Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2016

Search results for: earthquake resistant structural design

2016 Experimental Behavior of Composite Shear Walls Having L Shape Steel Sections in Boundary Regions

Authors: S. Bahadır Yüksel, Alptuğ Ünal

Abstract:

The Composite Shear Walls (CSW) with steel encased profiles can be used as lateral-load resisting systems for buildings that require considerable large lateral-load capacity. The aim of this work is to propose the experimental work conducted on CSW having L section folded plate (L shape steel made-up sections) as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The study in this paper present the experimental test conducted on CSW having L section folded plate as longitudinal reinforcement in boundary regions. The tested 1/3 geometric scaled CSW has aspect ratio of 3.2. L-shape structural steel materials with 2L-19x57x7mm dimensions were placed in shear wall boundary zones. The seismic behavior of CSW test specimen was investigated by evaluating and interpreting the hysteresis curves, envelope curves, rigidity and consumed energy graphs of this tested element. In addition to this, the experimental results, deformation and cracking patterns were evaluated, interpreted and suggestions of the design recommendations were proposed.

Keywords: Shear wall, composite shear wall, boundary reinforcement, earthquake resistant structural design, L section.

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2015 The Effect of Frame Geometry on the Seismic Response of Self-Centering Concentrically- Braced Frames

Authors: David A. Roke, M. R. Hasan

Abstract:

Conventional concentrically-braced frame (CBF) systems have limited drift capacity before brace buckling and related damage leads to deterioration in strength and stiffness. Self-centering concentrically-braced frame (SC-CBF) systems have been developed to increase drift capacity prior to initiation of damage and minimize residual drift. SC-CBFs differ from conventional CBFs in that the SC-CBF columns are designed to uplift from the foundation at a specified level of lateral loading, initiating a rigid-body rotation (rocking) of the frame. Vertically-aligned post-tensioning bars resist uplift and provide a restoring force to return the SC-CBF columns to the foundation (self-centering the system). This paper presents a parametric study of different prototype buildings using SC-CBFs. The bay widths of the SC-CBFs have been varied in these buildings to study different geometries. Nonlinear numerical analyses of the different SC-CBFs are presented to illustrate the effect of frame geometry on the behavior and dynamic response of the SC-CBF system.

Keywords: Earthquake resistant structures, nonlinear analysis, seismic analysis, self-centering structural systems.

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2014 Seismic Vulnerability of Structures Designed in Accordance with the Allowable Stress Design and Load Resistant Factor Design Methods

Authors: Mohammadreza Vafaei, Amirali Moradi, Sophia C. Alih

Abstract:

The method selected for the design of structures not only can affect their seismic vulnerability but also can affect their construction cost. For the design of steel structures, two distinct methods have been introduced by existing codes, namely allowable stress design (ASD) and load resistant factor design (LRFD). This study investigates the effect of using the aforementioned design methods on the seismic vulnerability and construction cost of steel structures. Specifically, a 20-story building equipped with special moment resisting frame and an eccentrically braced system was selected for this study. The building was designed for three different intensities of peak ground acceleration including 0.2 g, 0.25 g, and 0.3 g using the ASD and LRFD methods. The required sizes of beams, columns, and braces were obtained using response spectrum analysis. Then, the designed frames were subjected to nine natural earthquake records which were scaled to the designed response spectrum. For each frame, the base shear, story shears, and inter-story drifts were calculated and then were compared. Results indicated that the LRFD method led to a more economical design for the frames. In addition, the LRFD method resulted in lower base shears and larger inter-story drifts when compared with the ASD method. It was concluded that the application of the LRFD method not only reduced the weights of structural elements but also provided a higher safety margin against seismic actions when compared with the ASD method.

Keywords: Allowable stress design, load resistant factor design, nonlinear time history analysis, seismic vulnerability, steel structures.

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2013 Building Design to Save Lives when Earthquake May Strike the City

Authors: Tejinder Singh

Abstract:

When earthquakes strike the city it results in great loss of lives. The present paper talks about a new innovative design system (MegEifel) for buildings which has a mechanism to mitigate deaths in case any earthquake strikes the city. If buildings will be designed according to MegEifel design then the occupants of the building will be safe even when they are in sleep or are doing day wise activities during the time earthquake strikes. The core structure is suggested to be designed on the principle that more deep the foundations are, the harder it is to uproot the structure. The buildings will have an Eifel rod dug deep into earth which will help save lives in tall buildings when earthquake strikes. This design takes a leverage of protective shells to save lives.

