used for this analysis. In this study an attempt is made to quantify ground response regarding generated acceleration time-history at top of the soil column, Response spectra calculation at 5 % damping and Fourier amplitude spectrum calculation. Moreover, the variation of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Maximum Displacement, Maximum Strain (in %), Maximum Stress Ratio, Mobilized Shear Stress with depth is also calculated. From the study, PGA values estimated in rocky strata are nearly same as bedrock motion and marginal amplification is observed in sandy silt and silty clays by both analyses. The NL analysis gives conservative results of maximum displacement as compared to EL analysis. Maximum strain predicted by both studies is very close to each other. And overall NL analysis is more efficient and realistic because it follows the actual hyperbolic stress-strain relationship, considers stiffness degradation and mobilizes stresses generated due to pore water pressure.

**Keywords:**
DEEPSOIL v 7.0,
Ground Response Analysis,
Pressure-Dependent Modified KodnerZelasko (MKZ) model,
Response Spectra,
Shear wave velocity.

##### 3745 Two-dimensional Differential Transform Method for Solving Linear and Non-linear Goursat Problem

**Authors:**
H. Taghvafard,
G. H. Erjaee

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Quadrature,
Spline interpolation,
Trapezoidal rule,
Numericalintegration,
Error analysis.

##### 3744 Harmonic Pollution Caused by Non-Linear Load: Analysis and Identification

**Authors:**
K. Khlifi,
A. Haddouk,
M. Hlaili,
H. Mechergui

**Abstract:**

The present paper provides a detailed analysis of prior methods and approaches for non-linear load identification in residential buildings. The main goal of this analysis is to decipher the distorted signals and to estimate the harmonics influence on power systems. We have performed an analytical study of non-linear loads behavior in the residential environment. Simulations have been performed in order to evaluate the distorted rate of the current and follow his behavior. To complete this work, an instrumental platform has been realized to carry out practical tests on single-phase non-linear loads which illustrate the current consumption of some domestic appliances supplied with single-phase sinusoidal voltage. These non-linear loads have been processed and tracked in order to limit their influence on the power grid and to reduce the Joule effect losses. As a result, the study has allowed to identify responsible circuits of harmonic pollution.

**Keywords:**
Distortion rate,
harmonic analysis,
harmonic pollution,
non-linear load,
power factor.

##### 3743 Local Curvelet Based Classification Using Linear Discriminant Analysis for Face Recognition

**Authors:**
Mohammed Rziza,
Mohamed El Aroussi,
Mohammed El Hassouni,
Sanaa Ghouzali,
Driss Aboutajdine

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Curvelet,
Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) ,
Contourlet,
Discreet Wavelet Transform,
DWT,
Block-based analysis,
face recognition (FR).

##### 3742 A Comparison of the Sum of Squares in Linear and Partial Linear Regression Models

**Authors:**
Dursun Aydın

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Partial Linear Regression Model,
Linear RegressionModel,
Residuals,
Deviance,
Smoothing Spline.

##### 3741 Using Non-Linear Programming Techniques in Determination of the Most Probable Slip Surface in 3D Slopes

**Authors:**
M. M. Toufigh,
A. R. Ahangarasr,
A. Ouria

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Non-linear programming,
numerical optimization,
slope stability,
3D analysis.

##### 3740 Improving the Analytical Power of Dynamic DEA Models, by the Consideration of the Shape of the Distribution of Inputs/Outputs Data: A Linear Piecewise Decomposition Approach

**Authors:**
Elias K. Maragos,
Petros E. Maravelakis

**Abstract:**

In Dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis (DDEA), which is a subfield of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the productivity of Decision Making Units (DMUs) is considered in relation to time. In this case, as it is accepted by the most of the researchers, there are outputs, which are produced by a DMU to be used as inputs in a future time. Those outputs are known as intermediates. The common models, in DDEA, do not take into account the shape of the distribution of those inputs, outputs or intermediates data, assuming that the distribution of the virtual value of them does not deviate from linearity. This weakness causes the limitation of the accuracy of the analytical power of the traditional DDEA models. In this paper, the authors, using the concept of piecewise linear inputs and outputs, propose an extended DDEA model. The proposed model increases the flexibility of the traditional DDEA models and improves the measurement of the dynamic performance of DMUs.