Keywords: Structure, MegEifel, Save, Life, Earthquake, Design

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2012 Effect of Shear Wall Openings on the Fundamental Period of Shear Wall Structures

Authors: Anas M. Fares, A. Touqan

Abstract:

A common approach in resisting lateral forces is the use of reinforced concrete shear walls in buildings. These walls represent the main elements to resist the lateral forces due to their large strength and stiffness. However, such walls may contain many openings due to functional requirements, and this may largely affect the overall lateral stiffness of them. It is thus of prime importance to quantify the effect of openings on the dynamic performance of the shear walls. SAP2000 structural analysis program is used as a main source after verifying the results. This study is made by using linear elastic analysis. The results are compared to ASCE7-16 code empirical equations for estimating the fundamental period of shear wall structures. Finally, statistical regression is used to fit an equation for estimating the increase in the fundamental period of shear-walled regular structures due to windows openings in the walls.

Keywords: Concrete, earthquake-resistant design, finite element, fundamental period, lateral stiffness, linear analysis, modal analysis, rayleigh, SAP2000, shear wall, ASCE7-16.

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2011 Seismic Vulnerability Mitigation of Non-Engineered Buildings

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary

Abstract:

The tremendous loss of life that resulted in the aftermath of recent earthquakes in developing countries is mostly due to the collapse of non-engineered and semi-engineered building structures. Such structures are used as houses, schools, primary healthcare centers and government offices. These building are classified structurally into two categories viz. non-engineered and semi-engineered. Non-engineered structures include: adobe, unreinforced masonry (URM) and wood buildings. Semi-engineered buildings are mostly low-rise (up to 3 story) light concrete frame structures or masonry bearing walls with reinforced concrete slab. This paper presents an overview of the typical damage observed in non-engineered structures and their most likely causes in the past earthquakes with specific emphasis on the performance of such structures in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. It is demonstrated that seismic performance of these structures can be improved from life-safety viewpoint by adopting simple low-cost modifications to the existing construction practices. Incorporation of some of these practices in the reconstruction efforts after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake are examined in the last section for mitigating seismic risk hazard.

Keywords: Kashmir earthquake, non-engineered buildings, seismic hazard, structural details, structural strengthening.

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2010 Kalman Filter Design in Structural Identification with Unknown Excitation

Authors: Z. Masoumi, B. Moaveni

Abstract:

This article is about first step of structural health monitoring by identifying structural system in the presence of unknown input. In the structural system identification, identification of structural parameters such as stiffness and damping are considered. In this study, the Kalman filter (KF) design for structural systems with unknown excitation is expressed. External excitations, such as earthquakes, wind or any other forces are not measured or not available. The purpose of this filter is its strengths to estimate the state variables of the system in the presence of unknown input. Also least squares estimation (LSE) method with unknown input is studied. Estimates of parameters have been adopted. Finally, using two examples advantages and drawbacks of both methods are studied.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Kalman filter, Least square estimation, structural system identification.

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2009 Application of Seismic Wave Method in Early Estimation of Wencheng Earthquake

Authors: Wenlong Liu, Yucheng Liu

Abstract:

This paper introduces the application of seismic wave method in earthquake prediction and early estimation. The advantages of the seismic wave method over the traditional earthquake prediction method are demonstrated. An example is presented in this study to show the accuracy and efficiency of using the seismic wave method in predicting a medium-sized earthquake swarm occurred in Wencheng, Zhejiang, China. By applying this method, correct predictions were made on the day after this earthquake swarm started and the day the maximum earthquake occurred, which provided scientific bases for governmental decision-making.

Keywords: earthquake prediction, earthquake swarm, seismicactivity method, seismic wave method, Wencheng earthquake

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2008 Design of Seismically Resistant Tree-Branching Steel Frames Using Theory and Design Guides for Eccentrically Braced Frames

Authors: R. Gary Black, Abolhassan Astaneh-Asl

Abstract:

The International Building Code (IBC) and the  California Building Code (CBC) both recognize four basic types of  steel seismic resistant frames; moment frames, concentrically braced  frames, shear walls and eccentrically braced frames. Based on  specified geometries and detailing, the seismic performance of these  steel frames is well understood. In 2011, the authors designed an  innovative steel braced frame system with tapering members in the  general shape of a branching tree as a seismic retrofit solution to an  existing four story “lift-slab” building. Located in the seismically  active San Francisco Bay Area of California, a frame of this  configuration, not covered by the governing codes, would typically  require model or full scale testing to obtain jurisdiction approval.  This paper describes how the theories, protocols, and code  requirements of eccentrically braced frames (EBFs) were employed  to satisfy the 2009 International Building Code (IBC) and the 2010  California Building Code (CBC) for seismically resistant steel frames  and permit construction of these nonconforming geometries.

 

Keywords: Eccentrically Braced Frame, Lift Slab Construction, Seismic Retrofit, Shear Link, Steel Design.

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2007 Design Approach to Incorporate Unique Performance Characteristics of Special Concrete

Authors: Devendra Kumar Pandey, Debabrata Chakraborty

Abstract:

The advancement in various concrete ingredients like plasticizers, additives and fibers, etc. has enabled concrete technologists to develop many viable varieties of special concretes in recent decades. Such various varieties of concrete have significant enhancement in green as well as hardened properties of concrete. A prudent selection of appropriate type of concrete can resolve many design and application issues in construction projects. This paper focuses on usage of self-compacting concrete, high early strength concrete, structural lightweight concrete, fiber reinforced concrete, high performance concrete and ultra-high strength concrete in the structures. The modified properties of strength at various ages, flowability, porosity, equilibrium density, flexural strength, elasticity, permeability etc. need to be carefully studied and incorporated into the design of the structures. The paper demonstrates various mixture combinations and the concrete properties that can be leveraged. The selection of such products based on the end use of structures has been proposed in order to efficiently utilize the modified characteristics of these concrete varieties. The study involves mapping the characteristics with benefits and savings for the structure from design perspective. Self-compacting concrete in the structure is characterized by high shuttering loads, better finish, and feasibility of closer reinforcement spacing. The structural design procedures can be modified to specify higher formwork strength, height of vertical members, cover reduction and increased ductility. The transverse reinforcement can be spaced at closer intervals compared to regular structural concrete. It allows structural lightweight concrete structures to be designed for reduced dead load, increased insulation properties. Member dimensions and steel requirement can be reduced proportionate to about 25 to 35 percent reduction in the dead load due to self-weight of concrete. Steel fiber reinforced concrete can be used to design grade slabs without primary reinforcement because of 70 to 100 percent higher tensile strength. The design procedures incorporate reduction in thickness and joint spacing. High performance concrete employs increase in the life of the structures by improvement in paste characteristics and durability by incorporating supplementary cementitious materials. Often, these are also designed for slower heat generation in the initial phase of hydration. The structural designer can incorporate the slow development of strength in the design and specify 56 or 90 days strength requirement. For designing high rise building structures, creep and elasticity properties of such concrete also need to be considered. Lastly, certain structures require a performance under loading conditions much earlier than final maturity of concrete. High early strength concrete has been designed to cater to a variety of usages at various ages as early as 8 to 12 hours. Therefore, an understanding of concrete performance specifications for special concrete is a definite door towards a superior structural design approach.

Keywords: High performance concrete, special concrete, structural design, structural lightweight concrete.

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2006 Rapid Monitoring of Earthquake Damages Using Optical and SAR Data

Authors: Saeid Gharechelou, Ryutaro Tateishi

Abstract:

Earthquake is an inevitable catastrophic natural disaster. The damages of buildings and man-made structures, where most of the human activities occur are the major cause of casualties from earthquakes. A comparison of optical and SAR data is presented in the case of Kathmandu valley which was hardly shaken by 2015-Nepal Earthquake. Though many existing researchers have conducted optical data based estimated or suggested combined use of optical and SAR data for improved accuracy, however finding cloud-free optical images when urgently needed are not assured. Therefore, this research is specializd in developing SAR based technique with the target of rapid and accurate geospatial reporting. Should considers that limited time available in post-disaster situation offering quick computation exclusively based on two pairs of pre-seismic and co-seismic single look complex (SLC) images. The InSAR coherence pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic was used to detect the change in damaged area. In addition, the ground truth data from field applied to optical data by random forest classification for detection of damaged area. The ground truth data collected in the field were used to assess the accuracy of supervised classification approach. Though a higher accuracy obtained from the optical data then integration by optical-SAR data. Limitation of cloud-free images when urgently needed for earthquak evevent are and is not assured, thus further research on improving the SAR based damage detection is suggested. Availability of very accurate damage information is expected for channelling the rescue and emergency operations. It is expected that the quick reporting of the post-disaster damage situation quantified by the rapid earthquake assessment should assist in channeling the rescue and emergency operations, and in informing the public about the scale of damage.