**Keywords:**
Data envelopment analysis,
Dynamic DEA,
Piecewise linear inputs,
Piecewise linear outputs.

##### 3739 Blood Glucose Measurement and Analysis: Methodology

**Authors:**
I. M. Abd Rahim,
H. Abdul Rahim,
R. Ghazali

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Invasive,
linear,
near-infrared (Nir),
non-invasive,
non-linear,
prediction system.

##### 3738 Use of Linear Programming for Optimal Production in a Production Line in Saudi Food Co.

**Authors:**
Qasim M. Kriri

**Abstract:**

Few Saudi Arabia production companies face financial profit issues until this moment. This work presents a linear integer programming model that solves a production problem of a Saudi Food Company in Saudi Arabia. An optimal solution to the above-mentioned problem is a Linear Programming solution. In this regard, the main purpose of this project is to maximize profit. Linear Programming Technique has been used to derive the maximum profit from production of natural juice at Saudi Food Co. The operations of production of the company were formulated and optimal results are found out by using Lindo Software that employed Sensitivity Analysis and Parametric linear programming in order develop Linear Programming. In addition, the parameter values are increased, then the values of the objective function will be increased.

**Keywords:**
Parameter linear programming,
objective function,
sensitivity analysis,
optimize profit.

##### 3737 Linear-Operator Formalism in the Analysis of Omega Planar Layered Waveguides

**Authors:**
António L. Topa

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Metamaterials,
linear operators,
omega media,
layered waveguide,
orthogonality relations

##### 3736 Geometrically Non-Linear Axisymmetric Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Annular Plates

**Authors:**
Boutahar Lhoucine,
El Bikri Khalid,
Benamar Rhali

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the non-linear free axisymmetric vibration of a thin annular plate made of functionally graded material (FGM) has been studied by using the energy method and a multimode approach. FGM properties vary continuously as well as non-homogeneity through the thickness direction of the plate. The theoretical model is based on the classical plate theory and the Von Kármán geometrical non-linearity assumptions. An approximation has been adopted in the present work consisting of neglecting the in-plane deformation in the formulation. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive the governing equation of motion. The problem is solved by a numerical iterative procedure in order to obtain more accurate results for vibration amplitudes up to 1.5 times the plate thickness. The numerical results are given for the first axisymmetric non-linear mode shape for a wide range of vibration amplitudes and they are presented either in tabular form or in graphical form to show the effect that the vibration amplitude and the variation in material properties have significant effects on the frequencies and the bending stresses in large amplitude vibration of the functionally graded annular plate.

**Keywords:**
Non-linear vibrations,
Annular plates,
Large amplitudes,
FGM.

##### 3735 Numerical Buckling of Composite Cylindrical Shells under Axial Compression Using Asymmetric Meshing Technique (AMT)

**Authors:**
Zia R. Tahir,
P. Mandal

**Abstract:**

This paper presents the details of a numerical study of buckling and post buckling behaviour of laminated carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) thin-walled cylindrical shell under axial compression using asymmetric meshing technique (AMT) by ABAQUS. AMT is considered to be a new perturbation method to introduce disturbance without changing geometry, boundary conditions or loading conditions. Asymmetric meshing affects both predicted buckling load and buckling mode shapes. Cylindrical shell having lay-up orientation [0^o/+45^o/-45^o/0^o] with radius to thickness ratio (R/t) equal to 265 and length to radius ratio (L/R) equal to 1.5 is analysed numerically. A series of numerical simulations (experiments) are carried out with symmetric and asymmetric meshing to study the effect of asymmetric meshing on predicted buckling behaviour. Asymmetric meshing technique is employed in both axial direction and circumferential direction separately using two different methods, first by changing the shell element size and varying the total number elements, and second by varying the shell element size and keeping total number of elements constant. The results of linear analysis (Eigenvalue analysis) and non-linear analysis (Riks analysis) using symmetric meshing agree well with analytical results. The results of numerical analysis are presented in form of non-dimensional load factor, which is the ratio of buckling load using asymmetric meshing technique to buckling load using symmetric meshing technique. Using AMT, load factor has about 2% variation for linear eigenvalue analysis and about 2% variation for non-linear Riks analysis. The behaviour of load end-shortening curve for pre-buckling is same for both symmetric and asymmetric meshing but for asymmetric meshing curve behaviour in post-buckling becomes extraordinarily complex. The major conclusions are: different methods of AMT have small influence on predicted buckling load and significant influence on load displacement curve behaviour in post buckling; AMT in axial direction and AMT in circumferential direction have different influence on buckling load and load displacement curve in post-buckling.