Keywords: Sentinel-1A data, Landsat-8, earthquake damage, InSAR, rapid monitoring, 2015-Nepal earthquake.

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2005 Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Flour Residues Hydrolyzed by α-Amylase

Authors: Waranya Pongpaiboon, Warangkana Srichamnong, Supat Chaiyakul

Abstract:

Enzymatic modification of rice flour can produce highly functional derivatives use in food industries. This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and resistant starch content of rice flour residues hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Rice flour hydrolyzed by α-amylase (60 and 300 u/g) for 1, 24 and 48 hours were investigated. Increasing enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time resulted in decreased rice flour residue’s lightness (L*) but increased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of rice flour residues. The resistant starch content and peak viscosity increased when hydrolysis time increased. Pasting temperature, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, setback and peak time of the hydrolyzed flours were not significantly different (p>0.05). The morphology of native flour was smooth without observable pores and polygonal with sharp angles and edges. However, after hydrolysis, granules with a slightly rough and porous surface were observed and a rough and porous surface was increased with increasing hydrolyzed time. The X-ray diffraction patterns of native flour showed A-type configuration, which hydrolyzed flour showed almost 0% crystallinity indicated that both amorphous and crystalline structures of starch were simultaneously hydrolyzed by α-amylase.

Keywords: α-Amylase, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Pasting properties, Resistant starch

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2004 Generating a Functional Grammar for Architectural Design from Structural Hierarchy in Combination of Square and Equal Triangle

Authors: Sanaz Ahmadzadeh Siyahrood, Arghavan Ebrahimi, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad

Abstract:

Islamic culture was accountable for a plethora of development in astronomy and science in the medieval term, and in geometry likewise. Geometric patterns are reputable in a considerable number of cultures, but in the Islamic culture the patterns have specific features that connect the Islamic faith to mathematics. In Islamic art, three fundamental shapes are generated from the circle shape: triangle, square and hexagon. Originating from their quiddity, each of these geometric shapes has its own specific structure. Even though the geometric patterns were generated from such simple forms as the circle and the square, they can be combined, duplicated, interlaced, and arranged in intricate combinations. So in order to explain geometrical interaction principles between square and equal triangle, in the first definition step, all types of their linear forces individually and in the second step, between them, would be illustrated. In this analysis, some angles will be created from intersection of their directions. All angles are categorized to some groups and the mathematical expressions among them are analyzed. Since the most geometric patterns in Islamic art and architecture are based on the repetition of a single motif, the evaluation results which are obtained from a small portion, is attributable to a large-scale domain while the development of infinitely repeating patterns can represent the unchanging laws. Geometric ornamentation in Islamic art offers the possibility of infinite growth and can accommodate the incorporation of other types of architectural layout as well, so the logic and mathematical relationships which have been obtained from this analysis are applicable in designing some architecture layers and developing the plan design.

Keywords: Angle, architecture, design, equal triangle, generating, grammar, square and structural hierarchy.

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2003 Reformulations of Big Bang-Big Crunch Algorithm for Discrete Structural Design Optimization

Authors: O. Hasançebi, S. Kazemzadeh Azad

Abstract:

In the present study the efficiency of Big Bang-Big Crunch (BB-BC) algorithm is investigated in discrete structural design optimization. It is shown that a standard version of the BB-BC algorithm is sometimes unable to produce reasonable solutions to problems from discrete structural design optimization. Two reformulations of the algorithm, which are referred to as modified BB-BC (MBB-BC) and exponential BB-BC (EBB-BC), are introduced to enhance the capability of the standard algorithm in locating good solutions for steel truss and frame type structures, respectively. The performances of the proposed algorithms are experimented and compared to its standard version as well as some other algorithms over several practical design examples. In these examples, steel structures are sized for minimum weight subject to stress, stability and displacement limitations according to the provisions of AISC-ASD.

Keywords: Structural optimization, discrete optimization, metaheuristics, big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) algorithm, design optimization of steel trusses and frames.

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2002 Design Histories for Enhanced Concurrent Structural Design

Authors: Adam Sobey, James Blake, Ajit Shenoi

Abstract:

The leisure boatbuilding industry has tight profit margins that demand that boats are created to a high quality but with low cost. This requirement means reduced design times combined with increased use of design for production can lead to large benefits. The evolutionary nature of the boatbuilding industry can lead to a large usage of previous vessels in new designs. With the increase in automated tools for concurrent engineering within structural design it is important that these tools can reuse this information while subsequently feeding this to designers. The ability to accurately gather this materials and parts data is also a key component to these tools. This paper therefore aims to develop an architecture made up of neural networks and databases to feed information effectively to the designers based on previous design experience.

Keywords:

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2001 A Secondary Disaster Due To Inhabitant's Action after a Strong Earthquake: A Case Study of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

Authors: Douangmala Kounsana, Xiang Wen, Toru Takahashi

Abstract:

After a strong earthquake occurs, a secondary disaster due to strong aftershocks, flood, landslide or heavy snow can possible to occur and the secondary disaster due to resident-s action also can possible to happen. However, until now seldom researchers have paid attention at it. This paper focused on the Inhabitant-s action after the strong earthquake occurs when a terrible even becomes calm. An inappropriate behavior of people with disadvantaged climate after the worse earthquake can bring a tragedy to their life.

Keywords: Sichuan Earthquake, Secondary Disaster, Inhabitant's Action, inappropriate behavior.

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2000 The HDH Model for the Development of Creative Structural Thinking and Its Applications to Other Systems

Authors: Mosseri Avraham

Abstract:

Teaching structures and structural design in architectural studies is considered a difficult mission due to complex reasons and circumstances. This article proposes a new conceptual model (HDH) for teaching structures and structural design in architectural studies. Because of its systems-thinking orientation it is also relevant and applicable to other fields and systems. The HDH model was developed in order to encourage the integration of science and art, especially in relation to structures, in architectural studies.

Keywords: Structural Thinking, Conceptual Design, Teaching Structures, Systems Thinking.

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1999 The Analysis of Duct Model Through Structural and Dynamic Schemes

Authors: S. H. Yahaya, J. M. Ali, M. R. Arham

Abstract:

This paper presents the analysis of duct design using static and dynamic approaches. The static approach is used to find out applicability between the design and material applied. The material used in this paper is Thermoplastic Olefins (TPO). For the dynamic approach, the focusing is only on the CFD simulations. The fatigue life in this design and material applied also covered.

Keywords: CFD, structural analysis, fluid analysis, duct design, fatigue life

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1998 Fiber-Based 3D Cellular Reinforcing Structures for Mineral-Bonded Composites with Enhanced Structural Impact Tolerance

Authors: Duy M. P. Vo, Cornelia Sennewald, Gerald Hoffmann, Chokri Cherif

Abstract:

The development of solutions to improve the resistance of buildings to short-term dynamic loads, particularly impact load, is driven by the urgent demand worldwide on securing human life and critical infrastructures. The research training group GRK 2250/1 aims to develop mineral-bonded composites that allow the fabrication of thin-layered strengthening layers providing available concrete members with enhanced impact resistance. This paper presents the development of 3D woven wire cellular structures that can be used as innovative reinforcement for targeted composites. 3D woven wire cellular structures are truss-like architectures that can be fabricated in an automatized process with a great customization possibility. The specific architecture allows this kind of structures to have good load bearing capability and forming behavior, which is of great potential to give strength against impact loading. An appropriate combination of topology and material enables an optimal use of thin-layered reinforcement in concrete constructions.

Keywords: 3D woven cellular structures, ductile behavior, energy absorption, fiber-based reinforced concrete, impact resistant.