**Keywords:**
CFRP Composite Cylindrical Shell,
Asymmetric
Meshing Technique,
Primary Buckling,
Secondary Buckling,
Linear
Eigenvalue Analysis,
Non-linear Riks Analysis.

##### 3734 A New Method to Solve a Non Linear Differential System

**Authors:**
Seifedine Kadry

**Abstract:**

In this article, our objective is the analysis of the resolution of non-linear differential systems by combining Newton and Continuation (N-C) method. The iterative numerical methods converge where the initial condition is chosen close to the exact solution. The question of choosing the initial condition is answered by N-C method.

**Keywords:**
Continuation Method,
Newton Method,
Finite Difference Method,
Numerical Analysis and Non-Linear partial Differential Equation.

##### 3733 Analysis of Linear Equalizers for Cooperative Multi-User MIMO Based Reporting System

**Authors:**
S. Hariharan,
P. Muthuchidambaranathan

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we consider a multi user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) based cooperative reporting system for cognitive radio network. In the reporting network, the secondary users forward the primary user data to the common fusion center (FC). The FC is equipped with linear equalizers and an energy detector to make the decision about the spectrum. The primary user data are considered to be a digital video broadcasting - terrestrial (DVB-T) signal. The sensing channel and the reporting channel are assumed to be an additive white Gaussian noise and an independent identically distributed Raleigh fading respectively. We analyzed the detection probability of MU-MIMO system with linear equalizers and arrived at the closed form expression for average detection probability. Also the system performance is investigated under various MIMO scenarios through Monte Carlo simulations.

**Keywords:**
Cooperative MU-MIMO,
DVB-T,
Linear Equalizers.

##### 3732 Development and Validation of Cylindrical Linear Oscillating Generator

**Authors:**
Sungin Jeong

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a linear oscillating generator of cylindrical type for hybrid electric vehicle application. The focus of the study is the suggestion of the optimal model and the design rule of the cylindrical linear oscillating generator with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator. The cylindrical topology is achieved using equivalent magnetic circuit considering leakage elements as initial modeling. This topology with permanent magnet in the back-iron translator is described by number of phases and displacement of stroke. For more accurate analysis of an oscillating machine, it will be compared by moving just one-pole pitch forward and backward the thrust of single-phase system and three-phase system. Through the analysis and comparison, a single-phase system of cylindrical topology as the optimal topology is selected. Finally, the detailed design of the optimal topology takes the magnetic saturation effects into account by finite element analysis. Besides, the losses are examined to obtain more accurate results; copper loss in the conductors of machine windings, eddy-current loss of permanent magnet, and iron-loss of specific material of electrical steel. The considerations of thermal performances and mechanical robustness are essential, because they have an effect on the entire efficiency and the insulations of the machine due to the losses of the high temperature generated in each region of the generator. Besides electric machine with linear oscillating movement requires a support system that can resist dynamic forces and mechanical masses. As a result, the fatigue analysis of shaft is achieved by the kinetic equations. Also, the thermal characteristics are analyzed by the operating frequency in each region. The results of this study will give a very important design rule in the design of linear oscillating machines. It enables us to more accurate machine design and more accurate prediction of machine performances.

**Keywords:**
Equivalent magnetic circuit,
finite element analysis,
hybrid electric vehicle,
free piston engine,
cylindrical linear oscillating generator

##### 3731 Bi-linear Complementarity Problem

**Authors:**
Chao Wang,
Ting-Zhu Huang Chen Jia

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we propose a new linear complementarity problem named as bi-linear complementarity problem (BLCP) and the method for solving BLCP. In addition, the algorithm for error estimation of BLCP is also given. Numerical experiments show that the algorithm is efficient.