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1997 Biosynthesis and In vitro Studies of Silver Bionanoparticles Synthesized from Aspergillusspecies and its Antimicrobial Activity against Multi Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates

Authors: M. Saravanan

Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistant is becoming a major factor in virtually all hospital acquired infection may soon untreatable is a serious public health problem. These concerns have led to major research effort to discover alternative strategies for the treatment of bacterial infection. Nanobiotehnology is an upcoming and fast developing field with potential application for human welfare. An important area of nanotechnology for development of reliable and environmental friendly process for synthesis of nanoscale particles through biological systems In the present studies are reported on the use of fungal strain Aspergillus species for the extracellular synthesis of bionanoparticles from 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The report would be focused on the synthesis of metallic bionanoparticles of silver using a reduction of aqueous Ag+ ion with the culture supernatants of Microorganisms. The bio-reduction of the Ag+ ions in the solution would be monitored in the aqueous component and the spectrum of the solution would measure through UV-visible spectrophotometer The bionanoscale particles were further characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thin layer chromatography. The synthesized bionanoscale particle showed a maximum absorption at 385 nm in the visible region. Atomic Force Microscopy investigation of silver bionanoparticles identified that they ranged in the size of 250 nm - 680 nm; the work analyzed the antimicrobial efficacy of the silver bionanoparticles against various multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The present Study would be emphasizing on the applicability to synthesize the metallic nanostructures and to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanism of nanoparticles formation by the cell filtrate in order to achieve better control over size and polydispersity of the nanoparticles. This would help to develop nanomedicine against various multi drug resistant human pathogens.

Keywords: Bionanoparticles, UV-visible spectroscopy, AtomicForce Microscopy, Extracellular synthesis, Multi drug resistant, antimicrobial activity, Nanomedicine

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1996 Structural Sustainability Techniques for RC High Rise Buildings

Authors: Mohamed A. Azab

Abstract:

Over the early years of the 21st century, cities throughout the Middle East, particularly in the Gulf region have expanded more rapidly than ever before. Given the presence of a large volume of high-rise buildings allover the region, the local authority aims to set a new standard for sustainable development; with an integrated approach to maintain a balance between economy, quality, environmental protection and safety of life. In the very near future, as mandatory requirements, sustainability will be the criteria that should be included in all building projects. It is well known in the building sustainability topics that structural design engineers do not have a key role in this matter. In addition, the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) has looked almost exclusively on the environmental components and materials specifications. The objective of this paper is to focus and establish groundwork for sustainability techniques and applications related to the RC high-rise buildings design, from the structural point of view. A set of recommendations related to local conditions, structural modeling and analysis is given, and some helpful suggestions for structural design team work are addressed. This paper attempts to help structural engineers in identifying the building sustainability design, in order to meet local needs and achieve alternative solutions at an early stage of project design.

Keywords: Building, Design, High-rise, Middle East, Structural, Sustainability.

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1995 Structural Analysis and Strengthening of the National Youth Foundation Building in Igoumenitsa, Greece

Authors: Chrysanthos Maraveas, Argiris Plesias, Garyfalia G. Triantafyllou, Konstantinos Petronikolos

Abstract:

The current paper presents a structural assessment and proposals for retrofit of the National Youth Foundation Building, an existing reinforced concrete (RC) building in the city of Igoumenitsa, Greece. The building is scheduled to be renovated in order to create a Municipal Cultural Center. The bearing capacity and structural integrity have been investigated in relation to the provisions and requirements of the Greek Retrofitting Code (KAN.EPE.) and European Standards (Eurocodes). The capacity of the existing concrete structure that makes up the two central buildings in the complex (buildings II and IV) has been evaluated both in its present form and after including several proposed architectural interventions. The structural system consists of spatial frames of columns and beams that have been simulated using beam elements. Some RC elements of the buildings have been strengthened in the past by means of concrete jacketing and have had cracks sealed with epoxy injections. Static-nonlinear analysis (Pushover) has been used to assess the seismic performance of the two structures with regard to performance level B1 from KAN.EPE. Retrofitting scenarios are proposed for the two buildings, including type Λ steel bracings and placement of concrete shear walls in the transverse direction in order to achieve the design-specification deformation in each applicable situation, improve the seismic performance, and reduce the number of interventions required.

Keywords: Earthquake resistance, pushover analysis, reinforced concrete, retrofit, strengthening.

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1994 A Prediction Model for Dynamic Responses of Building from Earthquake Based on Evolutionary Learning

Authors: Kyu Jin Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park

Abstract:

The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to prevent seismic damage. Structural seismic damage of building is caused by the instantaneous stress concentration which is related with dynamic characteristic of earthquake. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the dynamic responses of building demands significantly high computational cost. To prevent the failure of structural members from the characteristic of the earthquake and the significantly high computational cost for seismic response analysis, this paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction model for dynamic responses of building considering specific time length. Through the measured dynamic responses, input and output node of the ANN are formed by the length of specific time, and adopted for the training. In the model, evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN), that radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with evolutionary optimization algorithm to find variables in RBF, is implemented. The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified through an analytical study applying responses from dynamic analysis for multi-degree of freedom system to training data in ERBFNN.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, dynamic response, artificial neural network, radial basis function network, genetic algorithm.

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1993 An Artificial Neural Network Model for Earthquake Prediction and Relations between Environmental Parameters and Earthquakes

Authors: S. Niksarlioglu, F. Kulahci

Abstract:

Earthquakes are natural phenomena that occur with influence of a lot of parameters such as seismic activity, changing in the ground waters' motion, changing in the water-s temperature, etc. On the other hand, the radon gas concentrations in soil vary as nonlinear generally with earthquakes. Continuous measurement of the soil radon gas is very important for determination of characteristic of the seismic activity. The radon gas changes as continuous with strain occurring within the Earth-s surface during an earthquake and effects from the physical and the chemical processes such as soil structure, soil permeability, soil temperature, the barometric pressure, etc. Therefore, at the modeling researches are notsufficient to knowthe concentration ofradon gas. In this research, we determined relationships between radon emissions based on the environmental parameters and earthquakes occurring along the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), Turkiye and predicted magnitudes of some earthquakes with the artificial neural network (ANN) model.

Keywords: Earthquake, Modeling, Prediction, Radon.

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1992 Isolation and Probiotic Characterization of Arsenic-Resistant Lactic Acid Bacteria for Uptaking Arsenic

Authors: Jatindra N. Bhakta, Kouhei Ohnishi, Yukihiro Munekage, Kozo Iwasaki

Abstract:

The growing health hazardous impact of arsenic (As) contamination in environment is the impetus of the present investigation. Application of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the removal of toxic and heavy metals from water has been reported. This study was performed in order to isolate and characterize the Asresistant LAB from mud and sludge samples for using as efficient As uptaking probiotic. Isolation of As-resistant LAB colonies was performed by spread plate technique using bromocresol purple impregnated-MRS (BP-MRS) agar media provided with As @ 50 μg/ml. Isolated LAB were employed for probiotic characterization process, acid and bile tolerance, lactic acid production, antibacterial activity and antibiotic tolerance assays. After As-resistant and removal characterizations, the LAB were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 103 isolates were identified as As-resistant strains of LAB. The survival of 6 strains (As99-1, As100-2, As101-3, As102-4, As105-7, and As112-9) was found after passing through the sequential probiotic characterizations. Resistant pattern pronounced hollow zones at As concentration >2000 μg/ml in As99-1, As100-2, and As101-3 LAB strains, whereas it was found at ~1000 μg/ml in rest 3 strains. Among 6 strains, the As uptake efficiency of As102-4 (0.006 μg/h/mg wet weight of cell) was higher (17 – 209%) compared to remaining LAB. 16S rDNA sequencing data of 3 (As99- 1, As100-2, and As101-3) and 3 (As102-4, As105-7, and As112-9) LAB strains clearly showed 97 to 99% (340 bp) homology to Pediococcus dextrinicus and Pediococcus acidilactici, respectively. Though, there was no correlation between the metal resistant and removal efficiency of LAB examined but identified elevated As removing LAB would probably be a potential As uptaking probiotic agent. Since present experiment concerned with only As removal from pure water, As removal and removal mechanism in natural condition of intestinal milieu should be assessed in future studies.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, As-resistant, characterization, Pediococcus sp., As removal probiotic.

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1991 Surveying Earthquake Vulnerabilities of District 13 of Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohsen Mohammadi, Toshio Fujimi

Abstract:

High population and irregular urban development in Kabul city, Afghanistan's capital, are among factors that increase its vulnerability to earthquake disasters (on top of its location in a high seismic region); this can lead to widespread economic loss and casualties. This study aims to evaluate earthquake risks in Kabul's 13th district based on scientific data. The research data, which include hazard curves of Kabul, vulnerability curves, and a questionnaire survey through sampling in district 13, have been incorporated to develop risk curves. To estimate potential casualties, we used a set of M parameters in a model developed by Coburn and Spence. The results indicate that in the worst case scenario, more than 90% of district 13, which comprises mostly residential buildings, is exposed to high risk; this may lead to nearly 1000 million USD economic loss and 120 thousand casualties (equal to 25.88% of the 13th district's population) for a nighttime earthquake. To reduce risks, we present the reconstruction of the most vulnerable buildings, which are primarily adobe and masonry buildings. A comparison of risk reduction between reconstructing adobe and masonry buildings indicates that rebuilding adobe buildings would be more effective.