**Keywords:**
Bi-linear complementarity problem,
Linear complementarity
problem,
Extended linear complementarity problem,
Error
estimation,
P-matrix,
M-matrix.

##### 3730 Study on Performance of Wigner Ville Distribution for Linear FM and Transient Signal Analysis

**Authors:**
Azeemsha Thacham Poyil,
Nasimudeen KM

**Abstract:**

This research paper presents some methods to assess the performance of Wigner Ville Distribution for Time-Frequency representation of non-stationary signals, in comparison with the other representations like STFT, Spectrogram etc. The simultaneous timefrequency resolution of WVD is one of the important properties which makes it preferable for analysis and detection of linear FM and transient signals. There are two algorithms proposed here to assess the resolution and to compare the performance of signal detection. First method is based on the measurement of area under timefrequency plot; in case of a linear FM signal analysis. A second method is based on the instantaneous power calculation and is used in case of transient, non-stationary signals. The implementation is explained briefly for both methods with suitable diagrams. The accuracy of the measurements is validated to show the better performance of WVD representation in comparison with STFT and Spectrograms.

**Keywords:**
WVD: Wigner Ville Distribution,
STFT: Short Time Fourier Transform,
FT: Fourier Transform,
TFR: Time-Frequency Representation,
FM: Frequency Modulation,
LFM Signal: Linear FM Signal,
JTFA: Joint time frequency analysis.

##### 3729 Spectral Analysis of Speech: A New Technique

**Authors:**
Neeta Awasthy,
J.P.Saini,
D.S.Chauhan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cepstral Coefficient,
Distance measures,
Independent
Component Analysis,
Linear Predictive Coefficients.

##### 3728 Modified Buck Boost Circuit for Linear and Non-Linear Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

**Authors:**
I Made Darmayuda,
Chai Tshun Chuan Kevin,
Je Minkyu

**Abstract:**

Plenty researches have reported techniques to harvest energy from piezoelectric transducer. In the earlier years, the researches mainly report linear energy harvesting techniques whereby interface circuitry is designed to have input impedance that match with the impedance of the piezoelectric transducer. In recent years non-linear techniques become more popular. The non-linear technique employs voltage waveform manipulation to boost the available-for-extraction energy at the time of energy transfer. The fact that non-linear energy extraction provides larger available-for-extraction energy doesn’t mean the linear energy extraction is completely obsolete. In some scenarios, such as where initial power is not available, linear energy extraction is still preferred. A modified Buck Boost circuit which is capable of harvesting piezoelectric energy using both linear and non-linear techniques is reported in this paper. Efficiency of at least 64% can be achieved using this circuit. For linear extraction, the modified Buck Boost circuit is controlled using a fix frequency and duty cycle clock. A voltage sensor and a pulse generator are added as the controller for the non-linear extraction technique.

**Keywords:**
Buck boost,
energy harvester,
linear energy harvester,
non-linear energy harvester,
piezoelectric,
synchronized charge extraction.

##### 3727 Non-Linear Vibration and Stability Analysis of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating-Prismatic Joint

**Authors:**
M. Najafi,
F. Rahimi Dehgolan

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the dynamic modeling of a single-link flexible beam with a tip mass is given by using Hamilton's principle. The link has been rotational and translational motion and it was assumed that the beam is moving with a harmonic velocity about a constant mean velocity. Non-linearity has been introduced by including the non-linear strain to the analysis. Dynamic model is obtained by Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption and modal expansion method. Also, the effects of rotary inertia, axial force, and associated boundary conditions of the dynamic model were analyzed. Since the complex boundary value problem cannot be solved analytically, the multiple scale method is utilized to obtain an approximate solution. Finally, the effects of several conditions on the differences among the behavior of the non-linear term, mean velocity on natural frequencies and the system stability are discussed.