Keywords: Earthquake risk evaluation, Kabul, mitigation, vulnerability.

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1990 Practical Design Procedures of 3D Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall-Frame Structure Based on Structural Optimization Method

Authors: H. Nikzad, S. Yoshitomi

Abstract:

This study investigates and develops the structural optimization method. The effect of size constraints on practical solution of reinforced concrete (RC) building structure with shear wall is proposed. Cross-sections of beam and column, and thickness of shear wall are considered as design variables. The objective function to be minimized is total cost of the structure by using a simple and efficient automated MATLAB platform structural optimization methodology. With modification of mathematical formulations, the result is compared with optimal solution without size constraints. The most suitable combination of section sizes is selected as for the final design application based on linear static analysis. The findings of this study show that defining higher value of upper bound of sectional sizes significantly affects optimal solution, and defining of size constraints play a vital role in finding of global and practical solution during optimization procedures. The result and effectiveness of proposed method confirm the ability and efficiency of optimal solutions for 3D RC shear wall-frame structure.

Keywords: Structural optimization, linear static analysis, ETABS, MATLAB, RC shear wall-frame structures.

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1989 Effect of Replacement of Unripe Banana Flour for Rice Flour on Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Noodle

Authors: W. Tiboonbun, M. Sungsri-in, A. Moongngarm

Abstract:

This work was conducted to improve the level of resistant starch (RS) in a rice noodle using unripe banana flour and to investigate the effect of substitution of unripe banana flour for rice flour on the physical properties of rice noodle. In order to prepare rice noodles, the unripe banana flour were replaced the rice flour with different degrees of substitutions including 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. The results indicated that substitution of unripe banana flour was significantly affected the viscosity properties of noodle flour, color, cooking loss, RS and total starch content of noodle. It was found that the noodle prepared from 100% unripe banana indicated the greatest changes on the viscosity properties and color profiles. It also showed the highest values of cooking loss (2.53%), tensile strength (129.03%), and RS content (13.15%).

Keywords: Banana flour, Rice noodle, Resistant starch, Unripebanana flour

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1988 Fatty Acids Derivatives and Steroidal Saponins: Abundance in the Resistant Date Palm to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, Causal Agent of Bayoud Disease

Authors: R. Gaceb-Terrak, F. Rahmania

Abstract:

Takerbucht is the only cultivar of date palm known as being resistant to the bayoud disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (F.o.a.). In the aim to understand more about the defense mechanisms implied, we realized phytochemical analyses of this cultivar leaflets and roots and this, for the first time, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The examination of our results shows that fifty-four molecules have been detected, fourteen of which are common to leaflets and roots. This study revealed also the organs' richness in derivatives fatty acids: both saturated and unsaturated are represented mainly by methyl esters of Hexadecanoic and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acids. 1-Dodecanethiol, derivative Dodecanoic acid is only present in roots. It’s of great interest to note that the screening revealed the steroidal saponins abundance, among which Yamogenin acetate and Diosgenin, exclusively detected in Takerbucht. They may play an essential role, in the date palm resistance to the bayoud disease.

Keywords: Analysis by GC-MS, leaflets and roots of resistant date palm to F.o.a., derivatives fatty acids, steroidal saponins.

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1987 Site-Specific Approach for Seismic Design Spectra in Iran, Based On Recent Major Strong Ground Motions

Authors: Danesh Nourzadeh, Majid Ebad-Sichani, Shiro Takada

Abstract:

Widespread use of response spectra in seismic design and evaluation of different types of structures makes them one of the most important seismic inputs. This importance urges the local design codes to adapt precise data based on updated information about the recent major earthquakes happened and also localized geotechnical data. In this regard, this paper derives the response spectra with a geotechnical approach for various scenarios coming from the recent major earthquakes happened in Iran for different types of hard soils, and compares the results to the corresponding spectra from the current seismic code. This comparison implies the need for adapting new design spectra for seismic design, because of major differences in the frequency domains and amplifications.

Keywords: Earthquake engineering, response spectra, seismic design, site response.

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