**Keywords:**
Non-linear vibration,
stability,
axially moving beam,
bifurcation,
multiple scales method.

##### 3726 Three-Dimensional, Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Bullet Penetration through Thin AISI 4340 Steel Target Plate

**Authors:**
Abhishek Soni,
A. Kumaraswamy,
M. S. Mahesh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
AISI 4340 steel,
ballistic impact simulation,
bullet
penetration,
non-linear FEM.

##### 3725 Geometrically Non-Linear Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates

**Authors:**
Boukhzer Abdenbi,
El Bikri Khalid,
Benamar Rhali

**Abstract:**

In the present study, the problem of geometrically non-linear free vibrations of functionally graded rectangular plates (FGRP) is studied. The theoretical model, previously developed and based on Hamilton’s principle, is adapted here to determine the fundamental non-linear mode shape of these plates. Frequency parameters, displacements and stress are given for various power-law distributions of the volume fractions of the constituents and various aspect ratios. Good agreement with previous published results is obtained in the case of linear and non-linear analyses.

**Keywords:**
Non-linear vibration,
functionally graded materials,
rectangular plates.

##### 3724 Analysis of Gamma-Ray Spectra Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

**Authors:**
A. H. Fatah,
A. H. Ahmed

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Gamma-Ray,
Spectrum analysis,
Non-linear leastsquare
fitting.

##### 3723 Dimension Reduction of Microarray Data Based on Local Principal Component

**Authors:**
Ali Anaissi,
Paul J. Kennedy,
Madhu Goyal

**Abstract:**

Analysis and visualization of microarraydata is veryassistantfor biologists and clinicians in the field of diagnosis and treatment of patients. It allows Clinicians to better understand the structure of microarray and facilitates understanding gene expression in cells. However, microarray dataset is a complex data set and has thousands of features and a very small number of observations. This very high dimensional data set often contains some noise, non-useful information and a small number of relevant features for disease or genotype. This paper proposes a non-linear dimensionality reduction algorithm Local Principal Component (LPC) which aims to maps high dimensional data to a lower dimensional space. The reduced data represents the most important variables underlying the original data. Experimental results and comparisons are presented to show the quality of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, experiments also show how this algorithm reduces high dimensional data whilst preserving the neighbourhoods of the points in the low dimensional space as in the high dimensional space.

**Keywords:**
Linear Dimension Reduction,
Non-Linear Dimension
Reduction,
Principal Component Analysis,
Biologists.

##### 3722 A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides

**Authors:**
R. B. Ogunrinde,
C. C. Jibunoh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Spectral decomposition,
eigenvalues of the Jacobian,
linear RHS,
homogeneous linear systems.

##### 3721 Heart Rate Variability Analysis for Early Stage Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death

**Authors:**
Reeta Devi,
Hitender Kumar Tyagi,
Dinesh Kumar

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Early stage prediction,
heart rate variability,
linear and non linear analysis,
sudden cardiac death.

##### 3720 Online Robust Model Predictive Control for Linear Fractional Transformation Systems Using Linear Matrix Inequalities

**Authors:**
Peyman Sindareh Esfahani,
Jeffery Kurt Pieper

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the problem of robust model predictive control (MPC) for discrete-time linear systems in linear fractional transformation form with structured uncertainty and norm-bounded disturbance is investigated. The problem of minimization of the cost function for MPC design is converted to minimization of the worst case of the cost function. Then, this problem is reduced to minimization of an upper bound of the cost function subject to a terminal inequality satisfying the *l*_{2}-norm of the closed loop system. The characteristic of the linear fractional transformation system is taken into account, and by using some mathematical tools, the robust predictive controller design problem is turned into a linear matrix inequality minimization problem. Afterwards, a formulation which includes an integrator to improve the performance of the proposed robust model predictive controller in steady state condition is studied. The validity of the approaches is illustrated through a robust control benchmark problem.

**Keywords:**
Linear fractional transformation,
linear matrix inequality,
robust model predictive control,
state feedback control.

##### 3719 Investigating the Effect of Uncertainty on a LP Model of a Petrochemical Complex: Stability Analysis Approach

**Authors:**
Abdallah Al-Shammari

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Linear programming,
Petrochemicals,
stability analysis,
uncertainty